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iNv. OF flA. lIBlO 


1 n 

Sgl. Don Sutton 

FRONt COVER: Photo ot Sgt. Pierre Dekleermeeker, 
SIh Speclel Forces Group, Fort Bregg, N.C., on petrol 
during Held trelning exercise— by SFC Ron Slasicuk. 
BACK COVER: Photo o( Ma|. Robert Thompson, U.S. 
Army Jspsn, on his way to work at Camp Zama— by 
SSgl. Chris M. Rea. 


JUNE 17, 1982, WdS a pretty ordinary day 
for most of us. That’s why SOLDIERS 
picked that day to help tell the Army’s 
story— A Day in the Life of the Army. 

Believe it or not, there are peo- 
ple— both in and out of the Army— who 
really don’t understand what we do every 
day of the year and in every part of the 
world. It’s important for people to know 
what it’s like to be a part of the Total 
Army. So here’s our story: 

We’re going to start early in the 
morning— about 6:15. Those who work at 
night were just going to bed. But most of 
us were stretching out in the sack 
preparing to separate head from bed, like 
Sp4 William Rollins at Fort Shatter, 

For most soldiers, every day 
starts with a bang. That bang is called 
“PT”— physical training. Push-ups and 
sit-ups usually come before sunup. That 
was the case for these soldiers from the 
Combat Support Company, 2nd Battal- 
ion, 7th Cavalry, at Fort Hood, Texas. 

As shoes pounded pavement and 
dusty trails throughout the world, we 
broke the morning silence with clapping 
hands, cadence and Jody calls. 

Most of us can think of better 
ways to start a day. Still, there’s some- 
thing special about early morning. The 
air is cool, even in the middle of June. 
And even in the middle of a pack, you 
can be alone with your thoughts. 

PT ends. It’s time to clean up and 
get ready to “start” the day. The sun 
pokes up just enough to silhouette the 
buildings and training areas where you’ll 
spend the day ... or more. 

Eat *n Beat Feet 

YOU hit the dining facility sometime 
around 6:30 a.m. But cooks, like Sp4 
Walter Scrubb and Sp5 John Benniman 
(center photo), have been there since 
about 4 o’clock so breakfast would be 
ready when you are. Scrubb and Benni- 
man are members of the Maine Army Na- 
tional Guard performing their annual train- 
ing at the New England Music Camp. 

“Messhall” food has been a 
source of jokes since the Army began. 
But to most cooks, it’s no joking matter. 
They spend a lot of time cooking more 
food in one day than most families eat 
in months. They take a lot of pride in the 
meals they prepare and serve. 

As you look at your tray, you have 
to admit that breakfast looks good. 
You’ve worked up an appetite from PT 
and those eggs, toast, hot cereal, milk 
and coffee should fill the void. 

Some soldiers have family duties 
to perform before they start their military 
jobs. That was the case for Sp5 Steve 
Lloyd (center photo, far right), who’s as- 
signed to the U.S. Army Regional Person- 
nel Center in Japan. Lloyd usually gives 
his son, Robert, a motorcycle lift to a 
preschool at the Sagamihara family 
housing area. 

At Fort Hood, Sp5 James Payne 
was doing the same thing with his son, 
James Jr. (bottom photo, far right). 

Payne, a member of the 15th AG Co.. 1st 
Cavalry Division, dropped his son off at 
the post nursery at 6:45. 

A lot has happened so far. An 
Army has arisen, exercised, eaten and 
taken care of family matters. It’s time to 
begin the duty day. 



Sc4 Romii* OdatMf 



F V* 


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^ SOU 

Heads Up — Heads Down 

AS you arrived on post on the morning 
of June 17, the chances are pretty good 
that the first person you saw was an MP 
guarding the gates to the post. If you 
were at Fort Shatter, you probably saw 
Sp4 Robert Booker (photo, opposite 
page). Gate guards not only control who 
enters a post. They assist visitors with 
directions and other types of help. 

One traditional early morning 
duty is police call (upper photo). Al- 
though the size of the area and the num- 
ber of “policers” may vary, the job is 
pretty much the same wherever it’s per- 
formed. Bend down, pick it up and throw 
it away. “Why you lookin’ up? Trash is at 
your feet. If it isn’t growing, pick it up!” 

The ritual shown here is per- 
formed by PFC Naomi Iona of the 292nd 
Supply and Service Co. (Direct Support), 
in Yongsan, South Korea. Look familiar? 

As you hit the motor pool, orderly 
room or office, one of the first things you 
might do is flick on the radio to catch up 
on the news and get a little music. If you 
were at Fort Bragg, N.C., on June 17, you 
might have heard Sgt. Jeff Mitchell, an 
Army broadcaster for the XVIII Airborne 
Corps (lower left photo). Army broadcast- 
ers provide the Army community world- 
wide with entertainment and up-to-date 
information about Army policies and 
world events. 

While the day started peacefully 
for some, that wasn’t the case in the 
560th Medical Co. (Ambulance) at Camp 
Humphreys, about 40 miles south of 
Seoul. Medical personnel like Sp5 David 
Baker (lower right photo) react to emer- 
gencies day and night. 





THE order of events may vary, but most 
days begin with three events: morning 
formation, PT and some sort of meeting. 

Morning formations, like this one 
at Yongsan (top photo), are important for 
unit leaders and for soldiers. It’s the time 
to take the Army’s roll call to see who’s 
there and who isn’t. But most important, 
it’s a time when the leaders can talk to 
the soldiers and put out information 
needed to conduct the day’s activities 
and to be better soldiers. 

But formations are important to 
the soldiers, too. Except for company 
training, units usually spend their days in 
platoon or squad activities, or individual 
tasks. Morning formation is a time to see 
the whole unit and to know what every- 
one else is doing. 

Meetings are facts of life. In 
many ways, they’re like formations. They 
provide a way for people to find out what 
others are doing and to make plans to 
keep things running smoothly. The 
weekly staff conference at Camp Zama, 
Japan (lower left photo), is typical. 

And then there’s PT. As we’ve al- 
ready noted, many units do it early in the 
morning. Others do it at varying times 
during the day. Pictured here (lower right 
photo) are members of the 548th Engr. 
Bn., at Fort Jackson, S.C. 

With the preliminaries out of the 
way, the day can proceed. From this 
point until the end of the day, units 
around the world will be doing different 
things according to their differing 
missions. But it will all be soldiering and 
supporting the Army’s mission. It’s about 
8:30 a.m. 



Sp5 Vince E. Warner 

Basic Training 

MOST soldiers began with basic train- 
ing. When you took it, yours was the 
roughest cycle. Your post was the 
coldest and the hottest. Your barracks 
were the worst. And your drill sergeant 
was the toughest, meanest, orneriest 
sonuvagun to ever don the olive drabs. 
And there’s one thing everyone agrees 
on: Trainees today have it made! 

Well, not quite everyone; cer- 
tainly not today’s trainees. They’re 
going through the same thing all of us 
did— they’re learning to be soldiers. 
And that’s never going to be easy. 

An important part of the train- 
ing is learning about the infantryman’s 
basic weapon— the M-16. On the morn- 
ing of June 17, trainees in Co. C, 7th 
Bn., Fort Jackson, were learning to 
disassemble, clean and reassemble 
their weapons. As in all their training, 
a drill sergeant is close by. 

Basic training is a time when 
soldiers get in shape for future duties. 
Getting into shape usually means run- 
ning everywhere you go and taking ad- 
vantage of every opportunity to get in 
extra PT— such as pushing away the 
earth while waiting to get into the 
dining facility (top right photo). 

Guard duty is another task that 
has to be learned (center right photo). 
There’s more to it than just standing 
there with a weapon. 

Of course, all the training can’t 
be tough and exciting. But a good sol- 
dier can shine even while working on 
his or her boots. A little polish can’t 
hurt anyone, as Pvt. 1 John Beyer, Co. 
A, 6th Bn., Ft. Jackson, discovered. 





Marcel Glock Steve Hunt 

Sp5 Kathleen Ellison Bill C. Walton Bill C Walton 

More Basics 

BUT mostly, basic means realistic, tough 
training in the skills to keep you alive on 
the battlefield. 

At Fort Benning, Ga., trainees en- 
countered the “spirit of the bayonet” 
during one station unit training, which 
combines basic and advanced individual 
training. Also on the bayonet assault 
course, they learned to negotiate barbed- 
wire obstacles (center left). 

At Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., SSgt. 
Theodore Walker, Co. A, 4th Bn., 3rd 
Bde., assisted Pvt. 1 David Sorensen in 
firing the M-203 grenade launcher. 

Military justice; D&C; NBC; FT; cus- 
toms and courtesy; first aid; and a multi- 
tude of other skills to master. Sound the 
same as when you went through? 

One thing is certainly the same; 
the change you went through from your 
first day in uniform until graduation from 
training. On Day 1, you were scared, and 
if you knew the difference between your 
left foot and your right, you kept it a se- 
cret. It seemed like you had to be taught 

The weeks passed and you met 
each challenge. The runs kept getting 
easier. Your PT scores improved. You mas- 
tered your weapons and conquered the 
confidence course. You pass^ every test. 

Then came that magic day— grad- 
uation. Like the soldiers from Co. A, 1st 
Bn., 3rd BT Bde., Fort Leonard Wood, 
your uniform looked sharp. Your shoes 
glistened, hat squared perfectly on your 
brow. And as you marched in perfect ca- 
dence, with head held high, you were so 
proud you could burst. We never forget 
that feeling. 



SFC C D Steen 

Training Goes On 



BUT graduation doesn’t mean you're 
finished training. As long as you’re in 
the Army, you’ll be training. 

Some of the Army’s MOSs re- 
quire advanced individual training at 
another location after basic. 

To become a broadcast journal- 
ist, you have to attend formal courses 
at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. That’s 
where Pvt. 2 John Olmstead, left, Pvt. 

2 Rick Lewis and Airman Cynthia 
Miesko were on June 17. " 

Where there are students, you’ll 
find instructors. Since about 70,000 
soldiers participate in formal indi- 
vidual training and education courses 
each year, instructors play a signi- 
ficant role. 

People like SSgt. Bonnie Cor- 
rice (lower left photo), a journalism in- 
structor at Fort Benjamin Harrison, 
spend only a part of their time at the 
podium. Many more hours are spent in 
research for lessons. 

An important part of being an 
instructor is being a counselor. It’s the 
instructor’s job to help identify prob- 
lems and work with the students to 
solve them. 

Officers need to hone old skills 
and learn new ones, too. June 17 
found Maj. E. L. Rowe of Fort Sheri- 
dan, III., in the Public Affairs Officers 
Course at Fort Benjamin Harrison, 
learning to develop and analyze black 
and white negatives. 

Individual training is a benefit 
of military service which offers people 
the chance to improve their skills and 
their chances for advancement. 



Sp4 Elaine L. Well 



■ ■ 

And On 

INDIVIDUAL training is only the begin- 
ning of Army training. Once the basics of 
soldering are learned, those skills be- 
come the bases of training which will 
continue throughout each soldier’s tour 
in the Army. 

Soldiering is a team effort and 
most training is conducted in teams— at 
squad, platoon, company and higher 
level teams. 

As you travel through the Army, 
you’ll find units in the field learning to 
depend on and communicate with 
groups on either side of their positions, 
how to accomplish things as a team that 
none of them could do as individuals. 

On June 17, a lot of units were in 
the field on training exercises designed 
to test unit strengths and point out weak 
areas that need more training. 

Infantry soldiers practiced tactics: 
attack, defense, delay. Artillery soldiers 
practiced the skills of positioning and 
firing accurately and quickly. Adjutant 
general and finance soldiers, medics, 
cooks, mail clerks, mechanics, bands- 
men and recreational services soldiers— 
all have to be able to perform their jobs 
in combat, and all need to train to be 
' able to do that. 

Co. B, 84th Engr. Bn. (Combat 
: Heavy) was on an exercise near Wheeler 
, Air Force Base on Oahu, Hawaii, (left 
photo) practicing barrier construction, 
i The unit, part of the 45th Support Group, 
is station^ at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. 

Two other members of Co. B, 

84th Engr. Bn., constructed a triple apron 
concertina obstacle (right photo) during 
their exercise. Sp4 Terry Houseman, car- 

pentry-masonry specialist, holds the spool 
while his partner, RFC Barry Keeney, a 
general construction machine operator, 
works with the barbed wire. 

Engineers do more than just con- 
struct barriers. They build almost any- 
thing needed by soldiers in the field: 
buildings, temporary emplacements, 
bridges and ways to get around or over 
enemy obstacles. They’re also the 
Army’s demolitions experts, blowing 
things up, and laying and picking up 
minefields. The engineers’ varied mis- 
sions keep them in the field training. 



Sp4 Elaine L. Well 

Sp4 Richard C. Chaney Sp4 Richard C. Chaney 

• • • 

In Many Ways 

IN addition to training with each other, 

U.S. units also train with armies of allied 
nations in order to be able to effectively 
meet a threat from unfriendly forces. 

Annual exercises such as RE- 
FORGER and Team Spirit are large-scale \ 
examples of training with allies in 
different parts of the world. But this type 
of training is conducted throughout the 
year on smaller scales in countries 
where U.S. troops are stationed. 

On June 17, the 1st Armored Di- 
vision, at Ansbach, West Germany, was 
training with allies during the division's 
SPRINGEX ’82 (top left photo). 

This type of training is compli- 
cated by differences in language, tactics 
and types of equipment which different 
nations use. During SPRINGEX '82, U.S. 
soldiers trained with the West German 
12th Panzer Brigade and practiced using 
the German MG1 machine gun (lower left 

The United States is currently 
allied with nations in Europe. Asia. South 
America and other parts of the world 
through seven collective defense 
treaties; North Atlantic: Australia and 
New Zealand: Philippine: Southeast Asia: 
Japanese: Republic of Korea: and the 
Rio Treaty. 

This worldwide defense commit- 
ment makes unit training with our allies 
an extremely important aspect of the 
Army’s training and readiness 

It also presents unique experi- 
ences for soldiers involved in such 
training as they get to know the people 
of other nations. 





U S. Army Photo 

U.S. Army Photo Sp4 Al Cralt 

^ r . ^ 

Lte Ad: ' 

# *1 






Specialized Units 

PART of the Army’s mission is to be flex- 
ible enough to meet any type of threat 
anywhere in the world. Sometimes, that 
requires specialized units to perform spe- 
cialized tasks. 

Special Forces and Ranger units 
are two examples. 

Special Forces teams, such as 
one attached to a unit under the John F. 
Kennedy Center for Military Assistance, 
Fort Bragg (photo. Page 17), are trained 
to use different modes of transportation, 
as well as weapons and equipment of 
other nations. 

The Gabriel Detachment of the JFK 
Center’s Special Forces demonstrated its 
expertise in hand-to-hand combat (lower far 
left photo) on June 17. The detachment reg- 
ularly puts on demonstrations for military 
and civilian audiences. 

Fort Lewis’ (Wash.) Co. B, 2nd Bn. 
(Ranger), 75th Infantry, was also active 
that day. PFC Mark Beaudro (top photo) 
low-crawled to a position while his 
squad maneuvered to an enemy bunker 
during a live-fire exercise. 

One of Fort Bragg’s specialized 
units is the XVIII Airborne Corps’ Ad- 
vanced Marksmanship Training Unit 
(AMTU). The AMTU provides small arms 
instruction to corps units, conducts train- 
ing programs for company level leaders 
and conducts the corps’ sniper program, 
among other things. 

In the lower left photo, AMTU’s 
PFC Richard Kurtz provided instruction 
for ROTC cadets on the proper firing 
techniques of the .45-caliber M-1911A1 
automatic pistol. The cadets were on 
duty for their advanced summer camp. 

Of course, you don’t have to be in 
a specialized unit to receive specialized 
training. PFC Terry Neyland (above), a 
food sen/ice specialist assigned to HQ 
Co., USAG, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 
can attest to that. On June 17, he ended 
up in the creek while crossing a rope 
bridge during the unit’s monthly com- 
mon skills training. 


Sarah P Fitch 

SSgt. Bob Haskell 



Army National Guard 

IN times of war or national emergency, 
the Army National Guard can be called 
to active federal duty. The Guard pro- 
vides about one-third of the Total Army’s 
combat divisions, about half of its in- 
fantry, armor and field artillery battalions, 
more than half of its armored cavalry 
regiments and one-fourth of its combat 
service support units. 

The guard’s federal mission re- 
quires that it be ready with personnel 
and suitable equipment for its role in 
supporting the Active Army’s missions. 

The state mission of the guard is 
to help protect life and property and to 
preserve peace, order and public safety 
.in the states where the units are based. 
State governors control the units when 
they are not on federal duty. 

Often, the training needs of the 
Guard coincide with projects required by 
civilian neighborhoods. On June 17, 
members of Co. B, 262nd Engr. Bn., 
Maine Army National Guard— including 
Sp4 Calvin Grindle (left photo)— worked 
on the roof of a new recreation center, 
‘while three bulldozers prepared to clear 
ground for a new softball field. 

While the Maine guardsmen 
worked on land, engineers from the 1st 
Cavalry Division’s 8th Engr. Bn. worked 
on a watery mission at Fort Hood. As 
part of the unit’s ARTEP (Army Training 
and Evaluation Program), they con- 
structed a ribbon bridge (top right photo). 

On the subject of rivers and 
bridges, Sgt. Frank Rivers and Sgt. Rex 
Bridges were busy at Fort Banning going 
through the Bradley IFV Drivers Training 
Course .(lower right photo). 



Sp5 Wayne Blankenblller 

Army Reserve 

ANOTHER vital link in the Total Army is 
the U.S. Army Reserve, which includes 
primarily combat support, combat serv- 
ice support and general support units. In 
fact, about one-third of the Army’s 
tactical support and one-fourth of its 
general support are in the Army Reserve. 

June 17 found the USAR’s 306th 
Field Hospital, Memphis, Tenn., on a 
field training exercise. To add realism, 
some of its members— like SFC Charles 
Jackson and RFC Leslie Pate (right 
photo)— served as aggressors to probe 
the medical unit’s perimeter. 

But the unit’s mission is to treat 
wounded soldiers, and that’s what the 
exercise focused on. Reacting to simu- 
lated mass casualties (top right photo), 
triage members Sp4 Phyliss Pounds, 
medical specialist, and SSgt. Berney 
Moore, maintenance sergeant, helped 
transport patients to a receiving area. 

Capt. Jeanne Brasher, head nurse, 
and 1st Lt. Barbara Jordan, a medical sur- 
gical nurse (bottom right photo), exam- 
ined patients under combat conditions. 

Treating casualties in a combat en- 
vironment presents some unique chal- 
lenges. The field usually doesn’t allow the 
sterile conditions of a hospital. Treatment 
is offered in the midst of wartime activities. 
Doctors and patients may even be wearing 
protective clothing and equipment. 

But these conditions are realities 
which medical units such as the 306th 
Field Hospital recognize and train to 
overcome. Certain things can’t be 
learned in classrooms. They must be 
practiced often and under realistic 



Maj. Paul Adams Maj. Paul Adams 




COMBAT medical treatment is only one 
part of the Army’s total health care mis- 
sion. There are three quarters of a mil- 
lion soldiers and more than a million 
dependents who require care. 

You can go to Army hospitals, 
dental clinics and aid stations on any 
day and see medical personnel tending 
to the Army’s health needs. 

Some posts even offer veterinary 
care. At Fort Leonard Wood’s Animal 
Disease Prevention and Control Facility, 
Carmen Moorhatch and Pvt. 2 Leon 
Woods checked a lively kitten’s ear. 
Treating animals is only one of an Army 
vet’s jobs. Veterinarians are also respon- 
sible for inspecting the food that soldiers 
eat to ensure it meets government 

Maj. Fred Regennitter (far right, 
top photo), an orthodontist at the 121st 
Evacuation Hospital in Yongsan, pro- 
vided dependent dental care. Availability 
of dental care for family members varies 
according to location and available staff 

Emergency care is also provided 
at the 121st Evacuation Hospital. Sp5 
John Danforth (lower right photo) was 
busy treating a face injury. 

In order to keep up with the latest 
medical procedures, medical personnel 
attend a variety of schools and training 
courses. Pvt. Penny Penland, PFC Wil- 
liam Paul and instructor SSgt. Mary Con- 
ceicao (lower far right photo, left to right) 
spent the day at the Academy of Health 
Sciences, Fort Sam Houston, in the 
Basic Medical Laboratory Procedures 





Sp5 Vince E, Warner Sp4 Larry Wilson 


Soldiers at Work 

THE Army’s mission boils down to 
being able to fight and win wars. So 
it’s not unusual that many people 
think of the Army and its people pri- 
marily in the context of warriors. Often 
overlooked are the many other impor- 
tant jobs that have to be done to keep 
the Army ready to fight. 

There are about 350 military oc- 
cupational specialties for enlisted sol- 
diers. In addition to the combat jobs, 
the range is virtually limitless. Cooks, 
musicians, communication specialists, 
medical specialists, mechanics and 
drivers, clerks and administrators, 
finance specialists, locomotive 
experts, military police, fire fighters, 
divers, journalists, photographers, 
printers and club managers— all are 
important members of the Army team. 

So what goes on in an average 
day in the Army? 

• Reenlistments (upper left 
photo). SSgt. Mary Trudell, a personnel 
senior sergeant with Fort Benning’s 
197th Infantry Brigade, took the oath 
of reenlistment from her company 
commander, Capt. Karl Bambaugh. 

• Motor pool activities. The 
Army’s vehicles— be they tactical or 
administrative— need to be maintained 
to keep them in top running condition. 
Sometimes that’s a sizable task. In 
order to keep control of the vehicles, 
drivers like RFC Quintin Webster— Co. 
D, 548th Engr. Bn., Fort Jackson- 
must check the vehicle out from dis- 
patchers like Sp4 Charles Ketter (top 
right photo). 

Before a vehicle can be 

checked out, however, drivers must 
perform checks to ensure it’s ready to 
go. That was RFC James Huntington’s 
chore (bottom photo) in Yongsan. 

• Religious observances. Chap- 
lain (Maj.) Wayne Schmid offered the 
daily Catholic mass at the Gen. 
Leonard Wood Army Community Hos- 
pital Chapel (above) at Fort Leonard 
Wood. Schmid is the 4th Brigade 



SpS Kathleen Ellison 

Sp4 Al Craft 


• Law enforcement. As part of a 
demonstration by personnel of the mili- 
tary police dog kennels at Fort Lewis, 
dog handler Sp4 Jeff Switzer (far left 
photo), Law Enforcement Command, and 
his dog. Dale, searched a car for 
possible illegal drugs. 

• Engineering. Members of the 
support section, 133rd Engineers, Maine 
National Guard (above), put poles into 
place which would support a press box 
for the city of Waterville as part of the 
community support/training project. 

• Cooking and eating. At noon, 
June 17, 1982, most of the Army sat 
down to eat. Many ate in comfortable 

dining facilities in their unit areas. Some 
brown-bagged it in their offices. And 
many dined in the midst of nature and 
its varied elements: hard ground and 
dust, (or soft ground and mud), insects, 
wind, heat, rain or any combination of 

Members of the 306th Field Hos- 
pital (left), enjoyed a field meal of roast 
beef, fruit and vegetables during their 
annual training at Fort Chaffee, Ark. 

Noon. A time to relax, refuel and 
enjoy friends. Lunchtime belongs to the 
individual— a chance to catch a second 
wind. It’s been a full morning. A full 
afternoon lies ahead. 



Sp5 Bert Goulalt 



Midday Activities 

MANY soldiers find other 
uses for lunchtime 

Of course, some 
people are still pulling 
duty. Sgt. Brett Poorman 
(top left photo), for 
example, continued to 
patrol a beach at Waikiki, 

Hawaii, as part of his job 
as a Fort DeRussy mili- 
tary policeman. 

Others, like SSgt. 

Roy Dykes (lower left 
photo), an administrative 
specialist who works in 
WESTCOM’s protocol of- 
fice, Fort Shatter, used 
the time to take care of 
personal business— such 
as stopping by the post 
barber shop for a little 
appearance maintenance. 

SSgt. James 
Fletcher, 362nd Signal 
Co., met his wife (left photo) for a stroll 
around Yongsan. 

Some soldiers say the most im- 
portant part of each day is mail call. 
SSgt. Arthur Ramsey (left in right photo) 
used his time to stop by the mail room, 
where he received his mail from Sp4 
James Cross. Both are members of U.S. 
Army Japan/XI Corps at Camp Zama. 

Cne activity that seems to be 
growing is jogging. Whether it’s the 
Army’s emphasis on PT or a chance to 
get in sync with one’s feelings, it’s a rare 
post that doesn’t have its share of run- 
ning enthusiasts. 



Sp5 Nancy Taylor 

Life Goes On 

MOVING is a fact of Army life that 
brings mixed emotions. It’s a chance to 
begin anew. Throw out the broken toys 
that have accumulated in the basement. 
Give away the clothes that no longer fit 
but which continue to fill the closet. 

Look forward to new places. 
Check the tour books for the sights you 
don’t want to miss. Check out the new 
school. New houses. New shopping cen- 
ters. New post. New jobs. New friends. 
The beginnings of new memories. 

But moving also stirs other emo- 
tions. Everything you own — all the impor- 
tant things you’ve collected over the 
years— is packed into boxes, loaded on- 
to a truck and driven away by strangers. 
Part of your life is in those boxes, and 
you wonder if you’ll see them again. 

But the saddest thought is that of 
leaving your friends. Sure, you’ll write 
and even talk on the phone. But it won’t 
be the same. 

For SSgt. Eddie Mosby and his 
wife, Mary (top photo), June 17 was mov- 
ing day. As household goods were 
loaded on a van at the Sagamihara 
Housing Area, Camp Zama, they shared 
a last few moments with their friend, Pat 
Adams (seated at left). 

Meanwhile, Army life went on 
(bottom photos, left to right). Sp4 Neil 
Thorton, also at Camp Zama, worked on 
his M-16A1 rifle. At Sacramento Army 
Depot, Calif., Sp5 Ivy Boone, strategic 
microwave system repairer, plied his 
trade. And at Fort Bragg, cartographer 
Pvt. Juaquin Godoy— 63rd Engr. Co., 20th 
Engr. Bde.— etched a map being pre- 
pared for welcome packets. 



j !>5 Kelly Kieler 

Sp5 Nancy Taylor 

Civilian Support 

IN addition to its Active and Reserve com- 
ponents, the Total Army comprises a third 
group of people— a force of nearly 400,000 
men and women. 

Some wear business clothes. Oth- 
ers wear work clothes. More often than not, 
they work side by side with soldiers as 
Department of Army civilians— DAOs. 

Civilians are vital in helping the 
Army perform its mission. Often, they have 
special skills that aren’t available else- 
where. DAOs are a source of continuity for 
many organizations since they tend to 
change jobs less often than military 
counterparts. And by performing many 
support-type jobs, they free soldiers to 
concentrate more on their military duties. 

Photos (clockwise from top left): 

• Sp4 Edward Shaw and his super- 
visor, Edgar Anderson, pulled maintenance 
on a utility boat at Fort Belvoir’s (Va.) 

Marine and Bridge Laboratory, which is part 
of the Army’s Mobility Equipment Research 
and Development Command. The two then 
took the boat on a test run in the post’s 
pontoon basin area. 

• Jim Riddle, an equipment me- 
chanic, was on duty at Sharpe Army Depot, 
Lathrop, Calif. He worked on the diesel 
engine of an LCM-6 (landing craft, 
mechanized)— a vessel valued at $14 

• Sharpe Army Depot’s Linda Zu- 
minu helped prepare tires for storage and 
shipment to eight Western states, Alaska, 
Hawaii and the entire Pacific area. 

• Also at Sharpe Army Depot was 
Walter Weidman, an air traffic controller, 
who was operating the control tower at the 
depot’s airfield. 


Leroy Davis 

SpS Kslhleon Ellison 


Soldier Support 

IT takes more than training and equip- 
ment to keep an Army going. Soldiers, 
like all people, have other needs that 
must be fulfilled if they are to remain in 
the service and continue to perform their 
duties efficiently. 

Soldiers need to get paid— accu- 
rately and on time. They need good per- 
sonnel management: promotions, assign- 
ments, and other administrative support. 
They also need opportunities to improve 
themselves through schooling. 

To most soldiers, the people who 
work to deliver these services are name- 
less and faceless. Some soldiers even 
think these jobs are easy and unimpor- 
tant— until something goes wrong. 

There are a lot of people and tons 
of modern equipment dedicated to keep- 
ing things from going wrong. 

SFC George Cutbirth (top left 
photo), a member of HQ Command, Fort 
Leonard Wood, spent the day as he 
spends most days— familiarizing himself 
with latest regulations, and checking, 
verifying and updating records. As per- 
sonnel records and regulations are being 
converted to film, microfiche readers are 
becoming important tools of the admin- 
istrative trade. 

Also at Fort Leonard Wood’s HQ 
Command was RFC Tyrone Davis, a per- 
sonnel clerk (top right photo). Separating 
copies of forms for proper disposition 
gives credence to the term “paper 
pusher.” The trick, though, is to push 
each paper in exactly the right direction. 

Sherry Harmer (bottom left photo) 
is one of the people who helps soldiers 
with their educations. A Basic Skills Edu- 

cation Program (BSEP) instructor at 
Camp Zama, she assisted BSEP student 
Sp4 Jerry Garcia. 

At the U.S. Army Support Com- 
mand, Hawaii, Sp5 Mark Johnson (above 
photo), an in-processing finance special- 
ist, assisted newly arrived Sp5 Larry Cobb 
with his finance paperwork and told him 
how much money he’d be receiving. 


Sp4 Roselle Odesser Sp5 Kathleen Ellison 

Different Jobs . . . 

AS the duty day begins to wind down, 
there are still jobs to be done and stories 
to be told (photos, clockwise from top 

• Sgt. Wayne Yee, Sacramento 
Army Depot’s Morale Support Activity Of- 
fice, tested an outboard motor so it 
would be ready for the weekend. Morale 
support and recreation offices through- 
out the world have athletic and outdoor 
equipment available for rental by soldiers 
and other authorized persons. 

• CWO 2 George Miller, 418th 
Military Intelligence Detachment, Fort 
Lewis, instructed RFC Marsha Renshaw 
in terrain identification using a military 
relief map. Renshaw, who was on annual 
training with the 1042nd Military Intelli- 
gence Company, Oregon Army National 
Guard, is a 96D, image interpreter. 

• Sp4 Lori Pontarelli carried out 
her duties as an environmental health 
specialist, with the preventative medicine 
section of the health clinic, Honshu, 
Japan. Shown is one of four mosquito 
catching units that have to be checked 
weekly to keep track of changes in the 
mosquito population. 

• The 8th U.S. Army Band per- 
formed during an honor guard ceremony 
in Yongsan, South Korea. 

• RFC Donna Singleton, a radio 
operator at the Command Radio Station, 
Communications Command, Japan Sig- 
nal Activity, North, helped place Military 
Affiliated Radio System (MARS) calls. 
MARS calls allow soldiers overseas to 
keep in contact with stateside family 
members more inexpensively than they 
could by regular phone calls. 





Sp5 Steve Silvers 

For Different People . . 4 




PFC Bruce Polite closed out his day (left “ 
photo) by pulling operator maintenance 
on his vehicle— a genuine Army horse. 
Polite is a member of the 3rd U.S. Infan- 
try— the Old Guard— at Fort Myer, Va 
The unit, whose mission includes de- i 
fense of the nation’s capital, has many 
ceremonial duties, to include burials at 
Arlington National Cemetery. ^ 

Photos, clockwise from top: 

• A joint service color guard 

presented U.S. and Japanese national 
colors, and the flags of each of the 
military services, during a visit by 4 

Japanese Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki 

to the National Memorial Cemetery of ^ 
the Pacific. Suzuki placed a wreath at ^ 
the memorial. The cemetery is in the 
center of the Punchbowl Crater in 

• Sp4 Ronald Coffee and Sgt. i 
James Johnson, photo layout specialists 
with the 63rd Engr. Co., 20th Engr. Bde., 
Fort Bragg, worked on photographing a 
map for reproduction. 

• SSgt. Patrick Brayton worked 

on rewiring the "black box" guidance ^ 
system of a TCW missile. Brayton works 
in the TCW Missile Section at Anniston 
Army Depot, Ala. 

• Sp4 Todd Tracey is a teletype 
operator with Co. C, 9th Signal Bn., Fort 
Lewis. The vehicle he was riding is 
called an all terrain cycle (ATC)— a test ^ 
vehicle which is part of the 9th Division’s , 
High Technology Test Bed program. The 
program is looking into ways to pack v 
heavy division firepower into a light 
division. Tracey was serving as a courier 
delivering classified messages. 



Herman Harrelson Sam Sheppard Sp4 Elaine L. Well 

Sp4 Elaine Well 



I ... With Different Skiils 


ALTHOUGH the Army’s mission is pri- 
marily land warfare, some soldiers’ 
places of duty are aboard seagoing ves- 
sels. PFC Linda Resto (left photo) is a 
seaman assigned to the 5th Transporta- 
tion Co. (Heavy, Boat) at Ford Island in 
Pearl Harbor. 

On the 17th, she was painting 
over sanded-down rust spots on the 
conn (seafaring lingo meaning wheel 
house, which is technical talk meaning 
the place where they steer the boat) of 
an LOU (landing craft, utility). The conn 
would eventually get a coat of deck-grey 
paint to finish it off. 

Some leaders sum up their mis- 
sions in three words; train and maintain. 
Soldiers make no bones about it. They 
spend a heckuva lot of time in motor 
pools and maintenance shops. There’s 
work to be done before you drive a 
vehicle and work to be done afterward. 
Ask Pvt. 2 Howard Williams (top right 
photo), Btry. C, 1st Bn. (Abn), 319th Field 
Artillery, 82nd Airborne Division, at Fort 
Bragg. He spent a part of his day in the 
life of the Army on his back, pulling 
maintenance on his section’s M-561 
Gamma Goat. 

Or you can ask Edward Taylor 
and Sp4 Herbert Thompson (bottom right 
photo) of Anniston Army Depot. They 
worked together adjusting the track 
tension of an M-60A3 tank. 

A word of advice if you happen to 
be pulling maintenance for the first time: 

Grumble a lot and curse the 
driver (even if it’s you). That’s the 
fashion. Then remind yourself that 
keeping it running beats walking. 



Herman Harrelson 

Sp4 Elaine L. Well Sp4 Richard C. Chaney 




Sky Jockeys 

THERE are also soldiers who seem to 
prefer the air as their place of duty. And 
those who don’t actually fly, maintain 
the craft and equipment others need to 
stay in the sky — or fall safely from it. 

Before any aircraft takes off, 
crewmembers inspect it carefully to 
make sure there are no problems. Pre- 
flight inspections, like the one con- 
ducted by Sp4 Michael Bennington (top 
left photo)— 501st Aviation Bn. (Combat), 
1st Armored Division, Ansbach, West 
Germany— are conducted as though the 
crew’s lives depend on it. They do! Once 
they’re airborne, it’s too late to discover 
a loose bolt or fuel leak. 

When problems are discovered, 
it’s up to the mechanics to take care of 
them and to keep the craft flyable. That’s 
what Sp4 Stephen Salun (bottom left 
photo) was doing on June 17. Salun, an 
attack helicopter mechanic with the 
347th Trans. Co. (AVIM-aviation inter- 
mediate maintenance), Wheeler Air Force 
Base, Hawaii, was working on a Cobra 

There is one group of soldiers 
that gets its thrills not from flying but by 
jumping out of flying aircraft. They’re 
members of the Army’s official para- 
chute demonstration unit— The Golden 
Knights. The specially selected airborne 
soldiers compete in national and 
international parachute competitions, 
help develop new military parachuting 
techniques and equipment, and demon- 
strate their skills before millions of 
spectators each year. 

The unit was founded at Fort 
Bragg in 1959. It’s divided into two 

teams: one competition team, and an 
aviation section that flies and maintains 
the aircraft. The Golden Knights have 
performed in all 50 states and in 23 
foreign countries. 

Competition jumping requires a 
lot of teamwork and precision. SSgt. 

Marc Klinker and Sgt. Norm McDonald 
(left), members of the demonstration 
team, lined up the aircraft to give the 
jumpers the best chance to land on the 

Competition isn’t the only reason 
for parachuting. It’s a tactical require- 
ment of the airborne mission. And as 
long as there are parachutists, there will 
be parachute riggers— the people who 
pack the chutes for the jumpers. That’s 
what Sp4 Michael Alexander— 612th QM 
Co., 1st Corps Support Command— 
(above photo) was doing. His unit also 
rigs supplies and equipment for airdrop 
and assists in recovery of the equipment. 



U.S. Army Photo 

Military Police 

AS the end of the duty day draws near, 
the military police continue their round- 
the-clock duties. 

A major portion of those duties is 
law enforcement. Their law enforcement 
duties are similar to those of any police 
force in any civilian community. They 
make arrests on military posts, answer 
calls for police help, direct traffic, and 
provide general security through roving 
patrols and by manning stationary guard 

One familiar law enforcement 
duty is watching out for speeders. Sp4 
Thomas Lindert, 57th MP Co., West 
Point, N.Y., (right photo) was on duty 
with his Speedgun, one of several radar- 
type speed detection devices used by 
civilian and military police to check for 
speeding vehicles. 

But “catching” people isn’t all 
that MPs do. They also do a lot of 
helping. They help units and individuals 
with crime prevention tips and programs. 
And, like Sp4 Budd Biertel, also of the 
57th MP Co. (bottom photo), they help 
lost and confused visitors find their way 
both on and off post. 

Cne clear signal of the day’s end 
is retreat. The ceremony includes sound- 
ing of “Retreat” on bugle, firing of the 
evening gun and playing “The Star- 
Spangled Banner” or “To the Color.” 

Cn many posts, this ceremonial 
duty, as well as its morning counter- 
part — reveille — is conducted by mem- 
bers of the military police. Cn June 17 at 
Fort Lewis (far right photo), it fell to Co. 
B, U.S. Army Garrison, MPs Sgt. Kevin 
Taft, left, and Sp4 Mike Biggs. 





Sp4AI Craft 

Capt. BobMatteson 

I As the Sun Sets 

DAY is done. Gone the sun. Desks are 
cleared, motor pools locked, vehicles se- 
cured, arms rooms checked, and many 
of the people who make the Army go are 
headed for their cars and making plans 
for the evening. 

Of course, the Army doesn’t close 
down at 5 o’clock. In many places it just 
changes hands as night crews come on 
duty. MPs, medical personnel, officers 
and NCOS of the day, charges of quar- 
ters (CQs), recreational services person- 
nel and a host of others “soldier” into 
the evening and throughout the night. 

Also, there’s night training. Sol- 
diers out in the field defend perimeters, 
conduct patrols and prepare to attack or 
defend at first light. 

For others, though, home is the 
next stop. And for some it’s a long trip. 
For Pvt. Robbie Fetterman (left photo), it 
meant a trip from Fort Jackson to his 
home in Punxsutawney, Pa. Fetterman is 
a reservist with the 99th Army Reserve 
Command. On June 17, he completed 
the Food Specialist AIT Course and 
boarded a bus for home. 

“Going home” could mean being 
headed anywhere in the world for people 
going on leave or for those who have 
served their last day of active 

“Going home” for soldier-parents 
could mean a stop at the post day care 
center to pick up the kids. On this day at 
Camp Zama, it would have meant 
stopping by the Ecumenical Vacation 
Bible School where Father (Lt. Col.) 
Robert Dunbrowski (right photo) played 
the organ for his young audience. 

Thoughts turn from the tasks of 
the day— the engine that needs pulling, 
the report that’s waiting for you 
tomorrow, the inspection you’d like 
another week to prepare for, the phone 
call you forgot to return, the re-up talk 
you had with the old man — to how you 
best use you remaining hours until it’s 
time to hit the sack. 

Most Army posts offer a lot of 
choices: theaters, bowling alleys, craft 
shops, libraries, education centers, recre- 
ation centers, live amateur theater, 
music centers, gymnasiums, and chapel 
activities, to name a few. 

There are also uniforms to get 
ready, correspondence courses to study, 
a few letters to write, and a few phone 
calls to make. 



Sp5 R. Reznechek 

Off Duty 

BUT first you’ve got to get home and 
that means fighting the rush hour traffic. 
Or does it? The answer is “no” if you’re 
Pvt. Doug Earnest, Btry. B, 3rd Bn., 18th 
Field Artillery, Fort Sill, Okla. Earnest 
(right photo) prefers to sit under a tree 
and read a good book than fight heavy 
traffic and impatient drivers. 

Once off duty, the myriad person- 
al activities begin. 

Sgt. Michael Beaver (top right 
photo) had to take care of his laundry be- 
fore he could get on with the rest of his 
plans. Beaver is assigned to HHC, 299th 
Engr. Bn., Fort Sill. 

Shopping for gifts for friends and 
relatives is often more of a chore than a 
pleasure. But many soldiers have a dis- 
tinct advantage when stationed over- 
seas. Not only are prices often lower 
than stateside, but the selections are 
more varied than you find in stateside 

Sp5 John Crik (bottom right pho- 
to) used his time to select a present for 
his grandmother back home in Kentucky. 
Crik is assigned to the 595th Engr. Co., 
29th Engr. Bn., 45th Support Group, in 

Overseas shoppers have another 
advantage in the form of AAFES cata- 
logue sales. The overseas edition has 
three sections: American, Pacific and Eu- 
ropean. Personnel assigned on tempor- 
ary duty overseas can shop from all 
three sections. The latter sections in- 
clude items not authorized for sale in the 
states. The 1982 catalogue had more 
than 700 pages and contained thousands 
of items for sale. 




Sp4 Roselle Odesser Sp5 Mike Howard 


Labors of Love 

FOR many soldiers, taking care of their 
cars takes up a major part of their spare 
time. That’s why so many soldiers use 
auto craft shops on posts. One of those 
soldiers was Sp4 Manuel Montano (top 
left photo). Montano, a patient care spe- 
cialist at the U.S. Army Health Clinic, 
Camp Zama, worked on his car in Za- 
ma’s craft shop. Most auto craft shops 
are equipped so you can do your own re- 
pairs and save a lot of money. There’s 
usually someone on duty who can help if 
you run into trouble. Most sell auto parts 
and provide tools and equipment. 

A tour in Japan offers a chance 
to use off-duty time to learn about a dif- 
ferent culture. June Irwin (bottom left 
photo) learned about the techniques of 
sum-e, Chinese black ink pictures, from 
Masami Nakamura during an art class. 
Nakamura is a Japanese language and 
culture teacher at Zama American High 

Sp5 Deborah Young (left photo), 
an administrative specialist with the 
Criminal Investigation Command at 
Camp Zama, found another way to 
spend some off-duty time. The Japan 
Cutdoor Recreation Facility offers gar- 
den plots to military members and their 
families during the summer months. Be- 
cause of the high prices of many vegeta- 
bles in Japan, gardening is economical 
as well as relaxing. A little weeding, a 
few dirt-stained knees and an occasional 
blister are small prices to pay. 

June 17, 1982, is definitely wind- 
ing down. You can almost feel the ten- 
sions fall away as leisure activities re- 
charge the body’s worn batteries. 




ONLY a few more hours left, but soldiers 
haven’t gone to bed yet. In photos 
(clockwise, from lower left): 

• Group sports offer exercise, 
challenge and camaraderie. On posts 
and in Army communities throughout the 
world, it’s easy to find athletic contests 
going on with varying degrees of 
organization and fanfare. In this case, 
the contest was between the Property 
Book Office, Communications Command 
Japan, Signal Activity, North, and the Air 
Force’s 1956th Communications Group— 
both at Camp Zama. The Army’s Sp4 
Franklin Hightower slid into home plate 
to score the first of eight runs for his 
team. Final score: Army 8, AF 2. 

• Maj. Richard Saley, Sacra- 
mento Army Depot, chose to maintain 
his fitness alone in the gym. Weight- 
lifting and body building are rapidly 
growing sports and their popularity can 
be seen in any gym at almost any time. 

• Jose Sanchez from Fort Bragg 
dodged a right hook from William Har- 
rington, Fort Stewart, Ga., during the 156- 
pound bout at Bragg’s Lee Field House. 
Sanchez won by a decision and Fort 
Bragg took seven out of eight bouts. 

• After several days of rain, you’d 
think Sp4 Dick Beaupre, a carpenter with 
the 2nd General Construction Platoon, 
Maine Army National Guard, would have 
seen enough water to last him for a 
while. Not so! After long hours of 
construction work at the New England 
Music Camp— where his unit was 
helping rebuild facilities— he retreated to 
the camp’s dock to cast his line into the 



Sp4 Kenneth R TiIIIb Mike Cicero 



2nd LI L. G. Baines 

Day’s End 

JUNE 17, 1982— A Day in the Life of the 
Army— has come to a close. Some sol- 
diers (left photo)— like these in 2nd Bn.. 
12th Field Artillery, Fort Sill— worked into 
the night. Others (right photo), from the 
82nd Airborne Division, closed out the 
day with a phone call back home to talk 
to loved ones. 

The special thing about this day 
is that it wasn’t special at all. It was a 
pretty typical day as days go. The things 
that happened on this day happened the 
day before and the day after and every- 
day— somewhere in the Army. 

There will always be people who 
ask; What’s it like being in the Army? 
What do soldiers do? Of course, there 
are no easy answers, but our look into a 
single day offers some clues. 

We train every day to be ready to 
accomplish our mission. We train in 
classrooms and motor pools. And we 
train in the field under combat 

Many of the jobs are easy to de- 
scribe. They're close to their civilian 
counterparts: medical, legal, personnel 
administration, mechanic, cook. The pos- 
sibility of having to perform these jobs in 
combat adds a new twist, however. 

Some jobs have no civilian coun- 
terparts: commander, infantryman, 
tanker, missileman, field artilleryman. 
These are the jobs that relate directly to 
the waging of war. 

And who are the men and women 
who make up the Total Army? They're 
people who work hard, play hard and 
lead norlnal. everyday lives. They’re 

S phone 


Special acknowledgements for this issue of SOLDIERS go to SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer, photo supervisor, who originated the idea and culled hundreds of slides and photos to arrive 
at the common visual thread of A Day in the Life of the Army; Tony Zidek, art director, who molded a layout from the final selections: and Maj. Cliff Bernath, former execufive edi- 
for, who put the finishing touches on the package with words. And special thanks go to the photographers who gave us the vision. 

^ P Hone 



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John O. Marsh Jr. Gen. E.C. Meyer MaJ. Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. Col. John E. Taylor 

Secretary of the Army Chief of Staff Chief of Public Affairs Chief, Command Information 




















Building Quality into Army Life 

The construction picture is getting bigger, brighter 

2nd Armored Division 

The one and only “Hell on Wheels” 

Race to the Clouds 

Pike said it couldn’t be peaked 

Combat Medics 

Your chances may ride on their skills 

Combat Medicine Goes Under the Knife 

MOS revisions will mean better health care 

Facing the Blocks to Human Relations 

The warrior without prejudice has an advantage 

1st Sgt. Frank Little 

Crossing the country on 25 cents — to enlist 

The Long and Short Made EZ 

Take it off, take it all off — your taxes 

Journal to the Top 

Soldiers and Marines meet Mount McKinley 

Splitting Retirement Pay 

Differing opinions over dividing money 

In Defense of Savannah 

There’s no such thing as impregnable 

Fort Stewart 

Change, change and more change 

Modern Pentathlon Training Center 

Patton beat the winner in four, and still lost 


MIA soldier’s remains found after 37 years 


Sports Stop 
Lighter Side 

Home Front 

What’s New 






PAGE 14 

PAGE 46 

Credits: Front cover design by Tony Zidek, photo by SFC Norman J. Oiiver; inside front cover by SSgt. Gary Kieffer; back 
covers by SSgt. Terri Wiram. 

Editor in Chief, Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor, Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor, Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor, 
Maj. Keith P. Schneider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Assistant Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SFC Norman Oliver, SSgt. 
Victoria Mouze, SSgt. Terri Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer; Executive Secretary, Sharon Stewart; and Secretary, Doiores King. 

SOLDIERS, the Army's official magazine, is published under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timeiy, factual information on policies, plans, operations 
and technical developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Department 
of the Army civilian employees. It also conveys views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in 
achieving information objectives of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is authorized to: Editor, SOLDIERS, Cameron 
Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314. ■ Phone: AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial (202)-274-6672. ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for cartoons, "by permission" and 
copyright items) material may be reprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. ■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military 
distribution: From the Army Adjutant General Publications Center, 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21220, in accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by com- 
manders. ■ Individual subscriptions: $31 annually to stateside and APO addresses; $38.75 to foreign addresses. ■ Individual paid subscriptions are available through the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department of the Army, 
Dec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number: UA 23.A1S6. ■ SOLDIERS (ISSN 0093-8440) is mailed monthly at second-class rate from Alexandria, Va., and elsewhere. 

Squeezably Soft? 

• The U.S. Army Mobility 
Equipment Research and Develop- 
ment Command has awarded a 
$22. 5-million contract to Bell 
Aerospace Textron for the first 
four Lighter, Air Cushion vehicles 
(LACV-30), at left. 

The LACV-30 can carry two 
20-foot MILVAN containers with a 
combined weight of 30 tons. It can 
also haul tracked vehicles, engineer 
equipment, pallets and other cargo. 
It rides on a cushion of air, so it 
can operate on water, and over ice 
and snow. The LACV-30 will be 
used for logistics-over-the-shore 
missions and to support missions in 
coastal, harbor and inland water- 
ways. It can also be used for 
search and rescue, and medical 
emergency missions. 


• The maximum amount that 
can be paid on claims for loss or 
damage to household goods ship- 
ments has been raised to $25,000. 
The increase from $15,000 applies 
to loss or damage occurring on or 
after July 28, 1982. 

• Most former service members 
are once again eligible to draw 
unemployment insurance. Those 
who are separated under honorable 
conditions after their first full 
term of active service are eligible. 
Benefits are payable starting the 
fifth week after the week of separ- 
ation. Those who don't finish a full 
term must have been discharged 
for; the convenience of the gov- 
ernment; medical reasons; pregnan- 
cy or parenthood; hardship; or per- 
sonality disorder or inaptitude, but 
only if the service was for 365 days 
or more. 

New Warrant Candidate Courses Open 

• Soldiers in grades E-5 and E-6 who apply to become ordnance 
warrant officers will automatically be considered for a new 
ordnance warrant officer candidate course. Graduates of the course 
will be appointed £is armament repair, shop repair or automotive 
repair technicians. 

Soldiers in grades E-7 through E-9 and former commissioned 
officers who apply to become ordnance warrants will still be 
considered for direct appointments. 

Admin Warrants Have Advanced Class 

• The administrative warrant officer advanced course is open to 
soldiers in grades W-2 and W-3 who have three to nine years' warrant 
service and less than 25 years' total military service. Warrants with 
military occupational specialties 021A, 031A, 711A, 713A or 741A 
may apply for the course, held at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. 
Active duty warrants can apply on their preference statements, 
submit a DA Form 4187 or contact their career manager. The 
advanced course runs 1 1 weeks. 

Army reservists should contact their unit personnel technicians 
or career manager. 

Guardsmen should submit an NGB Form 64 through their 
administrative service technicians. 



Compiled by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

(More What’s New on Pages 54-56) 

Stamp May Replace Indicia 

• Official U.S. government mail will be sporting stamps like the 
one at right if a Postal Service test works out. Selected government 
agencies are testing the use of official-mail postage stamps, postal 
cards and stamped embossed envelopes instead of the current 
official-mail indicia printed on government envelopes. The purpose 
of the test is to develop procedures for the possible introduction of 
an official-mail stamp system. The system will help account for all 
official mail and ensure the postal service gets the proper postage 
revenue from official mail users. 

Mail Search Rules Loosened 

• Military authorities, when they have "probable cause," may 
now open and inspect overseas mail to search for illegal drugs or 
merchandise. Before the change in Defense Department regulations, 
authorities first needed a federal search warrant. Detection dogs, 
metal detectors and other devices can be used to screen the 
contents of overseas mail. Also, foreign customs officials may 
inspect the mail under certain circumstances, but only in the 
presence of U.S. military postal officials. 

• A new command, 1st Special 
Operations Command (Provisional), 
has been activated at Fort Bragg, 
N.C. The command is made up of 
the former John F. Kennedy Center 
for Military Assistance, which in- 
cluded the 5th and 7th Special 
Forces Groups, the 4th Psycho- 
logical Operations Group, and the 
96th Civil Affairs Battalion. 

Also assigned to the new 
command are the 10th Special 
Forces Group of Fort Devens, 
Mass., and the ranger battalions at 
Hunter Army Airfield, near Savan- 
nah, Ga., and Fort Lewis, Wash. 

The new headquarters will be 
responsible for preparing, employ- 
ing and sustaining special opera- 
tions forces for many missions, 
including foreign internal defense, 
unconventional warfare, psycho- 
logical and ranger operations, and 
other related operations. 

Work SMARTer, not harder 

• An Army program called SMART is making life a little easier 
for supply and maintenance people. SMART stands for Supply and 
Maintenance Review Team. 

The program's goal is to do away with directives and 
procedures that create burdens on Army organizations, especially 
motor pools, maintenance shops and supply rooms. SMART depends 
on people who work in those areas for suggestions and ideas. 

If you have an idea on how to improve a supply or maintenance 
procedure that is used Armywide, write it down. No special forms 
are required and it may be handwritten. Mail it to SMART, U.S. 
Army Logistics Center, ATTN: ATCL-ST, Fort Lee, Va. 23801. 

Support Payment Withholding OK’d 

• Congress has made it clear that service members must support 
their dependents and obey court-ordered support plans. A law that 
went into effect Oct. 1 allows the military to withhold spousal or 
child support payments when a service member falls behind in an 
amount equal to two payments. The Department of Defense, upon 
being notified by a state official that a service member is in arrears, 
will notify the service member but will not withhold money for at 
least 30 days. This is to give the service member time to contact a 
local legal assistance officer. 





As an objective piece of journal- 
ism, your article "Home Away From 
Home" failed to be objective. The 
entire viewpoint of the article was 
wholehearted support for the day care 
concept, "They should make arrange- 
ments for the baby to go to the 
caretaker." Issues regarding the nega- 
tive aspects of day-care centers were 
never even raised. A child has most of 
its personality and moral values in- 
grained by the age of six or seven. If 
the child spends 90 percent of his 
waking hours at the center and 10 
percent with his parents, where is the 
child getting his values and outlook on 
life? From the center!! 

Your article said, "It doesn't mat- 
ter why both parents work." Why 
doesn't it matter? Your article again 
failed to examine valid issues regard- 
ing priorities or motives for both 
parents working. Which is more im- 
portant: the new color television or 

being with your children during those 
preschool years when they desperately 
need Mom and Dad? If you are going 
to take sides when you print an article, 
at least be honest enough to call it an 
editorial instead of passing it off as 
"objective journalism." 

Chaplain (Capt.) Scott Davis 

Fort Bragg, N.C. 

Author responds: While your views 
on the negative aspects of both 
parents working may be valid, you 
have let them get in the way of the 
fact that parents do work. More than 
half of the soldiers in the Army have 
spouses who work. Economists believe 
that by 1990, two-thirds of all families 
with children under 6 will have both 
parents working. The intent of the 
article was not to give the reasons why 
both parents work or to pass judgment 
on the fact that they do. Rather, the 
intent was to discuss what the Army is 
doing to assist the soldier once this 

decision is made. The Army has taken 
the responsibility of offering child 
care centers and quality child care. 
An important part of that quality care 
is parent involvement with their chil- 
dren and the center. 

Child care centers are much the 
same as chapels: They serve the needs 
of soldiers and their families. The 
Army can no more legislate that both 
parents not work than it can legislate 
that the military family attend 
religious services. 

There is a need for quality child 
care, and we all have a major stake in 
this: parents, children, the Army. 

Like everything else, it is up to us to 
ensure that the needs of the soldier 
are met. 


Hats off for an excellent article on 
seat belts, "Has Your Seat Belt Hugged 
You Today?" in the December issue. I 
have worn lap and shoulder belts since 
I started driving more than I I years 
ago. To not wear a safety belt can, in 
my opinion, be likened to smoking 
when pumping gasoline: You may not 
ignite the fumes, but if you do, forget 

I know that my seat belt has saved 
me. Several years ago I nearly hit a 
motorcycle driver on a rain-slick high- 
way. My only choice was to hit the 
brakes, causing my car to go into a 
terrific spin. I was able to regain 
control, pull over to the shoulder and 
calm down. I am convinced that I 
would have lost complete control had I 
not been wearing seat and shoulder 
belts. There is no way I could have 
stayed behind the wheel in that situa- 
tion without something to hold me 

I am amazed at the number of 
people who don't wear seat belts. It's 
really a crime - at least it should be. I 
think soldiers and their families would 
be well advised to listen to the advice 

that on Ohio highway patrolman de- | 
livers in a television promotional spot 
for seat belts. "IVe never unbuckled a 
dead person," he soys. 

Forrest S. Gossett 
Worthir>gton, Ohio 


In the November issue you printed 
an article entitled "Loneliness" which 
was cause for discussion omor>g myself 
and fellow borrocks-motes. 

I have been stationed at Fort Krtox 
for opproximotely seven months. I 
have observed that, due to o lock of 
sufficient recreotior>ol focilities (not 
ping pong tables and troir>ee pool halls) 
on and off post, many of us single 
soldiers suffer. 

Most of us here have nowhere to go 
and therefore spend our evenir^gs and 
weekends in the barrocks consumir>g 
large quantities of olcoholic bever- 
ages. There is no town to go to, the 
post enlisted club will ploy little or no 
rock music on weekends, and most of 
us avoid church groups for fear of 
doctrinal bombardment. The greatest 
problem is that, since we are members 
of the military intelligerxre commu- 
nity, we are forced to feign the guid- 
ance of professionol counsel for fear 
of losing our security clearances. 

RFC Thomas D. Smith 
Fort Knox, Ky. 

The article on loneliness in the 
November issue was very interesting. 

It touched me in a lot of different 
ways, mainly because I om lonely. I 
am 19 years old and I have been to 
four different posts. At the present 
time I am very much in love, but still 
feel lonely. I don't really get into 
going out and partying. Therefore, 
some people just don't have much to do 
with me. Just reading that article lets 
me know thot someone cares, espe- 
cially the sentence, "We learn to deal 
with being lonely when we foce the 



fact that we are lonely and take steps 
to help ourselves." 

This is the first time that I have 
read SOLDIERS and I found it very 
interesting in all aspects. Keep up the 
fine work. 

RFC Sonya Gresham 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 


Again I find no mention of National 
Guard or Army Reserve units that 
perform to the best of Total Army 
criteria. In the November issue on 
page 19, you announced the winners of 
the 14th Philip A. Connelly awards. 

Certainly you make note that the 
Active Army winners were honored for 
their excellence in food service, but 
there is no mention of the National 
Guard winner. We in the National 
Guard are proud of Company B, I62d 
Infantry, 41st Infantry Brigade of the 
Oregon Army National Guard. 

The cooks of Company B put in 
equal amounts of effort and achieved 
excellence in food service. The mem- 
bers of +hat unit could use a little 
space in your magazine for a job well 

Pamela A. Kane 

Washington, D.C. 

Thanks for the information and 
congratulations to the cooks of Com- 
pany B. 


Being a marathoner, I read with 
interest and enthusiasm the article 
about the All-Army Marathon Team in 
the October issue. Your article so 
t excited my curiosity about the possi- 
bility of becoming a member of the 
All-Army Marathon Team that I called 
the Army Sports Office. When I asked 
' if Army Reservists and National 
Guardsmen were eligible to participate 
on the team, I was informed that they 
were not eligible unless they were on 

active duty. 

The fact that reservists and 
guardsmen are denied from partici- 
pating on the All-Army Marathon 
Team is yet another classic example 
(of which there are hundreds) to prove 
that the Total Army concept is a 
myth, and has never been anywhere 
close to reality. Because reservists 
and guardsmen cannot participate on 
the team, I must insist that the All- 
Army Marathon Team is not an All- 
Army team. It is only a Regular Army 
team. Accordingly, the term All- 
Army is a falsehood and the team 
should be renamed something else. 
Capt. Stephen D. Johnson 
Woodbridge, Va. 

The term "All-Army" was never 
meant to suggest a Total Army effort. 
" All- Army" means soldier-athletes on 
active duty who compete as a team 
against others — nothing more, nothing 


This is in response to the article 
entitled "Our Nation's Symbol" in the 
December issue. I was very pleased 
with the article. There is so much 
information about our national symbol 
that people should learn. I was awed 
by the size of the eagle's nest. Our 
forefathers made an excellent choice 
in 1782 when they selected the bald 
eagle as our national emblem. 

2nd Lt. Bobby C. Thornton 
Wesson, Miss. 


I greatly enjoyed the article on the 
reenactment of the Battle of Fort 
Stevens in the December issue. It was 
gratifying to see coverage of men and 
women who spend a lot of time, 
expense and trouble to authentically 
portray the soldiers and civilians of 
the Civil War, for the purpose of 
bringing this period alive for the pub- 

lic. However, it is unfortunate that 
you continued the idea that the Con- 
federate soldier was raggedly dressed 
and ill-equipped. The opposite was 

often the case. During the period 

from January to May 1864, the 4th 
Kentucky Infantry, a Confederate unit 
of the Army of Tennessee, was issued 
enough new uniforms to clothe the 
entire regiment. And by 1864, nearly 
all Confederates were armed with the 
finest weapons made in the Southern 
arsenals and imported from England, 
different indeed from the popular con- 
cept of the rag-tag Southern Army. 
Capt. Geoffrey Walden 
Fort Knox, Ky. 


I would like to congratulate Sgt. 
Mencer (Page 27, October issue) for 
his five ARCOMs. I am your average 
supply clerk who has a clean record for 
the four years I've been in the Army. 
I've often been told by my superiors 
what a fine job I've done. I have been 
promised several ARCOMs. But the 
funny thing is I don't even have a 
letter of appreciation. An occasional 
thanks is all I have to show for my 

In a few months I will be asked to 
re-enlist. I will probably do it, but 
with no thanks to any of my former 
supervisors or commanders. 

Good luck Sgt. Mencer. At least 
someone is in a unit that really cares. 
One day it will pay off for all of us. 

Sp4 Andre R. de Deaux 
Fort Benning, Ga. 

SOLDIERS is lor soldiers and DA civilians. We invite 
readers’ views. Stay under 150 words— a postcard will 
do— and include your name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name it you desire and may condense 
views because ol space. We can’t publish or answer 
every one but we'll use representative views. Send 
your letter to: Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, 
Alexandria, VA 22314. 



Facilities: The places where you 
eat, sleep, work and play. That part 
of the Army budget has suffered 
lean years recently, but, for now, 
the bad old days are over. Construc- 
tion is booming. 

“The turnaround started in 
fiscal ’81. The picture is the bright- 
est I’ve seen in many years,’’ said 
Allen M. Carton of the Army Corps 
of Engineers. Among other things, 
he programs appropriated funds for 
construction of barracks, shops, of- 
fices, hospitals and field houses. 
This is called MCA, for “military 
construction. Army.’’ 

Spending in fiscal year (FY) 
1980 was $727 million. In FY 81, 
Carton’s “turnaround year,’’ spend- 
ing spurted to $901 million. It 
jumped again in FY 82 to $978 mil- 
lion. Congress approved $930 mil- 
lion of the 1983 MCA request, but 
this doesn’t mark a retreat. 

Carton said Congress ap- 
proved a second list of projects hav- 
ing an estimated value of $121 mil- 
lion. Congress said if the Army 
saves any money on 1983 or earlier 
MCA contracts, it may use the sav- 
ings for the extra projects. The FY 
83 MCA program, then, could 
amount to as much as $1.05 billion. 

The Army family housing 
program is another area of dramatic 
growth. Carton said. The FY 83 ap- 
propriation for building and im- 
provements was $128 million, up 
about $36 million from FY 82. 

“Keep in mind the family- 
housing construction authorization 
was ‘zilch’ in FY 80. Literally, zero 
dollars,’’ Carton said. “Our FY 83 
request was frankly the best pro- 
gram we’ve been able to take (to 
Congress) in years. We expect fu- 
ture programs will be even larger.’’ 
Family housing is separate from 

MCA, and Carton watches both. 

Fie and Army personnel of- 
ficials said the spending increases 
aren’t surprising. The .Army’s need 
to modernize and its efforts to im- 
prove members’ quality of life made 
increases almost inevitable. 

“Building new facilities is 
modernization. But if you have 
many other things to do. it’s easy to 
look at a building and say. ‘You can 
always last one more year.’ ’’ Car- 
ton said. Quick-fixes can work won- 
ders. The Army still uses many bar- 
racks built during World War II 
that had supposed 10-year lifespans 
at the time. 

“The Army has always met 
soldiers’ basic needs. Everyone has 
a roof over his head, but there are 
obviously varying degrees.” said 
Col. Lanny Standridge. chief of the 
Adjutant General’s Quality of Life 
Field .Assessment Policy Review Of- 


Steve Hara t 




he Army in 
scent years 
as made 
lajor gains 
1 boosting 
uality of 
fe for its 
oldiers and 
amilies. But 
’s only just 
egun. Listed below 
re some of the major 
onstruction projects 
ae Army has in store 
ght now that promise to make your life 
lot nicer in the years to come. 

rmy Military Construction, Fiscal 1983 

HE projects listed below are a part of the MCA and Army fami- 
housing programs enacted by Congress for fiscal 1983. All 
e related to the Army’s quality-of-life effort, which includes 
lops, offices, barracks, dining facilities and hospitals. Each 

valued at $1 million or more 


rt Rucker, Ala. 

>rt Huachuca, Ariz. 
rt Irwin, Calif. 

■rt Ord, Calif. 

zsimons Army Medical 
inter, Colo, 
rt Carson, Colo. 

■irt Stewart, Ga. 
iamanu, Hawaii 
tiofield Barracks, Hawaii 
rt Leavenworth, Kan. 
irt Campbell, Ky. 

■rt Polk, La. 

irt Leonard Wood, Mo. 
irt Bragg, N.C. 

irt Bliss, Texas 
irt Hood, Texas 

id River Army Depot, Texas 
|rt Story, Va, 
rt Lewis, Wash. 

kima Firing Center, Wash, 


Barracks, company administration and 
supply facility, and dining facility 
Child care center 

Company admin and supply and dining 
facilities, vehicle wash facilities, and 
family housing 

Troop medical clinic, barracks, and tac- 
tical equipment shop 

Tactical equipment shop, and company 

admin and supply facility 

Barracks and tactical equipment shop 

Community center 

Tactical equipment shop 

Hospital upgrade 

Tactical equipment shop 

Tactical equipment shops, and company 

admin and supply facility 

Maintenance division complex 

Barracks, dining facility, company admin 

and supply facility, tactical equipment 


Tactical equipment shops 
Company admin and supply facility, 
actical equipment shop, hangar with 
allied shops 

Maintenance facility modernization 
Barracks with dining facility 
Helicopter hangars, tactical equipment 
shops, and family housing 

Barracks and maintenance facility 
Barracks with dining facility 
Hospital renovation 
















Johnston Island, Pacific 
South Korea 
Camp Casey 
Camp Essayons 
Camp Howze 
Camp Kitty Hawk 
K-16 (Seoul area airfield) 

Tactical equipment shops have 
Nimbel, Essayons, Hovey, Liberty Bell, 

Gorgas Army Hospital, 

Ancon, Panama 
Fort Davis 


TUSLOG Det. 97 

Barracks with dining facility and tactical 
equipment shop 

Tactical equipment shops, and dining 

Storage and maintenance facility 
Barracks and dining facility 
Tactical equipment shop, and barracks 
with dining facility 

Barracks, tactical equipment shop, and 
maintenance facility 

Barracks with dining facility 
Facilities modernization (various) 
Barracks and dining facility 
Barracks and tactical equipment shop 
General support maintenance shop 
Facilities modernization (various) 
Maintenance building expansion 

Troop medical clinic and dining facility 


Dining facility 


Maintenance facility 

been requested lor Camps Stanley, Giant, 
Casey and Greaves. 


Barracks with dining facility 
Barracks modifications 

Gymnasium and unaccompanied 
officers’ quarters 

Morale, Welfare and Recreational (MWR) 
Major Construction 

CERTAIN MWR activities are built with appropriated funds. Ex- 
amples include libraries, gymnasiums and child-care centers. 
These projects, where they occur, appear in the MCA lists. 

Other MWR activities, such as those listed below for FY 
83, are supported by non-appropriated funds and are built with 
the Army’s share of Army and Air Force Exchange Service pro- 
fits, and profits from slot machines, package stores and other 

MWR operations. 


Fort McClellan, Ala. 

Fort Rucker, Ala. 

Fort Wainwright, Alaska 
Fort Irwin, Calif. 

Fort Banning, Ga. 

Fort Shatter, Hawaii 
Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 

Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Fort Detrick, Md. 

Fort Ritchie, Md. 

Fort Devens, Mass. 

Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. 

White Sands Missile Range, N.M. 
Fort Bragg, N.C. 

New Cumberland Army Depot, Pa. 
Fort Hood, Texas 

Vicenza, Italy 
South Korea 
Camp Casey 
Camp Red Cloud 
West Germany 


Youth center 

Package store, and skills development 

Skills development center 
Guest house, auto garage, and outdoor 

Enlisted club 
Auto garage 
Golf clubhouse 

Outdoor recreation center, and enlisted 

Auto garage 

Skills development center 
NCO/enlisted club 
Enlisted club 
Youth center 
Package store 
Bowling center 

Community center; auto garage; NCO 
club renovation; and outdoor 
recreation area development, phase II 
Outdoor field 

Enlisted club 
Entertainment center 
Youth center 

NCO/enlisted club renovation 
Community club renovation 
Bowling center 
NCO/enlisted club 
NCO/enlisted club 
Community club 
Columbia Hotel 
Travel camp 


fice. “That roof may be leaky or 
drafty, but the Army isn’t saying 
otherwise. It openly acknowledges 
there are many inadequate condi- 

“Army leadership today is 
extremely sensitive and responsive 
to soldiers’ needs,’’ Standridge said. 
“It’s more up-front and outspoken 
about those concerns than at any 
other time 1 can recall.” 

Whether the concern is pay 
programs, benefits — or facilities — 
the Army’s efforts have been to- 
ward gaining “comparability” with 
the civilian world, he said. The pub- 
lic expects soldiers to train, deploy 

New hospital at Walter Reed complex — 
1982 health-care construction spending 
was 400 percent higher than in 1979. 

anywhere at any time, and fight if 
necessary. Soldiers have a right to a 
fair return for that service. 

“Everybody’s ideas on com- 
parability are different, though,” 
Standridge said. “Satisfaction with 
your quality of life depends on what 
you’ve got and what you think you 

Because facilities are visible, 
permanent, expensive structures, 
the quality of life issues surrounding 
them sometimes boil down to per- 
ception and balance. 

For instance, there may be 
people who insist that a library is a 
vital public service in their com- 
munity. Others may argue a library 
is only nice to have — a frill — if 
you’re talking about building one 
on an Army post. Or they may say 

all libraries are vital but aw fully e.x- 
pensive, and if something’s got to 
give, then . . . 

That’s what balance and 
comparability are about, Standridge 
noted. Needs vs. resources. Opinion 
vs. fact. Compromise. 

The message apparently has 
found a home. Standridge said the 
public has come around, and Con- 
gress has shown strong interest in 
Defense Department quality-of-life 
efforts. He would know. His divi- 
sion was created in 1979 to watch 
Army progress in quality-of-life 
matters, and to keep tabs on trends 
and programs. 

The public. Army leaders, 
engineers and money managers may 
agree that new facilities are needed. 
If keeping everyone happily bal- 
anced is the key, however, four out 
of five isn’t good enough. The fifth 
party, ironically thrusting a thorn in 
this rosy picture, is soldiers: the 
“where’s mine?” gripe. 

“The amount of money is 
growing, but it’s never going to be 
enough to do everything. The Army 
has to buy a lot of things and, 
friend, everybody’s dollars have 
only 100 pennies,” Standridge said. 
“With limited dollars, someone’s 
got tough decisions to make. You 
won’t always like or agree with 
them.” It means if you’re living in a 
World War II barracks, you think 
the Army needs new barracks badly. 
If your motor pool’s walls are fall- 
ing in, you’ve got other ideas. 

So who defines “quality”? 
Who decides what gets done and 

Carton talked barracks: Con- 
gress decides how much living space 
each soldier is entitled to. The 
higher the rank, the more space each 
receives. The minimum net space is 
currently 90 square feet for a perma- 
nent party soldier. But there’s more 
than meets the eye. 

“Over the past 25 years, 
we’ve gone from open bays to more 
modern standards. Changes have 
generally been toward increased 
privacy and a separation of soldiers 
from their work areas,” Carton 

In World War 11, unit bar- 
racks, mess halls and offices were in 

separate buildings in one general 
area. .About 1 1 years ago, an .Army 
study group recommended putting 
all the functions into one building. 
Last year, a second group told the 
vice chief of staff the activities 
should be separated again. 

The second group also rec- 
ommended a change in a current 
Army barracks design, the “cluster.” 
The style has four three-man rooms 
attached at right angles to a shared 
living room. The study group called 
for larger rooms with four soldiers 
in each. Initially, soldiers would 
have less privacy. As they gain rank, 
and have fewer roommates, they 
would enjoy more living space. 

Based on the group’s idea, 
the Army submitted two FY 83 
.MCA requests — test barracks to be 
built at Fort Story, Va.. and Fort 
Bragg, N.C. Congress approved the 
request, but said future designs 
should be based on two persons per 
room. Carton noted. 

“The Army leadership says. 
‘This is what we want.’ The engi- 
neers’ job is to translate those 
wishes into a design that, for sol- 
diers, is the best quality product we 
can make,” Carton said. 

The second issue, deciding 
what to do, depends on where the 
money comes from and what you’re 
buying. There are two different 
avenues: MC.A and N.\F, or non- 
appropriated funds. Don Behr- 
mann, an Army construction-pro- 
gram manager, summarized the 
MCA process: 

“The Army budget is a com- 
petitive arena,” Behrmann said. 
“After you sort out whai you want 
to do, you ask what you can afford 
to do.” 

Post commanders and their 
staffs determine what their posts 
need. They set their priorities. Their 
lists are sent to major army com- 
mands (MACOM). where they’re 
screened and compiled into master 
MACOM priority lists. Those in 
turn are compiled into a Depart- 
ment of the Army list. 

“The entire chain of com- 
mand tries to honor the local com- 
mander’s priorities, but that’s not to 
say the guy will get what he’s asked 
for,” Behrmann said. The post 



commander’s requests may appear 
*' in the same relative order on the 
Army list, but be scattered through- 
J out it. (A post’s projects 1, 2 and 3, 
. for example, might be the Army’s 
II projects 25, 75 and 150.) 

The final Army list is pre- 
:i pared by a committee of selected 
general officers. A cutoff is deter- 
I mined by using the construction 
. budget-estimate for the coming 
year. Projects that make the cutoff 
: are sent to Congress in the Army’s 
‘ budget request. 

Projects appear as separate 
I budget items, Behrmann said, so 
I Congress can approve or reject them 

Projects that make the list, 

' but not the cutoff, are back-logged 
for future cycles. The backlog is 
large. That’s one reason the Army 
won’t be out of the hole for years. 

■ For instance. Army troop 

housing consists of barracks, com- 
pany administration and supply of- 
; fices, and dining facilities. The 
troop-housing backlog in June 1982 
was worth about $3.6 billion, ac- 
cording to Army finance officials. 
That was 21 times what the Army 
; had been allowed to spend for troop 
housing in FY 82. 

NAF building projects in- 
clude post exchanges, commissaries 
and a range of morale, welfare and 
recreational (MWR) facilities. They 
are chosen in different, separate 
! channels. The process is roughly the 
same as that used for MCA work. 
The big difference is where the 
: money comes from. 

Commissary construction is 
funded by the stores’ 4 percent sales 
surcharge (5 percent after April 1). 

Post exchange profits bankroll 
Army and Air Force Exchange 
(AAFES) projects, such as new 
stores, malls and theaters. Certain 
MWR activities, such as libraries 
and gymnasiums, are supported by 
appropriated funds. 

The construction picture is 
excellent for non-appropriated fund 
MWR activities such as craft shops, 
bowling centers, clubs, open messes 
and the like, according to Steve 
Rossetti, an MWR spokesman. 

For one thing, the Army re- 
ceives a share of AAFES profits, 
currently about $50 million a year, 
and has earmarked it for MWR con- 
struction and improvement, Rosset- 
ti added. Profits from slot machines 
that are returning to overseas clubs 
are also earmarked. Planners esti- 
mate the machines can bring in up 
to $25 million a year by 1986. 

The money will put healthy 
dents into an $800-million backlog 
in non-appropriated MWR projects, 
Rossetti remarked. The amount of 
money available for building may 
go up to about $150 million a year 
by 1988 as MWR operations are 
forced to become self-sustaining. 

Rossetti said the Army’s 
AAFES share in past years was used 
to prop up daily operations. With 
that “subsidy” gone, however, pro- 
gram managers at all levels must 
lure more customers, streamline 
everything possible, bring in new 
moneymakers and dump losers. 
Raising prices is the last resort. 

What NAF people have al- 
ways said is as true as ever: the more 
military members and their families 
support NAF activities, the more 
they help themselves. 

Quality of life construction is booming. 
1983 could be the best year yet. 

Standridge said MCA and 
NAF plans are linked. All decisions 
may be made separately, but there’s 
a master plan. 

“In other words, no one post 
gets everything while another gets 
nothing,” he said. Major emphasis 
in the next few years will be in South 
Korea and Europe. 

“You can see it already,” 
Carton said. “In Korea, for exam- 
ple, there were years when we had 
no construction at all. Now, we’ve 
had a program over the last three 
years that’s run at $60 million to $70 
million a year — the new barracks 
and facilities are actually starting to 
come on line. New construction and 
maintenance in Europe have started 
to improve markedly.” 

“They’ll get the attention,” 
Standridge concurred, “because 
that’s frankly where our needs are 

Some stateside soldiers might 
argue with those stationed overseas 
as to who’s got it good, or better. 
But that’s the crux of all quality-of- 
life issues: Perceptions. Expecta- 
tions. Balance. 

“It’s not easy. Everything is 
not what it should be. But there’ve 
been significant victories. Over the 
last two or three years, funding for 
new quality-of-life program initia- 
tives has increased at a rate of about 
a half-billion dollars a year,” Stand- 
ridge said. “We are not well, but we 
are getting well.” □ 

New barracks near completion at Fort Campbell, Ky. Army FY 82 spending for troop 
housing was about $210 miilion — nearly equal to 1980 and 1981 spending combined. 



ACTIVATED July 15, 1940, at Fort 
Benning, Ga., the 2nd Armored is 
the only armored division that has 
been on continuous active duty. 
Under the command of Gen. George 
S. Patton Jr., the division prepared 
for overseas service during stateside 
maneuvers in the early 1940s. 

The division left the states in 
December 1942 and saw fighting in 
North Africa, Sicily and throughout 
Europe. The 2nd Armored Division 
was part of the force that eliminated 
the German “bulge” in December 
1944, and it was the first American 
unit to enter Berlin the next year. 
The division participated in seven 
campaigns in World War II and was 
awarded the Belgian Fourragere. 

After a short period of occu- 
pation duty in Europe, the division 
went to Fort Hood, Texas, in Janu- 
ary 1946. The 2nd Armored return- 
ed to Europe in July 1951 as part of 
the “Mailed Fist of NATO”. In 
February 1958, the division again 
returned to Fort Hood, where it 
trained recruits. In three and a half 

This article on an Active Army division is one in a series 
compiled from official Army sources by Danny M. 
Johnson, a management analyst who works for fhe 
assisfanf chief of sfaff for Intelligence at the Pentagon. 

Fort Hood, Texas 
Garlstadt, West Germany 

years, the 2nd Armored trained 
more than 90,000 soldiers in basic 
military skills. 

The Berlin crisis brought a 
change in mission for “Hell on 
Wheels.” It became a full combat- 
ready tactical division in 1961, and 
in 1962 was the first regular ar- 
mored division to be assigned to the 

Strategic .\rmy Corps. In 1963, it 
participated in the history -making 
exercise Big Lift. Elements of the 
Iron Deuce also panicipated «n the 
1964 Exercise Long Thrust .\. In 
early 1964, the unit became the first 
armored division in the United 
States to receive the .M-60 tank. The 
M-60 was subsequently used in the 
1964 L .S. Strike Command Exercise 
Desert Strike. 

Early in 19"’5, elements of 
the 2nd .Armored Division rotated 
between Fort Hood and northern 
\\ est Germany under the Brigade "’5 
concept. The program was designed 
to step up N.ATO readiness and se- 
curity. In the fall of 1978. the 2nd 
.Armored Division (Forward) was 
established at Garlstadt, taking the 
place of the rotating elements from 
the division. The 2nd .Armored Dis i- 
sion (Forward) is the only major 
Army combat unit stationed in 
northern West Germany. 

Assigned to III Corps and a 
rapid reinforcing unit to L.S. .Army 
Europe and N.ATO, the 2nd Ar- 
mored Division frequently partici- 
pates in REFORGER and other 
large field training exercises. 

Sandbag-laden M-4 Sherman tanks of the 67th Armor, 2nd Armored Division, roll through Ahlen, Germany, on their way to Berlin. 
About 60 miles east of the Rhine River, Ahlen was a hospital town with a garrison of some 3,000 patients. It surrendered without a 
fight in late March 1945. 




Story and Photos by SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 

DURING AN EXPEDITION to the West in 1806, the 
famed explorer Zebulon Pike came across a mountain 
that rose 14,000 feet above the plains near present-day 
Colorado Springs, Colo. He tried to climb the moun- 
tain, but after failing to reach the icy summit. Pike 
claimed that the peak would never be scaled. 

At the 1982 Pike’s Peak Hill Climb, Bill Brister, 
driving a Chevy-powered, Wells-Coyote buggy, set a 
new open-wheel class record on the way to taking over- 

all honors for the day. His winning time was 1 1 minutes, 
44.82 seconds. 

So much for being an unscalable peak. 

The first road up Pike’s Peak was completed in 
1880. But it wasn’t until 1901 that a Locomobile 
Steamer was driven, and pushed, to the top. The trip 
took about nine hours. 

In 1915, Spencer Penrose, a local entrepreneur, 
built a highway to the summit. He decided to hold a race 

Above, Randy 
Schranz’s 1981 
Camaro rounds 
one of the 156 
turns in the 
Pike’s Peak 
Hili Climb. 
• Right, a stock 
car class entrant 
throws his car 
around a hairpin 
turn on his 
climb up the 




to announce his new road in 1916. The winning time in 
Penrose’s inaugural race was 20:55.6, set by Rea Lentz 
in a Romano Demon Special. The race has been held an- 
nually ever since except during the war years. And the 
times just keep tumbling down as the racers annually 
speed toward the top. 

The track itself is a winding series of switchbacks 
and hairpin turns, 156 in all. The starting line is set at 
9,402-foot level. The race course follows the highway 
climbing 12.42 miles to the finish line at the 14,1 10-foot 
peak. There are no guard rails along this treacherous 
course and the roadway is mainly gravel. 

The hill climb is nicknamed “Race to the 
Clouds,” mainly because of the altitude at which the 

race is held. Another reason, however, is the unpredict- 
able weather. Racers may leave the starting line under 
sunny blue skies, but as they approach the top, the 
weather can suddenly change. With a sudden fury, the 
skies may cloud over and become filled with wind-swept 
rain and snow. All of which leads to some exciting ac- 
tion and demanding driving conditions. 

All types of motor vehicles have competed in the 
hill climb. Over the years, the upright sprint cars, with 
their powerful engines, have been the most f>opular. Un- 
til recently they were also the most successful. 

Current classes of vehicles are the sprints (open 
wheel), “stock” cars and the new pro rally, as well as 
four classes of motorcycles. 

The gravel-covered 
roads up Pike’s Peak 
can be as slick as 
marbles in a Teflon- 
covered skillet. Even 
the most experi- 
enced drivers can 
find themselves off- 
course under these 
conditions. Jay 
Stewart found his 
1980 Funco buggy in 
just such a situation. 


I Bottom row, from left: Val King blazes 
along in his Chevy truck. • Frank 
Crater’s Mustang (88) • and Gary Lee 
'j Kanawyer’s racer drift through corners 
I in the 156-curve course. Kanawyer, 1981 
open class winner, finished second in 
1982 — the 60th running of the hill 
climb. • Al Unser Jr.’s 1982 Unser 
I Special is wheeled from the pit area. 

Top row, from left: 
Melvin Shapiro (107) 
and James Brewer 
(161) race their 
cycles to the top. 

• Bobby Unser Jr. 
drives his 1982 
Wells Coyote to the 
cheers of sideline 
spectators. • Motor- 
cyclists have the 
toughest time up the 
mountain because 
dust clouds kicked 
up by other racers 
often obscure the 

Starting positions for the race are determined by 
the qualifying times set during trials held earlier in the 
week. Positioning is important because the track tends 
l] to deteriorate as the race progresses. This is most impor- 
tant for the motorcyclists, though. 

The motorcyclists race in packs of about 40 riders 
in each class. Those in the front of the pack get a clear 
I view of the road ahead. Those farther back are forced to 

S ' eat a lot of dust fighting their way to the finish. This 
leads to some hairy driving. Some cyclists lose their way 
in the dust cloud and can be seen careening off the 
course into the rocks. 

The fastest 1982 finish for a motorcyclist was set 
by Arlo England on a Yamaha. His time of 13:19.38 
gave him the overall laurels along with those of the open 
A semipro class. 

Chuck Lee captured first for the semipro 250 
class, time 13:46.70. 

Les Wagner rode his Maico to the top with a time 
of 14:14.12 in the open B amateur class. 

Ken Perkins’ time of 15:02.55 was good enough 

for a first place in the 250B amateur. 

The Chevy Monza of Ralph Bruning clocked a 
stock car class record, taking top honors with a finish of 

The real surprise of the day, though, came in the 
pro rally class. John Buffum, a veteran rally driver, but 
Pike’s Peak rookie, roared across the finish line in 
12:20.52. His turbo-charged, five-cylinder, four-wheel- 
drive Audi Quattro only finished ninth overall for the 
day. But he finished more than a minute ahead of the 
second-place racer in his class and 30 seconds faster 
than Bruning’s stock car class record. That’s a respect- 
able showing for a “beginner.” Pike’s Peak racing may 
never be the same again. 

Audi plans a major assault on the summit for 
this year’s Pike’s Peak Hill Climb. The German car 
maker will enter three cars in what observers say will be 
an even more exciting race than before. 

So for a mountain of motor madness set among 
some of the most breath-taking scenery in the West, 
check out the next Race to the Clouds on July 10. □ 





Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

THE sun beats down, driving the 
temperature toward 100 degrees. 
Sweat mixes with dirt, leaving 
streaks across the soldiers’ faces. 
They struggle to climb a hill with the 
wounded in makeshift litters or 
I across their backs. 

As they near the top, a ma- 
chine gun fires in the distance. Ex- 
plosions shake the ground. 

Just ahead, a medevac heli- 
copter lands, sending more dirt and 
dust in all directions. 

You can see the strain in their 
faces and hear the urgency in the 
; soldiers’ voices. “Keep pressure on 
that wound!’’ “Don’t let any dirt 
get in there!’’ 

“Okay, let’s go!’’ 

The soldiers rush toward the 
helicopter and load the wounded 
aboard. The medevac lifts off, tak- 
ing the wounded to the aid station. 
The soldiers on the ground scamper 
down the hill to treat other wounded 

Early the following morning, 
these same soldiers sit quietly in a 
post theater. They’ve washed off the 
dirt and look all spit-and-polish. 
Behind them a band plays. Without 
warning, the band begins playing 
the theme song from “M.A.S.H.’’ 
The theater fills with hundreds of 
cheering voices and clenched fists. 
These soldiers are Class 17, 2nd Bat- 
talion, • Academy Brigade. Today 
they graduate. Now they will be- 
come 9 IBs, combat medics. 

“We try to instill in them the 
fact that ‘B’ means not only ‘bravo,’ 
but it means ‘the best,’ ’’ said Lt. 
Col. Zula J. Johnston. Johnston is 
the deputy chief. Combat Medical 
Specialist Division, Academy of 
Health Sciences, Fort Sam Hous- 
ton, Texas. 

“Medics have to be the best 
in everything they do. They have to 

be the best because they are taking 
care of the best there is, the Amer- 
ican fighting man. They have to be 
the best-trained soldiers they can 
be,’’ Johnston said. 

Part of that training is a 
three-day FTX (field training exer- 
cise). During the FTX, the students 
use everything they’ve learned in the 
course. The chopper rescue was one 
of the many situations to which 
students had to react. 

They also had to treat NBC 
(nuclear, biological and chemi- 
cal) wounds; care for patients at an 
aid station; and use ropes to cross 
a stream, treat patients and re- 
turn across the stream with them to 

“NBC has been the hardest,’’ 
said Pvt. 2 Mark Durbin. He is a 
member of the 2nd Battalion, 123rd 
Armored Division, Kentucky Army 
National Guard (ARNG), Students 
must be able to mask themselves, 
and also mask and treat their pa- 
tients. Durbin is currently enrolled 

in a nursing course at a hospital in 
Kentucky. “I’ve always wanted to 
help people,’’ he said. 

“I enjoyed the FTX,’’ said 
Pvt. 1 Elaine Allan, 227th Combat 
Support Brigade, Florida ARNG. 
“It was like you were going to war 
for real.” For her it meant using all 
of the skills she had learned in the 
classroom. Allan wants to go on ac- 
tive duty and be stationed in Ger- 

“Students come to us with- 
out knowing anything about combat 
medics. But still, even from day 
one, they seem to be a pretty moti- 
vated, dedicated group of people,” 
Johnston said. “And they try. 
They’re here because they want to 
be medics. They want to take care of 

Instructors with combat ex- 
perience can teach students what it 
means to be a medic, said Johnston. 

“The majority of our in- 
structors have had experiences in 
Vietnam,” Johnston said. “They 

Opposite page, 
in a field train- 
ing exercise, a 
combat medic 
learns that sav- 
ing a life can 
mean being ex- 
posed to the 
realities of war 
— and having 
a strong back. 

• Right, the 
FTX also tests 
the skills of 
treating a 



are senior NCOs (non-commis- 
sioned officers) who are very, very 
committed. They are dedicated to 
being professional NCOs. 

“The NCO is the most impor- 
tant person in our organization be- 
cause he or she is the person teaching 
the students and working with 
them,” she asserted. “They really be- 
come role models for the students.” 
Graduating isn’t the end of 
the student’s medical training, 
Johnston noted. 

“We have only 10 weeks,” 
she said, “to take people with no 


no medical background and teach 
them the skills they are going to 
need to save lives on the battlefield. 

“Those people leave here at 
an apprentice level only. They have 
to be reinforced constantly. We are 
dealing with some very sophisticated 
skills. You just can’t teach it all in 
10 weeks. You can give them a good, 
basic understanding. You can intro- 
duce them to it and help them know 
where they need progress.” 

The 10-week course gives the 
students a basic knowledge of how 
to treat patients in combat. They 

learn treatment of different t>T>es of 
wounds as well as patient evacua- 
tion. They also learn some basic 
nursing skills. 

The student’s ability to per- 
form these and other skills is tested 
in the field exercise. 

“In medicine, experience is 
really the only teacher,” said SFC 
Larry Jordon, NCO in charge. "W e 
can give you the basics. We can tell 
you what you’re supposed to do in a 
given situation. But experience is the 
only thing that will make you a 
medic." □ 




Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

Top, students in the combat medic course evacuate a “casualty” during a field training 
exercise. • Students in the medical lab course mark and organize test tubes used to 
hold specimens for later study under the microscope. 

THE largest school of health-care 
training in the free world is also one 
of the largest schools in the Army. 
The school, at Fort Sam Houston, 
Texas, is the Academy of Health 
Sciences (AHS). 

The academy occupies about 
160 buildings on post. It also has 
more than 1,900 staff and faculty 
members. Each year, more than 
30,000 students graduate from its 
156 medical courses. About 24,000 
others take correspondence courses. 

The academy is responsible 
for Army medical training from ba- 
sic enlisted and officer courses to 
advanced programs. Classes range 
from three days to 52 weeks. 

The AHS is part of the 
Health Services Command, also on 
Fort Sam. The academy began train- 
ing Army medical personnel at Carl- 
isle Barracks, Pa., in 1920. In 1946, 
the academy was moved to Fort 



Sam. Since then, more than 450,000 
students have graduated. Each year, 
graduates provide patient care to sol- 
diers and their families worldwide. 

The largest MOS (military 
occupational specialty) taught at the 
school is medical specialist, 91 B. It 
is one of the army’s largest MOSs. 
Medics are assigned to hospitals, 
clinics and battalions. The course 
primarily teaches students how to 
care for combat casualties. 

Recently, the MOS under- 
went the first of several major 
changes which will affect students 
and medics already in the field. 

In October 1982, the 91 B 
course was expanded from six to 10 
weeks to meet the Army’s need for 
medics to have more skills in 
treating those combat casualties. 

"We can’t expect to have ab- 
solute air superiority on a future 
battlefield,’’ said Brig. Gen. Robert 
H. Buker, academy commandant. 
“Our combat medics have to pro- 
vide critical life support and care for 
several hours in preparation for 
evacuation by either air or ground 

Now, all patient care stu- 
dents attend the first four weeks of 
the 91 B course together. Students 
learn the common medical care sub- 
jects. After the four weeks, soldiers 
going on to .MOSs other than com- 
bat medic break off for specialty- 
training, said Lt. Col. Zula J. John- 
ston, deputy chief. Combat Medical 
Specialist Division. 

Soldiers who are going on to 
be combat medics continue for an 

added six weeks, she said. These six 
weeks of training teach students to 
prevent and control infection, treat 
combat injuries and use basic nurs- 
ing skills. 

The next phase of the combat 
medic change is scheduled this Octo- 
ber. Soldiers in grade E-5 and below 
will be converted to 91. A. a new 
MOS. Medical specialists in grades 
E-6 and above will remain 9 IBs. 
said Buker. 

“The 91. A B approach was 
adopted because there will be two 
different sets of clinical skills within 
the same .MOS, and a mix of re- 
quirements at grade E-5,” he said. [ 
“But it’s imponant to remember * 
that91.A B is really one career field. 
We are simply using the difference 
in MOS rather than a skill identifier . 
to indicate level of training.” ^ 

In November 1982. the acad- i 
emy started a new advanced medical j 
specialist course. The course trains 
the 91 B at the E-5 level in advanced | 
emergency medicine, medical ad- j 
ministration and ambulatory care. 
Buker said. 

“We’ve needed this ad- 
vanced level of training for some 
time to bridge the gap between what 
the 91 B NCO does in peacetime and 
what we expect in combat.” he said. 

Later on. the academy also 
plans to make completion of the 
new advanced course mandatory for 
promotion to E-6. 

“.After that, failure to com- 
plete further training could result in 
a career that caps at E-5 or MOS re- 
classification,” Buker said. “Obvi- 
ously. this change cannot be put in- 
to effect until we have the capacity 
to train every 91 B eligible for pro- 
motion to E-6.” 

The increased 91 B course 
length also means some changes for 
the academy itself. 

“With the new program, we 
are adding about UX) people to our 
staff and faculty,” said Col. James 
Cl. Van Straten, deputy comman- 
dant. “We’ll have classes of 5(X) 
starting every other Monday, or 25 
times a year. We will be training 
12, (XX) soldiers in career manage- 
ment field 91. In addition, we will 
train some 8.1XX) officers and I4.(XX) 
enlisted personnel in other courses 

One of the 
things combat 
medic stu- 
dents learn is 
how to trans- 
port casualties 
from the field 
using whatever 
kind of litter is 
Ponchos prove 
effective for 
these soldiers 
in removing a 
soldier from 
the front lines. 
This is part of 
their field exer- 



during that period.” 

Graduates of the new 91 B 
course fill the void left when the 16- 
week-long 91 CIO patient care spe- 
cialist course was dropped in Oc- 

Johnston said the new train- 
ing is a positive step. “I think it can 
instill pride in the individual medical 
soldier,” she said. ‘‘We tell our 
soldiers they are following in the 
footsteps of the best. We can’t just 
pay lip service to that. By giving 
them more skills, we’re saying, ‘We 
are preparing you to do what we’ve 
been asking you to do.’ ” 

‘‘The standards you set de- 
termine the product you get,” said 
SFC Walter Drummond, an acad- 
emy instructor for five years, who 
thinks the course will help prepare 
the students better. 

Another academy course 
geared toward combat medicine is 
the combat casualty care course 
(C4). Army, Navy and Air Force 
doctors, and other medical officers 
spend eight-and-a-half days and 
nights in the field at a nearby train- 
ing site. More than 1,200 military 
personnel have finished the course 
since it started in early 1982. 

The lack of active duty mili- 
tary doctors with combat experience 
led to the creation of the C4 course. 
The course gives many doctors their 
first experience with treating pa- 
tients in the field, operating in a 
chemical environment and retriev- 
ing wounded ‘‘under fire.” 

‘‘The C4 course is the most 
realistic and invigorating experience 
we can present to a young physician 
who has had no previous combat ex- 
perience,” said the Army Surgeon 
General, Lt. Gen. Bernhard T. Mit- 

‘‘Even if they never go to 
war, I think going out in the field 
and living there for several days al- 
lows the physicians to understand 
how the combat soldier lives. To be 
told about living in the field is not 
the same as living in it,” said Navy 
Capt. Samuel M. Steele Jr., C4 task 
force director. ‘‘At the same time, it 
prepares them to live and work in 
combat surroundings so they can 
provide medical care to troops if the 
need arises.” □ 

Above, a stu- 
dent in the 
medical lab 
course pre- 
pares for an 
class. The 
course is 15 
weeks long. • 
Right, students 
in the X-ray 
course spend 
part of their 
time in the 
learning about 
the different 
bones in the 
body that they 
will learn to 









ARMY human relations has been the best- 
selling theme of countless war movies and 
novels. It even pops up on prime-time TV 

Recruit a group of average Ameri- 
cans: a ghetto black, a hill farmer, a rich kid, 
a barracks lawyer, a religious fanatic, a bar- 
room brawler and a con artist. If there’s 
anyone they hate worse than each other, it’s 
their nasty, steel-hard sergeant. If there’s a 
group that’s more fumbling and bungling, 
it’s their officers. 

After months of training, humor, sex 
and tragedy, the outfit goes to war. When 
they least expect it — when they’re tired, 
wet, dirty and hungry — the mission comes. 
The orders spell certain death. But Holly- 
wood scripts have happy endings. The unit 
braves flaming and thunderous special ef- 
fects, pulls together and wins. Their ranks 
have been thinned. Newly trained reserves 
take over. To them, the battle-weary vets ap- 
pear nasty and steel-hard. 

The plot hardly ever wins critics’ 
kudos, said sociologist Charles Moskos in 
his book. The American Enlisted Man. The 
plot does make oodles of money. Its popu- 
larity says a lot about the common experi- 
ences of soldiers year in and year out. 

Back in the real world, poor commu- 
nication remains one of the major stumbling 
blocks to good human relations. 

Differences among soldiers can wreck 
a unit. In a world where foes use live ammo, 
that can be deadly. 

Battle-smart commanders have always 
known this. Gen. Creighton W. Abrams, the 
late Army chief of staff, knew it. As com- 
mander in Vietnam, he had to pick soldiers 
to train Vietnamese territorial forces. The 
trainers lived in villages with these home- 
guard troops. The Army chose only those 
men who had served in combat in rifle com- 
panies for four months. 

Sure those soldiers knew fighting. But 
there was a different reason they were picked 
as trainers. It had to do with the way they 
looked at and treated people. 

“You see,’’ Abrams said in 1974, 
“Americans as a whole had trouble with the 
whole idea of the Vietnamese. Their color 
was a little different. Their eyes were a little 
different. They were kind of small. Those 
kinds of differences tend to bother Amer- 
icans. So we sent the rifle company fellow 
who had been in combat for four months 
because, in that four months’ time their 
whole set of human values changes. 

“They were no longer interested in 
what school another fellow went to, no 

longer interested in what color he is, no 
longer interested in what city he comes from 
or how he speaks the king’s English. 

“These things were no longer impor- 
tant. Their values were about other things: 
who carried his load when the night was dark 
— and when the day was long — and when 
the danger was there all the time. Those were 
the things that mattered, that they looked 
for and saw in others.’’ 

These soldiers were a successful 
group, Abrams said. They saw people for 
what they were worth. 

The Army needs these values all the 
time. But outlooks forged in the fires of 
combat are hard to come by in peacetime. 

That’s why, Abrams said, the Army 
has a human relations program. Today, 
after a few name changes, it’s called the 
Army Equal Opportunity Program. It 
focuses on the way people look at each other 
and is a linchpin in the Army’s fighting 
machine. The program is spelled out in 
Army Regulation (AR) 600-21. Soldiers who 
discriminate or sexually harass can be fined 
or sent to jail. 

Racism and sexism exist in American 
society. The Army draws on society for its 
soldiers. So racism and sexism will be found 
in the Army. 

Racism and sexism do more than just 
corrode a unit’s morale and fighting spirit. 
They create a tunnel vision that leads to false 
estimates of the enemy situation. 

“Racism fosters hate,’’ said Maj. 
Earl H. Tilford Jr., executive editor of Air 
University Review. “While hatred facilitates 
killing, it also prompts a disregard for the 
enemy’s virtues and abilities. We find it 
easier to hate an enemy whose skin color, eye 
shape or religion differs significantly from 
our own.’’ 

It’s irrational — and dangerous — to 

It’s irrational — 
and dangerous 
— to think that 
skin coior, the 
shape of 
peoples’ eyes, 
their reiigion, 
or even their 
sex or age 
have anything 
to do with their 
ability to fight. 



Raymond Sleenbock 

Soldiers who 
feel they are 
the victims of 
and harass- 
ment should 
march their 
complaints up 
the chain of 

think that skin color, the shape of peoples’ 
eyes, their religion, or even their sex or age 
have anything to do with their ability to 

“The warrior who can appreciate the 
enemy’s abilities without having to contend 
with blinding prejudice has a real advan- 
tage,’’ said Tilford. 

The effects of racism and sexism 
aren’t wiped out the instant recruits don 
Army green. If the uniform were a magic 
wand, there wouldn’t be best-selling war 
movies and novels. 

Like maintenance for tools and weap- 
ons, human relations is the day-to-day work 
of the Army. It’s unglamorous, demanding, 
hands-on work like maintenance, in which 
the only results are bruised knuckles and 
grease under the fingernails. When human 
relations works, it often goes unnoticed and 
unrewarded. When it fails, everyone notices. 

By and large the equal opportunity 
(EO) program has succeeded — not 
everywhere and not all the time. It is the Ar- 
my, after all. Only Hollywood armies never 
have deadlined tanks and trucks. 

There’s more to the program than 
just learning a weapon and learning to work 
and live with other soldiers. 

The EO program has two main divi- 
sions: training and affirmative action. Hu- 
man relations is part of every soldier’s job. 
However, specially trained sergeants and of- 
ficers are assigned at brigade and higher 
headquarters. They help the chain of com- 
mand stay on the human relations track. 
They analyze their own unit and subordinate 
units for their commander. 


EQUAL opportunity training looks beyond 
the day-to-day concerns. Having a grip on 
today’s problems is no guarantee that to- 
morrow’s won’t slip out of reach. 

Each post or division tailors training 
to its own needs and problems. In these 
classes soldiers learn about stereotypes. They 
become sensitive to cultural differences, 
minority concerns, and how prejudices form 
in their own minds. They learn to see that 
solutions must come from within them- 

Human relations training takes place 
where it counts the most — in the Army’s 
companies, batteries and troops. Post and 
division equal opportunity sergeants train 
unit discussion leaders. They in turn conduct 
training in their own units. Senior NCOs 
hold NCO calls. Commanders hold officers’ 
calls. Human relations forms the bulk of this 

EO training is time-consuming. Hu- : 
man relations is different from a cut-and- : 
dried mechanical task. The training teaches i 
soldiers to be flexible. Esery unit is made up i 
of individuals at different lesels of training 
and experience. .Missions differ. Terrain, i 
weather, time, support and equipment all ! 
vary. Soldiers have to be effective in these ; 
changing conditions. Technical and tactical j 
know-how are one set of keys. The other is i 
the human relations of the unit. i 

ACCORDING to .AR 600-21, affirmative 
actions exist to make sure that soldiers get 
equal opportunities to pursue their profes- 
sions. .Affirmative action plans can be found 
down to brigade level. They have planned 
actions, the regulation says, to find and cor- 
rect problems in the system. 

When problems get in the wav of 
good human relations, they are supposed to 
be solved in the unit. The Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers Education System has 
boosted the leadership and communications 
skills of most sergeants. They have the tools 
to resolve most human relations conflicts 
right where they start. But what’s supposed 
to be and what happens often diverge. 

Racial and sexual discrimination and 
sexual harassment are the big breakdowns in 
human relations. There are several ways sol- 
diers can get the broken fixed. They can start 1 
marching up the chain of command. Some- 
times soldiers are scared or unsure. Some- 
times they fear an unsympathetic ear or feel 
the immediate chain of command is the 
problem. They feel they need to talk to 
someone else along the chain. 

When this happens, soldiers can take 
complaints to the EO office or the inspector 
general (IG). The first person who will inter- 
view them is usually a sergeant. Their side of 
the story will be heard. Sooner or later, the 
complaint will be returned to the unit. If the 
unit has a break in its human relations, then 
the unit has to fix it. That's the wav the 
Army says it’s going to be. 

Equal opportunity sergeants divide 
soldiers’ complaints into two types: informal 
and formal. 

An oral complaint is informal. Equal 
opportunity sergeants and soldiers prefer 
this method, with as many as 90 percent of 
the complaints handled this way. Most of 
these involve a breakdown in communica- 
tions between soldiers and their chain of 

In some instances, the investigation 
uncovers unintentional discrimination. In 
these cases soldiers did not mean to harm or 




offend others. The victims define the charges 
of discrimination or harrassment. There- 
fore, soldiers can discriminate or harass and 
not realize it. 

“Most soldiers want to lead and serve 
in good units,” said SFC Ernest Benson, an 
EO sergeant at Fort Ord, Calif. “They’ll 
change their ways when their mistakes are 
pointed out.” After interviewing a soldier, 
some EO sergeants talk to the soldier’s 
sergeant. Others go to the soldier’s company 
commander or first sergeant. 

Sometimes complaints are the result 
of attitudes developed in civilian life. Much 
of what is unpleasant for a minority in civil- 
ian life is the result of discrimination or pre- 
judice. It’s easy to assume that unpleasant 
things in the Army have the same cause, and 
even easier when the soldier doesn’t have 
much rank and draws most of the unpleasant 

At times soldiers don’t “have their 
act together.” Blaming others is an easy way 
out. Some soldiers use a charge of discrimi- 
nation or harassment to avoid an unpleasant 
detail or assignment. Investigators rely on 
experience to know when soldiers are trying 
to “get over.” 

For serious abuses, there is the formal 
complaint. That’s one the soldier puts in 
writing. The equal opportunity sergeant can 
help the soldier do this. Once a soldier has 
made a formal clearance complaint, it will be 

In some cases where the IG or EO of- 
ficer suspects a crime may have been com- 
mitted, the matter is turned over to the 
Criminal Investigation Division (CID). 

Currently, one out of 100 IG investi- 
gations involves a sexual or racial complaint. 
For sexual harassment or discrimination, 
one in five of these complaints can be sub- 
stantiated and leads to further action. For 
racial discrimination, the figure is less than 
one complaint in 10. 

“Soldiers have pretty well learned the 
lesson that racial discrimination will not be 
tolerated,” said Lt. Col. Fred Phillips, an in- 
spector general at the Pentagon. “Gross and 
flagrant acts are gone from the Army. What 
deliberate discrimination remains is well- 

Sexual discrimination can also be 
subtle — or blatant — depending on who’s 
pointing the finger. For example, Phillips 
said, take the attractive female soldier who is 
chosen to be the battalion commander’s 
driver. Others vying for the job may feel dis- 
crimination based on looks. Or, worse yet, 
they may think she got to be the colonel’s 

driver because of “you-know-what.” On the 
other hand, if she is qualified for the job and 
doesn’t get it, she may feel her commander 
has discriminated against her because she 
was too good-looking. Cases like this could 
be fact or fiction, but Phillips also cited real 
cases from IG files: 

A female soldier went to her com- 
mander to complain that the unit’s PT pro- 
gram discriminated against women because 
the standards were higher than Army stan- 
dards. Also, women who failed to meet the 
higher standards had to take remedial PT at 
unusual hours. The commander dismissed 
the complaint and added several degrading 
remarks about female soldiers. She took her 
complaint to the IG. An inquiry substanti- 
ated the complaints about the PT program 
and the commander’s actions and remarks. 
The results went to the brigade commander 
for action. 

Another case involved a male NCO 
who found two soldiers having sex. Later 
that day, the NCO blackmailed the female 
soldier into having sex with him. After an in- 
vestigation, command action against the 
NCO included disciplinary steps as well as a 
bar to reenlistment. 

To prevent incidents like these, the 
Army knows it must tend to its human rela- 
tions carefully. To keep the faith with its sol- 
diers, the Army builds its human relations 
on the principles of fairness and opportunity. 

The Army knows the next war will be 
a come-as-you-are affair. And that doesn’t 
mean some soldiers will show up in fatigues 
and some in BDUs. The soldiers will bring 
what’s going on inside their heads. They 
won’t have the luxury of four months’ com- 
bat to get their heads on straight. 

The next time there’s danger all 
around and the nights are dark and the days 
long, soldiers will find out what really counts 
in their fellow soldiers. □ 

Racial and sex- 
ual discrimina- 
tion and sexual 
harassment are 
the big break- 
downs in the 
Army’s equal 




LORENA EOLEN Is a public Information specialist with the Phoenix (Arlz.) District 
Recruiting Command. 



Lorena Edien 

he year was 1934. The United States was 
bogged down in the Great Depression. There 
were few jobs to be had. Men — in fact, whole 
families — wandered across the country hunt- 
ing for work. 

In Philadelphia, Frank Little couldn’t find a job. 
Taking the advice of a retired sergeant. Little visited the 
Army recruiting station. 

“I wanted to join one of the four all-black units 
in the Army,” Little said, “but I was told I’d have to go 
to Fort Huachuca to do that — and the War Depart- 
ment had no money for transportation.” 

Little went back to his friend, the retired ser- 
geant, who said, “You’re tough. Go to Arizona on your 
own.” So, with 25 cents in his pocket, the young man 
started west to become a soldier. 

But he was broke before he even got out of the 
state. “I was hungry, so I spent the 25 cents for 
supper,” Little said. He hitchhiked, caught rides on 
freight trains and stayed in hobo jungles. 

Eventually he hopped off a freight train in Ben- 
son, Ariz., about 30 miles north of the post, and started 
walking until two soldiers picked him up and took him 
to Fort Huachuca. 

After the long trip and deprivation, he was told 
he couldn’t enlist because there were no vacancies. So he 

“I hung around the company for months doing 
odd jobs for a place to stay and something to eat,” he 
said. He traveled awhile with a circus, looking after 
animals and boxing welterweight challengers as the cir- 
cus traveled around the country. When he was in Chi- 
cago, he got to see his friend Joe Louis in his first pro- 
fessional fight. 

But all the while. Little was waiting for a vacancy 
so he could join the Army. Finally, someone left and he 
was sworn in as a recruit in Company H of the 25th In- 
fantry Regiment at Fort Huachuca. 

Although it was a peacetime Army, soldiers dur- 
ing the 1930s had little time to relax. Little said reveille 
was at 6 a.m. every day. 

“We had to fall out, fully dressed, for inspec- 
tion,” he recalled. “We had a formation after break- 
fast, then went to the stables to take care of the animals. 

There were calisthenics, too, and close-order drill after 

The animals the soldiers cared for were horses 
and mules that carried guns for Company H. a machine- 
gun unit. As a recruit. Little was a mule leader. He was 
assigned a mule named Dolly. 

“When Dolly was inspected.” he said, “any- 
thing wrong was my fault.” He had to keep her area 
clean and also make sure she w as clean, fed and in good 

health. He was responsible for notifying the veterinar- 
ian if Dolly needed medical attention. 

The animals were so important that they had to 
be taken care of before soldiers could eat or rest after 
maneuvers and other training. 

“The first thing we did when coming back into 
camp was take care of the horses and mules,” Little 
said. “Dolly was my special responsibility, but I also 
had to help look after the other animals.” 

During the six years that Little and Dolly were 
together, they developed a close relationship. The 
troops went on maneuvers in the mountains and can- 
yons all around Fort Huachuca. Several times the highly 
intelligent mule saved Little from injury or death by 
nudging him back onto a path when the unit was trying 
to negotiate narrow mountain trails in the dark. 

Every summer, the men and animals of the 25th 
Regiment marched to Tucson as part of their annual 
training. At that time, the main highway zigged west to 
the little town of Sonoita, Ariz., and then zagged north 
and uphill from there. The trek was known as “The 
100-Mile March.” 

“The march was considered a kind of physical 
endurance training,” Little said. “We used the mules to 
carry the equipment, but the men walked. Even our of- 
ficers marched right along with us, except for the field 
grade officers who rode horses. 

“Our officers were leaders, and they trained 
right along with us,” Little said. “The largest percent- 
age of them were West Pointers.” 

He said they averaged 20 to 25 miles a day. After 
they got to Tucson, they set up camp and stayed “a cou- 
ple of weeks,” working on equipment, taking care of 
the animals, having ball games and other activities. And 
then they marched back to Fort Huachuca. 

When Little had been in Company H for six 
years, the approach of World War II started the United 
States mobilizing. Dolly and the other mules were re- 
tired as more efficient methods of hauling equipment 
were adopted. Little was transferred to Company G, 

promoted to first sergeant, and began intensive combat 

Early in 1944 the 25th Regiment, by then part of 
the 93rd Division, left for the South Pacific. Little and 
his buddies took part in some of the bloodiest fighting 
of the war at Guadalcanal, Bougainville and New 
Guinea. Little received the Bronze Star for valor at Bou- 
gainville. When he landed on the beaches of Guadalca- 
nal, he was in charge of 187 men. He came back with 
only about half of them. 

Little retired in 1963 at Fort Lawton, Wash., and 
did not return to Fort Huachuca until he attended a re- 
union of the 93rd Division in 1975. One of the buddies 
he met was the sergeant who had given him a lift to the 
post back in 1934. At the reunion, an appeal was made 
for donations to the Fort Huachuca Historical Museum. 
Little sent a footlocker full of clothing and other items 
related to his tour at the post. 

In late 1981 he began getting phone calls from 
old friends in different parts of the country who said 
they had visited Fort Huachuca and had seen Little’s 
donations prominently displayed in the museum. Little 
and his family flew down from Seattle last April to see 
for themselves. 

At the museum, the Littles saw the display. On a 
desk was his old nameplate: “1st Sgt. Little — The Buck 
Stops Here,” a slogan President Harry S. Truman made 
famous later when he used it on his desk at the White 
House. Little tried on his old field jacket and was still 
able to button all the buttons. He also tried on his old 
helmet, carefully squaring it off by putting two fingers 
over his eyebrows. 

Still military in his bearing and deportment al- 
though retired from the Army nearly 20 years. Little 
seemed pleased at the way his Fort Huachuca memen- 
toes are being displayed. 

The Littles live in Seattle. His wife, Alvirita, is 
the retired executive director of the Girls’ Club of Puget 
Sound. Still tough, he has an Amateur Athletic Union 
license and teaches young men boxing as a hobby. □ 

Bottom far 
left, 1st Sgt. 
Frank Little 
retires in 
1963 at Fort 
Wash. • 
Above left. 
Little during 
his visit to 
Fort Hua- 
chuca, Ariz. 
• and, left, 
with wife, 
Alvirita, and 
and son-in- 
law, Vivian 
and Owen 


1st LI. Joan Grey 

Anderson: Littlest Cowboy 

At 5-foot-1, 105 

pounds, PFC Danny An- 
derson is the uncontested 
“Littlest Cowboy in U.S. 
Army, Europe.” Anderson 
is a fuel truck driver with 
the 18th Transportation 
Battalion, Mannheim, 
West Germany. 

His interest in the 
rodeo started in child- 
hood. His mother, a horse 
racing fan, encouraged his 
interest in horses. Ander- 
son was a member of the 
Junior Rodeo Association. 
He lettered in rodeo in 
high school. 

Anderson and 
other members of his unit 
are members of the Euro- 
pean Rodeo Cowboys As- 
sociation. They help aspir- 
ing cowboys and cowgirls 
with encouragement and 
transportation to the rode- 
os, and by doing such 
things as making a roping 
calf and mechanical bull 
for practice. 

He said he has no 
problems in meeting the 
physical demands of the 
rodeo or the Army. During 
company runs, Anderson 
sometimes carries the 

“I want to stress 
myself to build strength 
and endurance,” he said. 

This agrees with 
his advice to anyone in- 
terested in the sport of 
rodeo: "Be tough.” — 1st 
Lt. Joan Grey 

Be they the keys on 
a typewriter or on a piano, 
PFC Joseph Blocker can’t 
keep his hands off. 

The personnel man- 
agement specialist, from 
the 516th Personnel Ser- 
vice Center at Camp 
Walker, Korea, is a former 
professional musician. He 
has played with such soul 
performers as Millie Jack- 
son and Marvin Gaye. 

“My mother would 
take me to her church and 
have me play,” Blocker 
said. “I didn't know any 
church music, though, so I 
just sat back and played 
the blues.” 

At 13, Blocker be- 
gan touring with a home- 
town band. “An adult had 
to tag along to get us into 
the clubs. If we couldn’t 
get in, we couldn’t play,” 
the 30-year-old Chicago 
native said. 

In 1971, Blocker 
was drafted. He served as 
a clerk-typist until leaving 
the Army in 1973. Blocker 
again toured with many 
popular soul bands until 
he came back into the 
Army in 1981. 

"Being on the road 
is cool, but I have a family. 
Right now I’m here build- 
ing a future for them,” 
Blocker said. 


Compiled by SSgL Terri Wiram 

"Being on the road 
isolates you from your 
family. And they say. 'A 
rolling stone gathers no 
moss ’ I need to gather 
some moss.” — PFC Larry 

”My latest project 
is to get the world’s larg- 
est flying flag,” SSgt. 
Frederick Torrey said. It is 
40 feet by 90 feet, weighs 
300 pounds and belongs 
to the New York Port Au- 
thority, according to him. 

Torrey. a student in 
the Signal Technician 
Controller Course at Fort 
Gordon, Ga.. owns 840 
flags. He has been collect- 
ing them since 1968. 

“The fact that I 
went to Vietnam in No- 
vember 1968 had a lot to 
do with my interest in 
flags,” Torrey said. “I was 
impressed by a flag that a 
Vietnamese lady had, so I 
traded with her. Hers was 
a U.S. flag that had 45 
stars. She displayed the 
flag with a sense of pride, 
and it wasn’t even her 

Torrey said his col- 
lection includes a set of 
four flags used during the 
mourning of President 


John Kennedy. He also 
has flags that have flo\wn 
at such places as Francis 
Scott Key’s birthplace and 
memorial, the George 
Washington Monument 
and the Statue of Liberty. 

Torrey plans to 
eventually open his own 
museum of flags. — Sp4 
Stephanie Douglas. 

When a private who 
repairs trucks and gener- 
ators becomes an officer 

and a chaplain, it’s a bit 
unusual. What’s more, the 
chaplain is a woman. 

The new chaplain, 
1st Lt. Marilyn Henry, 
spent five years as a 
pastor in Indiana before 
joining the Army. Voca- 
tional tests showed that 
her talents would best be 
used as a military officer. 

“I had never con- 
sidered the military,” 
Henry said. “But I decided 
it was worth checking 

Although she could 
have joined the Army as a 
commissioned officer, 
Henry said she wasn’t 
sure then she should 
serve as a chaplain. 

‘‘I suppose this 
really isn’t the regular way 
to become a chaplain,” 
she said, “but I decided to 
go through basic training 
and AIT (advanced individ- 
ual training) to find out if 
my ministry had a place in 
the military. 

“I’ve always been 
interested in mechanics. 
I’ve always tested high in 
aptitude, but have never 
had the opportunity for a 
‘hands on’ experience,” 
Henry said. “My recruiter 
tried to talk me into being 
an airplane mechanic, but 
how many people have a 
jet in their driveway? I 
wanted something I could 
use, so I chose 63B (light 
wheeled vehicle and power 
generator mechanic).” 

After basic train- 
ing, Henry went on to be- 
come an honor graduate in 
AIT. She was then as- 
signed as an instructor for 
Headquarters Company, 
5th Battalion, 4th Brigade, 
Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. 

After completing 
the basic chaplain’s 
course at Fort Monmouth, 
N.J., Henry will be as- 
signed to Fort Sill, Okla. 

‘‘Male ministers 
have served women for 
years, so why should be- 
ing a female minister serv- 
ing men be any different?” 
Henry said. — Sp5 Kath- 
leen Ellison 

Henry: PFC/Chaplain 


Sp5 Vicky Lipps 


Maj. Keith P. Schneider 

TWO THINGS in this world are certain: death and 
taxes. One of those certainties is rapidly approaching. 
No, we are not suggesting that your days are numbered. 
It is the other certainty — taxes — that is bearing down 
on you. 

Preparing your federal income tax return doesn’t 
have to be an ordeal. Many publications and services are 
available to assist you. In fact, one important tax 
change will make filing much easier for many single 

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has come up 
with the new easy-to-use Form 1040EZ for single tax 
payers. The form has 1 1 lines and instructions are 
printed on the back. The IRS estimates that 20 million 
taxpayers can use the new form, which is included in 
1982 Form 1040A tax packages. 

Several other important tax changes are in effect 
with the 1982 filing: 

• Deduction for a married couple when both work. This deduction ap- 
plies when both the husband and wife work and file a joint return. 
Five percent of the lesser of the two incomes, up to a ma.\imum of 
$1,500, may be deducted. Schedule W must be filled out and attached 
to your Form 1040. (Forms 1040A have their own worksheet.) 

• New deduction for charitable contributions. This year you may 
deduct up to $25 for charitable contributions even if you don’t item- 
ize. (You must itemize to claim more.) This deduction can be taken on 
any of the 1040 forms. Tax packages have instructions. 

• New rules for individual retirement arrangements (IR.A). Beginning 
in 1982, soldiers could put up to $2,000 into an individual retirement 
account or annuity. The amount paid into an IRA can be claimed as 
an income adjustment on Form 1040. This is increased to $4,000 if 
both spouses are employed, have separate IRAs and file jointly. 
Check Page 1 1 of the 1040 tax package and Publication 590 for addi- 
tional details. 

• Child and dependent care credit increased. Maximum credits for 
1982 are $720 for one dependent and $1,440 if you claim two or more. 
The amount decreases as your adjusted gross income goes aoove 
$10,000. See Form 2441 for details. This credit can only be taken on 
Form 1040. 

Adjustments, Deductions and Credits 

Adjustments to income are subtracted from your 
gross income and are “taken off the top.” They include 
moving expenses, TDV expenses. IR.A payments, ali- 
mony and others. While you must use Form 1040 to 
claim most adjustments, you don’t have to itemize de- 
ductions to take these adjustments. 

Itemized deductions are subtracted from your 
adjusted gross income. They are claimed on Schedule 
and include medical and dental expenses, other taxes, 
interest expenses and contributions. 

Normally it will benefit you to itemize only when 
your itemized deductions exceed: 

S2,300, if single; 

$3,400, if married filing jointly; or 
$1,700, if married filing separately. 

A tax credit is a dollar-for-dollar reduction of 
taxes due. Credits are applied after all adjustments and 
deductions are taken. 

Who Must File A Tax Return 

Your gross income and filing status determine if 
you must file a return. Generally, you must file a return 
if you meet any of the following criteria: 

Filing Status Income Of \t I ca\t 

Single S.T.’tXf 

Married, filing a joint return 5.400 

Married, filing a separate return l.lXX' 

Claimed as a dependent on parent's return I .iXX^ 

If you don’t meet the above criteria, but had tax with- 
held from your pay. you should still file to reccise a re- 

Which Form To Use 

Although Forms RMOEZ and KUO.A arc easier to 
complete, Form 1040 may allow you to pay less tax. The 
chart on Page 29 outlines the three forms and the ad- 
justments/ deductions that you can claim. Use it as a 
guide to decide which form best suits your needs. 



When To File Your Tax Return 

Filing deadline is April 15. If you are stationed 
overseas on that date, you are entitled to a two-month 
extension. The extension is automatic if you wish to use 
it. Just enter a statement on the bottom of your tax 
form explaining that you are overseas. This extension 
will exempt you from a 5 percent late penalty, but you 
will have to pay interest on any taxes due. Your best bet 
is to file as soon as you can after receiving your with- 
holding statements. 

Where To Go For Help 

If you still have questions after reading your tax 
package, there are various sources you can turn to for 
help. A good starting point is your unit tax advisor. This 
is normally a member of the unit who attended a class 
given by the legal assistance office or the IRS. These 
training sessions focus on preparing tax returns and 
look at tax situations common to military members. 

Another source is the legal assistance office. 
While the staff can’t prepare the forms for you, they 
can answer your questions and offer advice. 

You can also call or visit the nearest IRS office. 
This year the IRS has a new telephone service called 

Tele-Tax. The service has recorded tapes on about 140 
tax topics. Brochures listing the topics and describing 
the service are available in many banks and libraries. It 
is a round-the-clock, daily service for taxpayers using 
push-button phones. Tax packages contain a list of Tele- 
Tax phone numbers. Tele-Tax calls are not toll-free. 

Several commercial tax booklets are available to 
assist you with your tax return. These can normally be 
found in the post exchange or a local book store. The 
IRS also publishes a military supplement to the Volun- 
teer Income Tax Assistance program. It addresses tax 
issues of special interest to military members. 

If you desire, IRS people will compute your tax 
for you. They will either send you a refund or bill you 
for any taxes due. Consider this option before you pay 
someone to figure your tax. 

This service is free, but you must meet certain 
conditions. Your adjusted gross income must be 
$50,000 or less and consist of only wages, salaries, tips, 
interest, dividends, pensions or annuities. You may not 
itemize deductions, use income averaging or have 
foreign earned income. Also, you can’t ask that part of 
your refund be applied to next year’s tax. 

FORM 1040EZ 

FORM 1040A 

FORM 1040 




Single, married filing 
joint, married filing 
separate, or head of 

Single, married filing 
joint, married filing 
separate, head of household, 
or qualifying widow(er) 
with dependent child 


One (Self) 

All you are entitled 
to claim 

All you are entitled 
to claim 

Income Limits: 

$50,000 or less 

$50,000 or less 

All amounts 

Only Income 

Wages, salaries, tips, 
and interest of $400 
or less 

Wages, salaries, tips, 
interest, dividends or 
unemployment compensation 

All sources 





Deduction for married 
couple when both work 

Deduction for married couple 
when both work and all other 
adjustments to income — e.g. 
moving expenses, unpaid TDY 
expenses, IRA and alimony 


Up to $25 for 
charitable contributions 

Up to $25 for 
charitable contributions 

All itemized deductions — 
i.e. medical and dental ex- 
penses, other taxes, interest 
expenses, contributions, 
casualty and theft losses, 

Other Taxes: 



Self-employment tax, tax on 
IRAs, minimum taxes, etc. 

Tax Credits: 


Partial political contributions 
credit, and earned income 
credit (less advance 

All tax credits 



Finally, you must sign and date the form and 
provide sufficient information for IRS to compute your 
tax. Check your tax package for details. 

Keeping Records 

Nothing makes preparing income tax returns 
easier than keeping good records. In fact, records are es- 
sential if you itemize. They must be complete and accu- 
rate, and must clearly support all your claims. Notes or 
partial records will not do. Remember, if you are 
audited, the burden of proof is on you. Good records 
can provide that proof. 

A good record system doesn’t have to be sophis- 
ticated. Begin with several large envelopes and label 
them according to your needs. Examples might include 
interest expenses, contributions, and TDY expenses and 
payments. Each time you have a receipt or canceled 
check, place it in the proper envelope. This will make 
preparing your return much easier. 

Once you have completed your return, a copy of 
it and all related records should be placed in a file for 
that year. These should be kept until the statute of limi- 
tations runs out for that return. This is normally three 
years. Certain records should be kept longer. For exam- 
ple, property records should be kept as long as you own 
the property. Check Publication 552 for more details. 
Preparing Your Return 

Once you are ready to prepare your tax return, 
there are certain steps you should follow. 

Collect all your income and expense records. Re- 
view the instructions in your tax package and decide 
which form will benefit you the most. If you are unsure 
about which form to use, do a trial run on each, follow- 
ing the line-by-line instructions. If you have problems or 
are unsure about certain items, check with your unit tax 
advisor or your legal assistance office. 

After you have completed your return, double- 
check it. If time allows, put it away for a day or two and 
then review it again. You can also ask your unit tax ad- 
visor to review it with you. Once you are satisfied with 
your return, sign and date it. Attach copy B of your W-2 
form to the front of your return. Any schedules used 
should be attached to the back of the form in alphabet- 
ical order. Finally, if you owe any tax, attach your pay- 
ment to the front of the return. 

State Taxes 

Most military members have a state income tax 
obligation. This is determined by the state you claim as 
your legal residence, shown in block 25 of your leave 
and earnings statement (LES). Only that state can tax 
your military pay. Many states ask the Defense Depart- 
ment to withhold state income taxes from military pay. 
If this is your situation, it will be shown in block 29 on 
your LES. 

However, the state in which you are living can 
tax income you earn from a part-time job and income 
earned by family members. Therefore, you may have to 
file more than one state tax return. 

Normally a state will send you tax forms if you 

have filed in that state before. If you arc filing in a state 
for the first time, you may ha\e to request the forms. 
Most legal assistance offices try to maintain a supply of 
the most frequently requested state tax forms. 

Don’t try to avoid a state tax obligation. Many 
states exchange tax data with the IRS. It is an individual 
responsibility to fulfill state income tax obligations. 
Your legal assistance office can advise you on state in- 
come tax obligations. 

Income Tax Withholding for 1983 

Once you have completed your return, you should 
evaluate your withholding status for 1983. You may 
want to change the number of exemptions you claim if 
you have a large refund coming or owe a large amount 
of tax. You can do this by checking with your unit ad- 
ministration section and filling out a new Form 

So w hat are you w aiting for? Why not get staned 
on that tax return today? You see. there’s a bottom line 
to preparing income tax returns: If you have problems, 
seek advice before you sign on the bottom line, it could 
save you time — and money. 


Moving expenses. Many moving expenses for which you 
are not reimbursed can be claimed as an adjustment to 
income. You can include costs of shipping goods and 
belongings, travel expenses, and expenses for meals 
and lodgings. The cost of any pre-move house-hunting 
trips can also be claimed. You can also claim many costs 
incurred in buying or selling a home. Moving expenses 
are claimed on Form 3903 and explained in IRS Publica- 
tion 521. 

TDY expenses. Any TDY expenses for which you are not 
reimbursed can be claimed as an adjustment to income 
To claim these expenses, you must report all TDY ex- 
penses and payments for the year. TDY expenses are 
claimed on Form 2106. 

Local travel. You may claim travel expenses if you are re- 
quired to provide your own transportation to perform of- 
ficial business. Local travel expenses are claimed on 
Form 2106. 

Educational travel. Travel expenses incurred in a job- 
related education program can be claimed as an ad- 
justment to income. Educational travel expenses are 
claimed on Form 2106. 

Educational expenses. The costs of certain job-related 
educational programs are deductible. This includes ex- 
penses for books, tuition and supplies. These expenses 
are computed on the Form 2106 and shown as a miscel- 
laneous deduction on schedule A of Form lOJO. 
Uniform expenses. Uniform expenses may be deductible 
if local regulations prevent you from wearing that uni- 
form while off duty. If so. the cost of buying and main- 
taining work uniforms can be taken as an itemized de- 
duction. The deduction must be adjusted by the amount 
of your clothing allowance. However, if your clothing al- 
lowance is applied to the purchase of class A uniforms, 
the total amount spent for work uniforms is deductible 
Uniform accessories. The cost of uniform accessories 
for all uniforms is deductible. This also includes the cost 
of attaching accessories to the uniform 
Professional expenses. Dues paid to any professional 
association or society are deductible Likewise, the ex- 
pense of any professional or trade journal is deductible 



Compiled by SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 

Information for Families 

AAFES Family Employees— Army 
family members who are em- 
ployed by the Army and Air Force 
Exchange Service (AAFES) in 
stateside post exchanges (PX) 
will be happy about this news. 

If you would like to con- 
tinue working for AAFES after 
your family transfers to Europe, 
you can submit a reinstatement 
referral request to your local 
AAFES office before you go over- 
seas. If you have a good work rec- 
ord with AAFES, you’ll get first 
priority for jobs in the PX system. 

AAFES says it employs 
9,500 hourly paid Americans in 
grades 2 through 5 in its Euro- 
pean operations — that’s more 
than half of the total PX workers 
there. In Greece, Spain, Turkey 
and Italy, AAFES must abide by 
host-country agreements, which 
limit the number of Americans 
the PX can hire. 

For more information, 
please contact your local AAFES 
personnel office.— Dave Chester, 
Army Families 

Maternity Care After Separation 
from Active Duty— An increasing 
number of enlisted soldiers sepa- 
rate from active duty while they 
or their spouses are pregnant. Be- 

I fore actual separation, soldiers 
are informed that care entitle- 
ment will terminate once they 
leave the Army. In spite of this, 
the number of claims submitted 
by separated active duty mem- 
bers for civilian medical care con- 
tinues to increase. 

The following information 
outlines the Department of De- 
fense (DOD) policy regarding care 
after separation: Honorably dis- 
charged soldiers who were preg- 
nant while on active duty are 
authorized to receive prenatal 
care, hospitalization, and up to 
six weeks’ post-natal care in DOD 
medical facilities that have ma- 

ternity care capability. Under no 
circumstances will the Army re- 
imburse former soldiers for civil- 
ian maternity expenses incurred 
after separation. 

Care in these DOD facili- 
ties is not available to depen- 
dents, even though they may have 
been pregnant when their spon- 
sors were separated. As an alter- 
native, enlisted soldiers with 
pregnant wives can extend up to 
nine months. This allows the wife 
to retain her medical benefits 
throughout the pregnancy. 

A common misconception 
is that CHAMPUS or the Veterans 
Administration (VA) reimburses 
former service members or family 
members for civilian maternity 
care expenses after discharge 
from the service. Actually, CHAM- 
PUS applies only to the family 
members of active duty or retired 
service personnel. The VA doesn’t 
reimburse maternity expenses. 
— Army Personnel Letter 

DOD Students Make the Grade— 

For the seventh straight year, 
high school students from De- 
partment of Defense Dependent 
Schools (DODDS) topped the na- 
tional average on the Scholastic 
Aptitude Test (SAT). Results for 
the 1981-82 school year also 
showed the DODDS students 
scored higher than average on 
the American College Testing 
Program (ACT). 

On the SAT, which is de- 
signed to measure verbal and 
mathematical abilities, DODDS 
students averaged 11 points 
higher on the verbal section and 
10 points higher on the math sec- 
tion than the national average. 

DODDS students outper- 
formed stateside students in all 
four areas of the ACT: English, 
math, social studies and natural 

Both tests are used na- 

tionwide to help determine ad- 
mission to colleges and universi- 
ties. Of the 271 schools in the 
DODDS system, 63 are high 
schools. DODDS has a worldwide 
enrollment of about 134,000 stu- 
dents.— Army News Service 

Immigration Eases Citizenship 
Proof— Soldiers and their family 
members born outside the United 
States no longer have to obtain 
a Certificate of Citizenship to 
document their status. A recent 
change permits an unexpired U.S. 
passport or a “Report of a Birth 
Abroad of a Citizen of the United 
States” as proof of citizenship. 

This change is retroactive 
and affects those children born 
to Army personnel in U.S. military 
and civilian hospitals overseas. 
— Office of the Adjutant General 

Joint Domicile Program Changes 

— Procedures have been changed 
for assigning married soldiers to- 
gether. The new program will 
automatically consider joint do- 
micile when one spouse comes 
up for reassignment. 

This will apply to Army 
couples who have submitted DA 
Form 4187 and a married couple 
data code sheet through their per- 
sonnel office. These forms pro- 
vide personnel specialists with 
the spouse’s Social Security 
number and military personnel 
class (officer, enlisted, warrant) 
noted in their files. When soldiers 
come up for reassignment, career 
managers will have this data and 
can easily locate the spouses’ 
files to consider them for a joint 

The program does not 
guarantee an assignment to- 
gether. It does, however, simplify 
matters. Army couples no longer 
need to request a joint domicile 
each time one spouse is reas- 
signed. — Army Personnel Letter 



Photos by Sgt. Wall Palkovitch 

FOR THOSE who have never climbed above the clouds, 
it may be hard to imagine what the world looks and feels 
like at 20,320 feet above sea level. 

Four members of the 16-man High Altitude Res- 
cue Team (HART), Fort Greely, Alaska, know the 
sight. After 21 days of climbing, they reached the sum- 
mit of Mt. McKinley on July 21, 1981. Seven previous 
trips were cut short because of the mountain’s unpre- 
dictable and dangerous weather. HART is part of the 
Northern Warfare Training Center at Fort Greely. 

This was the first such climb for Sgt. Todd 
Galloway, a member of the team. During the climb up 
Denali, the “Great One,’’ as native Alaskans call 
McKinley, Galloway kept a journal of his experiences. 

July 1 : Turned out to be a great day. Sunny, warm and 
snow. We are back at low base camp after making our 
first ferry to Camp One. We went past three or four 
parties going up, two Japanese. 

Today really whipped some of these guys’ butts! 
My feet are a little sore. 

These small planes have been shuttling climbers 

in since we’ve been here. SICX) one way. That’s expen- 
sive climbing. 

People will be in bed early tonight. Tomorrow 
another ferry of gear to Camp One. . . . 

(When an expedition like this is attempted, there 
are more supplies than the team members can carr\- at 
one time. These extra supplies have to be moved or 
“ferried” from camp to camp. The team members 
make several trips moving their supplies ahead of them. 
Then they occupy the next higher camp.) 

July 2: 1 should have known it wouldn’t be that easy. 
We encountered gale winds gusting over 55 mph. \^■e’re 
trying to establish communications, but bad weather 
makes it hard. We are putting up our tents, and the 
wind picks them up and blows them dow n the northeast 
fork of Kahiltna Glacier. We got a lot of extra miles of 
glacier travel. 

The mountains are so high and majestic. 

1 just hope 1 never have to an erected tent 
again the rest of my climbing days. 



July 3: Here we are at Camp One weathered in. All last 
night the wind blew continuously, probably around 
40-50 mph. I never imagined I’d be doing the great and 
wonderful things I’m doing here. . . . 

(Each summer, the HART spends about a month 
climbing mountains like Denali as part of its training. 
The team also tests and evaluates mountain climbing 
techniques and equipment by testing them against the 
likes of the “Great One.’’) 

July 4: Happy Day! The sky is clear, winds are minimal 
and we are going to start ferrying loads to Camp Two. 

July 6: Yesterday we had the worst storm I’ve ever seen. 
We had 60 mph winds with blowing snow. We didn’t 
I move an inch. The best thing I did all day was win a 
I game of Scrabble. 

We had Japanese in our back yard and four 
I Spaniards from Barcelona staying in camp. An hour 
later three Germans passed. 

I hope I never forget how fantastic all of this is. 
I’ve never seen anything quite like it. 

We don’t know if those Japanese are alive: They 
were going to take the Western Ridge to the summit and 
an hour later we saw an incredible avalanche where we 
had seen them last. So far we’ve seen seven avalanches. 

At the present time. I’m sipping hot chicken soup 
' broth. We’ve got the tent open and I’m gazing at Mt. 
Hunter and at least 75 miles of beautiful Alaska. 

July 7: r m here at Camp Three sitting around and 
watching the snow accumulate on the tent. We made it 
here in little over an hour. The weather is snowy, not 
too cold and windy. When we got here, at 10,300 feet, 
we were caught between two cloud layers. The one 
above was around the West Buttress (14,000 feet) and 
the one below was about 6,000-8,000 feet. It was a neat 
experience — kind of like looking out the window of an 

We are camped in an open area with sheet ice 
walls going up vertically for around 750 to 1,000 feet. 
The moves from camp to camp are getting shorter but 
steeper. Tomorrow’s climb is very steep, so we are going 
to strap our skis on our packs and walk the 1 ,600 feet to 
Camp Four. 

July 8: Today we ferried our gear to Camp Four. I’m 
beat. We climbed over 1,600 feet today. Camp Four is 
at 12,800 feet. . . . 

It’s weird laying the bag at night trying to sleep. 
You’ve got to take a breath and relax and try to crash, 
i I’m tired of dehydrated chow all the time. Can 

you imagine dehydrated chili con came for breakfast 
' one day and then beef hash the next? Blah! 

During the night I heard a monstrous avalanche 
I so loud I had to look out the tent to see it, only to peer 
[ into a total whiteout. . . . 

(Whiteout conditions happen when an overcast 
; day and snow-covered terrain combine to create such 
i poor visibility that it’s hard to make out the irregulari- 

ties of the terrain.) 

July 9: 1330 hours: Been up six hours listening to the 
wind and snow. Because of bad weather, we aren’t go- 
ing anywhere. Stranded at Camp Three. If we don’t get 
good weather, we aren’t going to get to the top. Our me- 
teorologist says the winds are gusting over 60 mph. It’s 
amazing what this two-man tent can take. The whole 
thing shakes and rattles and sometimes the corners will 
lift off the ground. We have to watch our fuel supply or 
else we’ll run short and have to go back down. 

Last night I laid awake four and a half hours try- 
ing to go to sleep. I hope I don’t experience too many 
more nights like that. All there is to do when you’re 
weathered in is to read. 

1930 hours. Finished my book, and the wind and 
snow haven’t let up all day. I’ve been inside all day ex- 
cept to go out and dig the tent out. Capt. Kiser got a 
weather report and it’s supposed to be like this for the 
next day and a half. . . . 

(Marine Capt. John Kiser led the expedition.) 

July 10: Sure turned out just as the captain said it 
would. It has snowed and blowed for the last two days. 
It hasn’t stopped snowing for more than five minutes. 

Tomorrow we must go up to the 14,500-foot 
level and get our food cache. 

I don’t recall seeing so much snow in all my life. 
There is a piece of ice hanging to our left that is about 
250 feet long and looks like it weighs a couple of hun- 
dred tons. 

Opposite page, the 1981 Northern Warfare Training Center ex- 
pedition sets up Camp One at the 8,000-foot level on the sec- 
ond day out. • Below, group members were (not in order) Capt. 
Robert Breffeilh; SFCs Joseph Byrd and Stephen Bump; SSgts. 
Jimmy Hobson, Chris Anderson and Thomas Campbell; Sgts. 
David Bristol, Todd Galloway, Keith Oanes, Walt Palkovitch 
and Bobby Wade; William Strauss; and Marine Capt. John Kiser 
and Sgt. Timothey Sawecki. Support groups were the 33rd 
Signal Battalion at Fort Richardson, Alaska, and Talkeetna 
radio relay site. 



July 11: Well, we made it to Camp Four all right. It’s 
nice to have a new location to live in. Camp Four is 
located 200 meters away from the base of the West But- 
tress (which rises vertically 100 feet.) Good thing there’s 
more rock than snow on it. An Austrian came to our 
camp and told us that there is 5 to 6 feet of snow on the 
Buttress with 12 to 15 people waiting for it to avalanche 
so they can climb up it. 

There are some abandoned caches up there and 
we hope to get some fuel from them. 

1 guess those Japanese have perished. They’re a 
week late and their tent is still below Camp Two. 

We are now around 12,500 feet and I feel fine. 

July 12: Well, well, about time! It’s a prime day. Sun- 
shine and warm and a good easy hump to Camp Five. 
After four or five days of nasty cold weather, we have 
been paid back for our patience. 

July 14: Bad weather, so we didn’t move an inch. . . . 
Today all I did was sit in this tent and read and watch it 
snow. Whenever we start up the Buttress, that’s when 
our final leg will start. Only two camps from here. We 
are taking 10 days of food and fuel with us. The first 
day we’re going to carry up a load of supplies to 16,000 
feet and return here. The next move, we’ll occupy that 

July 15: Boy, things are sure starting to stale here. We 
were weathered in another day. 

Tm alone in the tent and I’ve got the stove going 
Mach 1, trying to warm things up. 

Most attitudes here are, if we’re going to go for 
it, let’s go. . . . The avalanche danger on the Buttress is 
the key topic of conversation. Good thing we’re on this 
side of Windy Corner ... if she slides, I want to be 

miles away, not on her back trying to ride her out. 

God only knows how many people ha%e died 
here. There are crevasses (one not 50 feet away- big 
enough to swallow a whole housing quad. 

July 16: It all seems to boil down to tomorrow or the 
next day. If we can’t get up on the Buttress by our 19th 
day, we’re going home. We’ve spent so many days in 
bad weather. I’m tired of sitting around. I’m ready to 
go to the top with the rest of the guys, but the Buttress 
will be a formidable opponent. As usual, we sat here to- 
day as we w ere socked in by clouds and snow . 1 played 
some Scrabble and napped this afternoon. 

Capt. Kiser is really cool about all the delays and 
slow movement. Seems strange waiting for an avalanche 
so we may continue, but that’s exactly what we’re do- 
ing. Also, those Japanese we thought got wasted in that 
avalanche appeared today. They were literally dragging 
one of their people down. 

July 20: Attempted summit last night. Depaned camp at 
12:30 a.m., only went about 500 feet and weather 
moved in and my feet became so painful and cold we 
turned around. Our morale was great, then the weather 
worsened. High winds, temperature around five below. 

(At 2:39 a.m. the following day the second team 
of SFC Stephen Bump, SSgt. Jimmy Hobson. SSgt. 
Bobby Wade and William Strauss, a civilian training ad- 
visor at NWTC, made the summit of Denali. Galloway 
was not able to complete the climb because of cold 
weather injuries. The temperature was 30 degrees below 
zero, with winds gusting up to 50 knots.) 

July 21: I’m going to hate to shave off this three-week 
beard. I’m tired of the mountain. 1 long to be home w ith 
my loved ones. . . . 

Below, Sgt. David Bristol makes his way to Camp Three during the first 
week of the climb. • Because of bad weather and avalanches, it took nearly 
all the second week for the Army-Marine team to reach the 14,500-foot level, 
where Sgt. Thomas Campbell, right, raised the Northern Warfare Training 

Center guidon at Camp Five. 

Clockwise from above, Sgt. Bobby Wade trudges above the 
clouds on the way to Camp Five. • The view from about 
16,000 feet. • Mount McKinley expedition members pack and 
load their gear aboard a CH-47 Chinook helicopter for the 

flight off Kahiltna Glacier. 

(At one point in his journal, Galloway summar- 
ized his feelings about the climb;) 

“Up here I feel the insignificance of myself. As 
Reinhold Messner put it, ‘Man doesn’t conquer moun- 
tains, mountains merely tolerate men.’ ’’ □ 

EDITOR’S NOTE: Galloway’s notes have been excerp- 
ted from Fort Greely’s newspaper, ‘‘The Buffalo”. Ar- 
ticle was written by Sp4 Rod Proctor. 

Sp4 Rod Proctor 

Northern Warfare Training Center 

The Northern Warfare Training 
Center (NWTC) was established 
at Fort Greely, Alaska, in 1949. It 
is a joint service school that pro- 
vides training in arctic survival, 
mountaineering, military skiing 
and river-crossing operations. 

Classes are in session 
year round. The center trains 
about 3,000 people a year. In addi- 
tion to training Active Army sol- 
diers, NWTC also trains reserve 
personnel, ROTC and West Point 
cadets, and members of other 

During the winter, training 
emphasis is placed on teaching 
personnel how to survive under 
cold-weather conditions. Stu- 

dents at NWTC learn the proper 
use and maintenance of clothing 
and equipment. They also learn 
the art of snowshoeing and mili- 
tary skiing. The center also 
teaches land navigation and the 
building of survival shelters. 

During the summer, 
NWTC’s training emphasis is on 
teaching mountain climbing and 
glacier-crossing techniques. 
Navigating inland waterways is 
also emphasized. 

In addition to its teaching 
mission, the center has assisted 
in search and rescue missions 
since 1954. 

In 1971 a National Guard 
airplane crashed In mountains 

near Fort Greely. NWTC members 
tried to reach the crash site, but 
inexperience and altitude prob- 
lems forced them back. In 1972 
the center was directed to estab- 
lish the High Altitude Rescue 
Team (HART). HART members are 
also instructors at NWTC. Volun- 
teers for the elite team are se- 
lected each year. Before being 
selected, they have to show their 
proficiency in all areas of military 

Teams are usually made 
up of 16 NWTC instructors and 
support personnel. Team mem- 
bers keep up their skills by moun- 
tain climbing training exercises. 
— SSgt. Terri Wiram 




story and Photo by MSgt. Mike Mason Illustration by Anne Genders 

F ew things are as traumatic as divorce. Psychol- 
ogists rank divorce with the death of a loved 
one as one of life’s more stressful situations. 
Often, two people who once promised to love, honor 
and care for one another become bitter adversaries 
when it comes time to split the spoils of a marriage. 

Military retirement pay has become part of the 
spoils in many cases. That has led to bitter court battles, 
angry letters to newspaper editors, and intense lobbying 
on Capitol Hill. 

Some courts had been splitting military retire- 

ment pay in divorces, but the Supreme Court stopped 
the practice with the McCarty ruling in June 1981. The 
high court said the wording and history of federal law 
makes it clear that retirement pay is a retiree's personal 
entitlement. The court acknowledged that “the plight of 
an ex-spouse of a retired service member is often a 
serious one. . . . Congress may well decide . . . that 
more protection should be afforded a former spouse of 
a retired service member." 

Congress did decide. In September 1982. the 
Uniformed Services Former Spouses' Protection Act 



was signed into law. The act allows states to divide 
military retirement pay in divorces. The act doesn’t re- 
quire courts to divide such pay, but tells them they may 
treat it as they do pensions in property settlements. 

All states will treat retirement pay in one of three 
ways: as marital property, as an income source, or as a 
sole entitlement of retiree. 

In community property states, all property ac- 
cumulated during a marriage belongs to both parties, 
except that which is received by gift or inheritance. In 
other states, some property accumulated during a mar- 
riage may be considered wholly owned by either party. 

Another variable is the property distribution law 
of the state. In equitable distribution states, property is 
split fairly, depending upon such factors as age, health, 
education and earning potentials of each spouse. 

Other major considerations are the contributions 
to the marriage, what is practical in property divisions, 
offsets (such as if one gets the house, the other gets the 
pension), spousal and child support needs and, in some 
cases, fault or misconduct of either party. 

California, for instance, is a community property 
state. If a divorce was initiated there and the service 
member was married throughout the time it took to earn 
a military retirement, the ex-spouse would have an inter- 
est in part of the retirement pay. The ex-spouse would 
also have an interest in all the other marital property. 

Generally, if the marriage lasted for a lesser 
period, the ex-spouse would get a smaller share. In the 
McCarty case, the ex-spouse was awarded a 45 percent 
share by the California court. This share was based on 
the service member’s 18 years of active duty. He and his 
ex-wife had been married the entire time. 

The court decided to wait until McCarty actually 
retired before deciding his ex-wife’s share of retirement 
pay. When he retired with 20 years’ service, the court 
decided the marriage spanned nine-tenths of the career, 
so his ex-wife should get half of nine-tenths of the retire- 
ment pay — 45 percent. 

Using the same reasoning, an ex-spouse of 10 
years might be awarded 25 percent of a 20-year pension 
or one-sixth of a 30- year pension. 

In other states, retirement pay may belong solely 
to the service member, or it may be joint property of the 
marriage, or it may be considered when courts set ali- 
mony or child support payments. 

In cases where retirement pay is split as joint 
property, then alimony, spousal support and child sup- 
port can be separate awards. That’s because the ex- 
spouse’s share of retirement pay is considered to have 
been earned by contributing to the marriage. That’s a 
controversial point. 

“We object to the division of retirement pay as 
property because it is not something earned in previous 
years,’’ said C.A. “Mack” McKinney, executive direc- 
tor of the Non-Commissioned Officers Association 
(NCOA). “It is reduced pay for reduced services.” 

NCOA has been in the forefront of those who 
have opposed retirement pay splits. The association 
bases its objection on an 1882 Supreme Court ruling. In 

Tyler vs. the United States, the court said military retire- 
ment pay is pay for reduced services. In the McCarty 
case, the court did not address the issue. 

To further support NCOA’s argument, McKin- 
ney said service members don’t become entitled to re- 
tirement pay until they complete at least 20 years’ ser- 
vice. Unlike government pensions, service members do 
not contribute to a retirement fund. If they leave one 
day short of 20 years, they get no retirement pay. Yet 
courts have been awarding shares to ex-spouses before 
members are eligible to draw retirement pay, he said. 

“In these cases the judge is giving something to a 
former spouse that the individual doesn’t even have a 
right to,” McKinney said. But NCOA isn’t advocating 
that former spouses be left destitute. 

“We did not fight garnishment (of retired pay) 
because we know a certain number of retired servicemen 
have ignored child support and other support payments. 
We feel that they should make those payments,” 
McKinney said. 

Service members aren’t the only ones who ignore 
support payments. Census Bureau figures show non- 
payment is a widespread problem. According to a 1978 
bureau survey, 28 percent of the women who had been 
awarded child support in fact got nothing. Another 23 
percent got some payments. Of those women who had 
been awarded alimony or maintenance, 31 percent re- 
ceived nothing and 28 percent received only part of what 
they were due. 

Because so many women have problems getting 
support payments, more and more courts have been go- 
ing to property divisions, according to Rep. Patricia 

“Most child support and alimony awards are 
hardly worth the paper they’re written on,” said 
Schroeder, who was a leader in the ex-spouse bill battle. 
Women who go through garnishment proceedings to get 
support payments often wind up paying out most of 
what they get in court and attorney fees, she said. 

The bill solved that problem for many ex- 
spouses. It allows finance centers to make direct pay- 
ments of retirement pay splits to former spouses who 
were married to service members during at least 10 years 
of service creditable for retirement by the member. The 
bill also allows centers to make direct payments of 
alimony and child support, regardless of the length of 
the marriage. It also allows services to honor garnish- 
ments for non-payment of property settlement orders if 
the original court order divided the retirement pay. 

The law offers some protection for the service 
member as well. Courts can’t treat retirement pay as 
property unless the member resides in the court’s juris- 
diction for reasons other than a military assignment, or 
the member’s domicile is in the court’s territorial juris- 
diction, or the member consents to the court’s jurisdic- 
tion. Courts can’t order members to retire at a particu- 
lar time in order to begin payments. The law does not 
give ex-spouses any interest that can be sold or willed to 
another person. The law limits the court-ordered split to 
50 percent. 



The maximum payable for multiple orders of 
support or property settlements is 65 percent of dispos- 
able retirement pay. Disposable retirement pay is defin- 
ed as non-disability retirement pay, less such things as 
Social Security and disability offsets, tax withholdings, 
back taxes, government life insurance premiums and 
Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) annuities. 

The law allows service members to name former 
spouses as SBP beneficiaries, but does not require them 
to do so. There is some question whether ex-spouses as 
SBP beneficiaries precludes members from naming later 
spouses as beneficiaries. 

Unremarried former spouses who were married 
during all of at least 20 years of creditable service by the 
member receive added benefits. The law authorizes 
them medical care if they do not have other medical in- 
surance plus commissary and exchange privileges. These 
benefits, however, are available only to those 20-year 
spouses who are divorced after Feb. 1, 1983, the effec- 
tive date of the law. 

In the view of some, the ex-spouse bill doesn’t 
offer enough protection. One such group is EXPOSE 
(Ex-Spouses of Servicemen for Equality). According to 
their fact sheet, EXPOSE members spent an average of 
20 years as military wives. The average marriage lasted 
25 years and the average age at divorce was 47. 

Most feel they’ve been “dumped” by their 
husbands, according to Nancy Abell, an EXPOSE 
spokeswoman. Two-thirds of the group’s members were 
awarded alimony or part of their ex-husbands’ pen- 
sions, but 41 percent have had trouble collecting. 

“We have heard women say, ‘My husband 
wanted out because he didn’t want the responsibility 
anymore,’ ” Abell said. “Ninety percent say another 
woman was involved. If they (husbands) really want out 
because they’re unhappy, that’s one thing. What 
bothers me is that so many think they can walk out and 
pay no support. 

“If the services want the woman to support the 
man on active duty, she’s going to have to be granted 
something herself,” said Abell. Less than half the 
group’s members worked during their marriages. Most 
have no careers or pensions of their own and have little 
chance to build either when they’re entering an often 

competitive job market in their late 40!>. 

“We want a national laN* like the foreign service 
law,” Abell said. “The difference is that you recognize 
that she (the ex-wife) did something for her country.” 

The Foreign Service Act of 1980 gives former 
spouses of foreign service members a share of retire- 
ment annuities. Those married to foreign service mem- 
bers for the entire career are entitled to half. Those mar- 
ried during at least 10 years of creditable service by the 
member are entitled to a pro-rated share. 

The foreign service law leaves the door open for 
courts (or the spouses through a mutual agreement! to 
decide not to split the annuity. It also ends the entitle- 
ment if the former spouse remarries before age 60. 

Schroeder was instrumental in getting the annui- 
ty split for former foreign service spouses. Last year, a 
“mirror image” law was passed for theCI.A. Schroeder 
hopes to get a similar law for military ex-spouses. 

“It’s almost impossible for a spouse to have a 
career,” she said. She feels that if wives know they share 
in the financial rewards of their husbands’ careers, 
they’ll feel more secure and be more supfxjrtive. 

Schroeder also said she wants to see the services 
put more spouses into jobs on overseas bases. “That 
will allow them to build careers of their own and will 
take some of the pressure off the pensions.” she said. 

So, you can expect the battle to rage on. Those 
who support retirement pay splits will push for further 
legislation. Their opponents will try to block new laws 
and repeal the existing one. While the combatants mar- 
shal their forces on that front, others will be going back 
to the courts. 

The ex-spouse law allows those divorced after the 
McCarty decision to go back to court to argue for a 
share of ex-spouses’ retirement pay. It also affects any 
post-McCarty modifications to decrees that deleted re- 
tirement pay splits. 

Writing for the Army Lawyer, Capt. Timothy J. 
Grendell, a Judge Advocate General School instructor, 
said, “The exact extent of the statue’s retroactive appli- 
cation remains subject to interpretation and. most like- 
ly, litigation.” 

Grendell also sees a court test of the jurisdic- 
tional limitations of the law. He points out that under 
California law, a service member’s physical location in 
the state gives the court “in personam” jurisdiction, 
regardless of the member’s legal residence. That conflict 
between state and federal law will likely have to be set- 
tled in the courts, Grendell said. 

Like the divorces that spawned the issue, retire- 
ment pay splits are an emotional issue. On one hand, 
there are ex-spouses who have shared the hardships of a 
military career and demand a share of the rewards. On 
the other hand, there are service members who claim 
sole rights to retirement pay and don’t want it taken by 
ex-spouses who never spent a night in a foxhole and 
weren’t expected to lay their lives on the line in defense 
of the country. 

As in a divorce, no matter who wins, the trauma 
is likely to be felt for some time. i 



WHEN this country began to protect its 
seacoasts from enemy attack — an effort 
that began in earnest after the American 
Revolution — there weren’t many options. 
But there weren’t many threats either. 

There were no missiles or artillery 
that could launch death over great dis- 
tances. The threat was ships armed with 
short-range and usually inaccurate cannons. 

The answer to this threat was to 
build strategic defenses along the coastline 
where land-based cannon could be pitted 
against ships. The land positions were for- 
tified while ships had little protection. 

The city of Savannah, Ga., an im- 
portant seaport since pre-revolutionary 
days, was protected by many such fortifi- 

MAJOR CLIFFORD H. BERNATH is a former executive editor of 
SOLDIERS magazine. 


In Defense 
of Savannah 


Ij story and Photos by Maj. Clifford H. Bernath 

[ There’s Fort Stewart near the seacoast 
;city today. But there are others nearby 
[which fell into disuse because of the 
[ravages of war and the march of tech- 
[nology. As memorials to the past, these 
say, “You’re here because we were.” 


Fort Pulaski, shown on these pages and the previous 
page, is now a national monument operated by the 
National Park Service. Clockwise from top: Evidence of 
the shelling that caused its defeat is still evident. 
• Matt Mattox, a seasonal employee and re-enactor, 
cleans his weapon. • Barracks were stark. • The post was 
used as a prison after the fort was taken. • Some graffiti 
from Union troops who rebuilt and occupied the fort still 
exists. • Cannons were placed both within the fort and 
• atop the exterior walls for increased fire power. 



>:> I 


cations until World War II. Many of those 
forts still exist as models of the structures 
built in defense of this country. 

Fort Wayne stands on the east side 
of the city. Built in revolutionary days, it 
was being dismantled when trouble brewed 
anew with England in 1807. The fort was 
rebuilt and manned during the War of 
1812 and abandoned in 1818. 

Fort Jackson, about three miles 
from downtown Savannah, was also born 
for the War of 1812. It was captured in the 
Civil War by Gen. William T. Sherman 
during his “March to the Sea” in 1864. 

The post was abandoned in 1905. 

Construction of Fort Pulaski on 
Cockspur Island began in 1829. Completed 
in 1847, it was considered impregnable. Its 
thick masonry walls could withstand a bar- 

' FEBRUARY 1983 




rage from any weapon known at the time. 
But in April 1862, the North opened fire 
with a new type of weapon — the rifled 
cannon. Fired from a mile away, the shells 
tore away the walls and threatened the 
fort’s powder magazine. The fort was sur- 
rendered after 30 hours. The era of the 
masonry fort had ended. 

Fort McAllister, 25 miles south of 
Savannah, was built in 1861. This earth- 
work fortification proved to be a match 
for the rifled cannon. The shells dug large 
craters that could easily be filled with more 
dirt and sand. The fort withstood two 
years of shelling and was taken only by 
bayonet charge when Sherman and his 
army arrived. Loss of this fort led to the 
surrender of Savannah soon after. 

Fort Screven was built in the late 
1800s and saw duty in the Spanish- 
American War and in World Wars 1 and 
II. Built on Tybee Island near Savannah 
Beach, the fort’s batteries were almost in- 
visible from the sea. Its 20-foot-thick walls 
were surrounded by 30 feet of earth. Its 
weapons had a range of about seven miles. 

These forts still exist and most have 
been restored, or are being restored, to 
their original conditions. They stand as liv- 
ing reminders of this country’s efforts to 
remain a free land. □ 

Clockwise from above left; Re-enactor 
Jeff Sanders prepares to fire a cannon 
at Fort Jackson. The fort is being 
restored by the Coastal Heritage 
Society. • All that’s left of Fort Wayne 
a few walls and a lone cannon. Modern 
houses have been built on the site, as 
well as restored older buildings. 

• Today, it's the Savannah Country 
Club but during the Revolutionary War, 
it was Fort Boggs. Gun emplacements 
were hidden and protected by the dirt 
mounds. • Fort Screven is now the 
home of the Tybee Museum. 





Story and Photos by Maj. Clifford H. Bernath 

It’s a challenge building a 
new division from scratch. 

. . . We have a military 
construction program of 
$30 million to $40 million 
a year. Motor pools, hospi- 
tal, barracks ... all that in 
a very short period of time. 
—May. Gen. John R. Galvin 

FORT Stewart and its subpost, Hunter 
Army Airfield, have had many missions 
since the fort’s activation in 1940. It’s been 
an anti-aircraft artillery center, a separa- 
tion center, a tank training center and a 
flight training center. 

But until 1974, there was little 
change in the post from its World War II 
days. With the activation of the 1st Bat- 
talion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, there in 

1974, and the reactivation of the 24th In- 
fantry Division in 1975, the post began to 
take on a new look. For the first time. 

Fort Stewart became the home of an infan- 
try division, and a division has many 

A division must have room to train. 
Fort Stewart is the largest Army post east 
of the Mississippi River. With 279,270 
acres, space is no problem. 

But almost every other type of sup- 
port had to be started from scratch. Since 

1975, the post has seen continuous con- 
struction. Three brigade-sized barracks 
complexes have been built and a fourth is 
under way. Dining facilities, dispensaries. 



Top to bottom: One of the visible signs of the 24th In- 
fantry Division’s RDF mission is the painting of tactical 
vehicles from green to sand-colored. • RFC Bob Crun- 
coeton, 92nd Engineer Battalion, works out on a tennis 
court. • Kitty Holt, Hunter Army Airfield, plays in a post 
pool with 2-year-old Danny Hulse. • Youngsters enjoy a 
jazzercise class at Fort Stewart's new recreation center. 



branch post exchanges, and company ad- 
ministration and supply rooms have been 
built. A new post hospital is nearly com- 
pleted. New motor pools are being built. 

Family housing is a major priority. 
Since 1976, about 1,300 housing units have 
gone up and more are planned. But as 
Maj. Gen. John R. Galvin, division com- 
mander, points out, housing is still a prob- 
lem. “I’ve got 8,000 families and 2,000 
houses. It’s tough. You have to be ready to 
rent or buy a house in the area,’’ he said. 

The recreational needs of a division 
must also be met. The post now has a new 
bowling alley, three theaters, a library, a 
unit entertainment center, an athletic field, 
an outdoor recreation area and an arts and 
crafts shop. There is also a new post ex- 
change shopping mall, a commissary and a 
post office. 

In 1979, the division was redesig- 
nated the 24th Infantry Division (Mecha- 
nized), and in 1980 it became part of the 
Rapid Deployment Force (RDF). That new 
mission is bringing more change to the 
post, and it makes assignment to the 24th 


division unique in the Army. 

The change: “Right now, we’re 
painting the whole division from forest 
green to sand color,’’ Galvin said. The re- 
painting is related to the current RDF 
focus on Southwest Asia. 

The mission also makes the training 
different. “We are the heavy division of 
the XVIIl Airborne Corps,’’ Galvin said. 
“The fact that eight times in 1982 we 
picked up people and flew them to either 
Fort Campbell or Fort Bragg, where they 
went into operations with air assault and 
airborne forces, is a kind of training that’s 

The RDF mission affects the divi- 
sion’s priority for new equipment, too. The 
24th was the first unit in the states to 
receive M-60A3 tanks. It has already re- 
ceived improved TOW vehicles. 

“The division has a tremendously 
important mission,’’ Galvin said. 

“That mission dictates a requirement for 
top-flight training and top-flight main- 
tenance. What we do here is train and 
maintain.’’ □ 

Clockwise from 
lower left: On-post 
schooling is avail- 
able. • New con- 
struction includes 
dining facilities (fore- 
ground), barracks 
(right) and hospital 

• Hunter Army Air- 
field is an integral 
part of Fort Stewart. 

• Sandy Anderson 
and son, Aaron, stroll 
through part of the 
post’s family hous- 
ing area. 



FORT BRAGG, N.C. — A team from the 101st Airborne 
Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell, Ky., won the 10th 
annual XVIII Airborne Corps Rifle, Pistol, Light Machine 
Gun and Sniper championships held here in October. 

The division won the XVIII Airborne Corps Com- 
manders Cup trophy, given to the team posting the high- 
est average score in rifle, pistol and light machine 
gun events. 

About 240 shooters 
from throughout the corps 
participated. Units chose 
their representatives 
through unit competition. 

Individual shooters 
were rated as old (experi- 
enced) or new (inexperi- 
enced). This gave the new 
firers a better chance to 
earn a medal. Match win- 
ners in each pvent were 
those with the highest to- 
tal scores. 

Winning teams, ex- 
cept snipers, will compete 
in Army championships 
scheduled for May at Fort 
Banning, Ga. — Sp5 Brian 

FORT LEE, Va. — The Fort 
Knox, Ky., commissary 
was the Army’s best in 

The Troop Support 
Agency presented its sixth 
annual Best Commissary 
Award to Fort Knox in No- 
vember. Runners-up were 
Fort Ord, Calif.; Fort Bliss, 
Texas; Carlisle Barracks, 
Pa.; and Berchtesgaden, 
West Germany. 

The award honors 
top stores, promotes effec- 
tive operations, and helps 
encourage employees to 
give the best customer ser- 
vice and to be interested in 
their work. 

Inspectors judge 
commissaries in areas 
such as meat and produce 
operations, employee 
courtesy and customer 
comments. — Flo Dunn 

CAMP ZAMA, Japan — 

“This class is called ‘how 
to learn to swim in three 
easy lessons,’ ’’ joked 
SSgt. Leonard King, train- 
ing NCO, Headquarters 
Company, U.S. Army Gar- 
rison, Honshu. 

Actually, it was a 
drownproofing class in 
which 29 members of an 
NCO Development Pro- 
gram class spent the day at 
the Camp Zama swimming 

Drownproofing is a 
method of water survival 
based on simple skills and 

The class was di- 
vided into non-swimmers, 
weak swimmers and 
strong swimmers. Non- 
swimmers learned how to 
float and breathe, and they 
had to float for 10 minutes 
using canteens. Weak 
swimmers swam the width 
of the pool twice and 
floated 20 minutes using a 
shirt or pants. Strong 
swimmers swam the pool 
width twice, but floated for 
30 minutes using fatigue 
pants and shirt. 

The last lesson was 
learning to use a raft with 
six persons rowing, and to 
remove excess water from 
the raft. 

According to King 
and class critiques, drown- 
proofing was one of the 
activities many students 
believed was most benefi- 
cial. — Sp5 Ramona Rez- 

ARTEP Time in Korea 

SEOUL, Korea — With the addition of computers, laser 
weapons, and other futuristic equipment to the Army in 
ventory, “ground pounders" can sometimes be at a loss 
for realism in everyday training — but not the 1st Battal 
ion, 9th Infantry. i 

As part of its annual ARTEP (Army Training and . 
Evaluation Program), the unit underwent eight days of | 
thorough, fast-paced training and testing. Besides a night 
river crossing, they were put under simulated chemical at • 
tack by an opposing force supplied by the 2nd Infantry 
Division. They immediately donned protective clothing [ 
gloves, boots and masks. 

“The protective gear is a lot like carrying youi 
weapon,” said Sgt. Kenny Drew of Company C. “It would 
mean the difference between life and death. It’s impor 
tant for all of us to be able to function in a chemical en- 
vironment if the need arises." 

Soldiers were tested in the use of armor, air and ar- 
tillery support. They also handled prisoners of war and 
setting up minefields. — SSgt. Ed McCarthy 



Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

IF YOU WANT to be the best swim- 
mer, runner, fencer, shooter and 
horseback rider in the United States 
— welcome to Fort Sam Houston, 
Texas. Fort Sam is the home of the 
U.S. Modern Pentathlon Training 
Center, the only such facility in the 

The pentathlon has a long 
military history, dating back to the 
Olympic games in 708 B.C. Discus 
throwing, wrestling, broad jump- 
ing, spear or javelin throwing, and 
running were considered valuable 
skills at that time for the soldiers of 
ancient Greece. 

When Baron Pierre de Cou- 
bertin designed the modern pentath- 
lon in 1912, the skills chosen were 
those needed by a military courier 
during the time of Napoleon. A 
courier’s ability to ride, swim, fence, 
shoot and run well was thought to 
make a difference in battle. 

The center began training 
military and civilian athletes in these 
events in 1956. In the riding event, 
athletes draw horses by lot 20 min- 
utes before competition. They ride 
the horses over an 600-meter timed 
course. Points are taken from the 
starting score of 1,100 points for 
mistakes and other problems. 

In fencing, athletes duel for 
up to three minutes. Fencers score 
by touching their opponents any- 
where on the body with the tip of an 
electrically wired sword called an 
epee. A formula determines how 
many points each bout is worth. 

In the shooting event, com- 
petitors fire .22-caliber pistols at a 


Page 47, Janet Simpson heads home in 
the women’s 2,000-meter run. • Above, 
swimmers wait for the gun in the 300- 
meter freestyie race. • Robert Nieman, 
right, catches his breath after the 4,000- 
meter cross-country run and • he’s in top 
form during the horseback riding event. 

turning target 25 meters away. Each 
athlete fires four strings of five 

Strength and speed are tested 
in the men’s 300-meter and women’s 
200-meter freestyle swimming events. 

The five-day contest ends 
with cross-country runs of 4,000 
meters for men and 2,000 meters for 

A young cavalry lieutenant 
three years out of West Point, 
George S. Patton Jr., was the first 
American to compete in the modern 
pentathlon, at the 1912 Olympics in 
Stockholm, Sweden. Although he 
scored higher in four events than the 
winner, a 21st-place finish in the 
shooting event dropped the future 
general’s score to fifth place overall. 

There are 12 military people 
currently training at the center. En- 
rollment varies, and all services can 
train. Members have different 
events in which they do well. 

First Lt. Mike Burley, on ac- 
tive duty with the Texas Army Na- 


tional Guard, said his best event is 
running, although he said he’s get- 
ting to be “a pretty good fencer.” 
‘‘Pretty good” may be an under- 
statement. Burley is ranked third in 
the world in modern pentathlon. He 
was the 1981 national pentathlon 
champion. In 1973 and 1974 he was 
a member of the Junior World 
Team. He has been a member of the 
Senior World Team since 1975 and 
won berths on the 1976 and 1980 
U.S. Olympic teams. 

“Training here is good,” 
Burley said. “The .-Xrmy’s support 
of the program is very important to 
the center. If it weren’t for the 
Texas National Guard, 1 wouldn’t 
be here.” 

Janet Simpson, a former 
.Army captain, trained at the center 
for about three years. 

“The training here is hard, 
but it’s worthwhile.” she said. “1 
learned about the center by reading 
an article in SOLDIERS magazine. 1 
was in Germany at the time, so 1 
couldn’t apply until my tour was 

Simpson had been a member 
of the U.S. Women’s World Team 
since 1980. In March she took first 
place in the U.S. Modern Pentath- 
lon International Invitational. She 
placed fourth in 1982’s national 
competition, held at Fort Sam. She 
left the .Army in October. 

“The best athletes in the 
world are here. They’re a well- 
rounded group,’ ’ said Ken Harper, 
a former .Army specialist four. 
Before going to the Fort Sam center 
to train, Harper was a military 
policeman in Panama. In 1980 he 
was the 193rd Infantry Brigade’s 
triathlon champion. 

Harper’s goal is to make the 
1984 Olympic team. The national 


Fencing is one of the five events in 
which pentathletes compete. • Shooting 
takes concentration and mental prepara- 
tion. • Competitors Mike Storm and 1st 
Lt. Mike Burley congratulate each other 
after their cross-country run. Greg Losey 
watches. • Bottom, a pentathlete laces 
up for her cross-country race. 

competition helps narrow the field 
for the Olympic team. Military ath- 
letes also compete in the Interna- 
tional Council of Military Sports 
(CISM) competitions. 

“Good competitive swim- 
mers and runners are what we 
need,” said Lt. Col. Johnny P. 
Lingo, officer in charge of the train- 
ing center. “We can teach the other 
skills here. If soldiers are interested 
in applying to the center, they 
should apply through their channels 
For 90 days’ permissive TDY (tem- 
porary duty). That means they have 
:o pay for the trip. Then they come, 
’ down here for a tryout. 

“We provide them with the 
'I equipment, coaching and facilities,” 

I Lingo said. “It takes about two 
L i^ears to train an athlete to pen- 
1'1 athlon quality. This is a three-year 
^ stabilized tour.” 

Soldiers who think they qual- 
fy for training at the center may 
^ :heck Army Regulation 28-1 for ap- 
Dlication procedures. □ 




Compiled by SFC Norman J. Olivar 

_ , . „ \ .\y 

Linkster Klack Clicks 

FORT BRAGG, N.C. — SFC Mike Klack blasts his way out 
of a sand trap. Last summer Klack set the all-time ama- 
teur ringer record at 38 under par. A little-known statistic, 
the ringer count adds together the best score from each 
hole on the same 18-hole course during a player’s career. 

Record scores are verified by Golf Digest maga- 
zine. The old amateur mark was 37 under, and the pro 
record is 39 under. Golf Digest says the competition is 
open to golfers worldwide, but the scores must be on a 
course with a total of more than 6,000 yards. 

Klack took 27 months of play at the par-71, 
6,323-yard Mimosa Ridge Country Club in Hope Mills, 
N.C., to earn the No. 1 spot. A herniated disk caused the 
13-year Army vet to be removed from airborne status and 
affected his game. 

“Every time I swung it hurt. Sometimes I couldn’t 
even move after playing five holes,” Klack said. “It took 
me about three months to develop a flat swing that would 
relieve the pressure and pain in my back and then about 
two weeks longer to develop a good swing.” 

Klack aims at being one of the best left-handed 
golfers on the amateur circuit. — Sp5 Brian Kappmeyer 


Army Golfers Claim Crown 

WEST PALM BEACH, Fla. •— The All-Army golf team 
nipped Air Force by a single stroke to claim the overall liv 
terservice Golf championship. The 1 1-member Army team 
took 1,872 strokes in 72 holes of play at the 7,137-yard 
Professional Golfers’ Association National Golf Club 
course last September. 

One stroke also separated third-place Navy with 
1,940 strokes from the last-place Marines. 

Army’s open division team beat Air Force by 10 | 
strokes while women’s division and senior division teams 1 
both finished runners-up. 

Members of the All-Army team by division and top ^ 
standings in division: 

— Open Division: 1st Lt. Albert Johnson, Fort Sill, 
Okla., runner-up in championship; 1st Lt. Kevin Moylan, 
Fort Drum, N.Y., third place in championship; Maj. 
Samuel Adelman, Beaumont Army Medical Center, El 
Paso, Texas; Sgt. Lawrence Reece, Fort Bragg. N.C.; and 
Sgt. Jim Lucas, Europe. 

— Women’s division: Capt. Heather Davenport. 
Fort Banning, Ga., third place in championship; SSgi 
Lana Eggerding, Hawaii, and Sp4 Julie Zapf, Europe. 

— Senior Division: Lt. Col. Richard Harrel, Annis- 
ton Army Depot, Ala., runner-up in championship; Col. 
Troyce Raynes, Dallas, third place in championship; and 
CWO 3 Floyd Duncan, Europe. — Army News Service 

1983 All-Army Sports Calendar 

WASHINGTON — The Army will host the 1983 Interser- 
vice Championships in men's and women’s volleyball, 
women’s softball and boxing. All-Army teams are se- 
lected at sports trials. Application steps are in Army Reg- 
ulation 28-1. Also check with your local sports office 
Trials for powerlifting, wrestling, and men’s and women’s 
basketball are currently under way. The remaining Inals 
for men (M) and women (W). dates and locations are: 

Trial Camp 



Volleyball (M & W) 

Apr. 8 Apr. 30 

Fort Shatter. Hawaii 

Marathon (M & W) 

Apr. 17 Apr 30 

Fort Dix. N J 

Bowling (M & W) 

Apr. 17 Apr 30 

Fort Bliss. Texas 

Track & Field (M & W) 

Apr. 18-Jun. 5 

Presidio of San Francisco. 

Tennis (M & W) 

Jul. 4-Jul. 23 

Fort Eustis. Va 

Softball (M) 

Jul 14-Aug 6 

Presidio of San Francisco, 

Softball (W) 

Jul. 2l Aug. 13 

Fort Indiantown Gap. Pa 

Golf (M & W) 

Aug. 17 Aug 27 

Fort Sam Houston. Texas 

Soccer (M) 

Aug 22-Sepl 17 

Fort Bliss. Texas 

Boxing (M) 

Aug 9-Oci 25 


Racquetball (M & W) 

Oct 4-Oct 15 

To be determined 

— The Adjutant General's Office 


Story and Photos by Sp4 Tim Canny 

The 8th Infan- 
try Division 
honors one of 
its own, a 
World War II 
soldier whose 
remains were 
interred last 
year. A division 
plays “Echo 

• while, above, 
prepare to fold 
the flag drap- 
ing PFC Paul 

e moved slowly up through the chaos of the 
_ ^cold winter battlefield. 

J j Machine guns rattled off rounds and 

mortars rained steel on the hill, which was 
now a home for little more than mutilated tree 
stumps and craters. 

The 22-year-old soldier’s squad was assaulting a 
fortified hill that allowed the enemy to dominate routes 
into Holland, Belgium and Germany. 

Maneuvering with his squad, he approached a 
secluded hillside enemy bunker. As the first enemy 
rounds were fired from the bunker, the squad of sol- 
diers cautiously and steadily advanced on its objective. 

While moving to a forward position he felt a dull 
pain as his shoulder was jerked backwards. He was hit 

SPECIALIST FOUR TIM CANNY is the editor of Credentials, the 8th Infantry Division 
newspaper, Bad Kreuznach, West Germany. 



in the chest. As he fell to the ground, a mortar round ex- 
ploded close by, throwing him into a gully — dead. 

His body lay still as the debris of the raging battle 
slowly began to cover him from sight. PFC Paul Peter- 
nell would lie there for 37 years in hidden memoriam to 
the battle and the soldiers who died there. 

July 9, 1981 — Stefan Hoven, a 19-year-old resi- 
dent of the Bergstein-Hurtgenwald area of Germany, 
was using a metal detector to search Burg-Berg (Castle- 
Hill), the scene of heavy fighting almost 37 years before. 

When his instrument detected metal, he began 
digging in the area and found a steel helmet and human 
bones. Hoven contacted local authorities, who called a 
German explosive ordnance disposal team to exhume 
the remains. 

An almost complete human skeleton was recov- 
ered, along with the helmet, boots, a Combat Infantry- 
man’s Badge, a silver coin and identification tags in- 
scribed with the name, service number, blood type and 
religion of a World War II soldier. 

The remains were held at the Hurtgenwald Fried- 
hof (cemetery). The U.S. Army Memorial Affairs Ac- 
tivity, Europe, was contacted. 

“We examined the remains and determined that 
they were those of a U.S. World War II casualty,” said 
Ernest J. Demester, a mortuary identification specialist. 

“We used the ID tags as a starting point and sent 
for the medical and dental records of the soldier named 
on the tags. We could not use just the tags for positive 
identification,” he added. 

According to Demester, the dental records 
matched up almost perfectly. The remains were iden- 
tified as those of PFC Paul Peternell, serial number 
33395819, blood type B, and religion. Catholic. 

Peternell was an infantryman with Company C, 
121st Infantry Regiment of the 8th Infantry Division. 
The young soldier was reported missing in action on 
Dec. 9, 1944, during what was considered some of the 
most severe fighting encountered by the division during 

\^ orId War 11. ■ 

The exact circumstance of PeterBcil’s desh are ^ 
not really known and can only be surmised. Demester ■; 
speculated the private was probably killed on Dec 7. ■ 
but because of reporting procedures of the time wasn’t ■ 
listed as missing until two days later. Demesicrs check e 
of records shows no fighting in the Burg-Berg area <mi 1 
Dec. 9. I 

Peternell was born on June 9, 1922, in Ukon. 
Pa., and was 68!': inches tall. A search for other records 
proved fruitless (a possible result of a major fire in St. 
Louis several years ago that destroyed many old Army 
records). Little else is known about the soldier who was 
finally laid to rest on Jan. 13, 1982. 

At the request of his brother, Stanley, of Mil- 
waukee, Paul’s remains were interred with full military 
honors in the Ardennes American Cemetery, Liege, Bel- 

Perfect rows of headstones cast perfect rows of i 
shadows across the snow-quilted cemetery as the hearse- 
carried Peternell’ s remains to the grave site. Noticing 
the similarity of the weather to that on the date Peiemcil 
was killed, one of the many local visitors declared it a 
miracle honoring the soldier. ^ 

Soldiers of the 2nd Battalion, 13th Infanirv, 
another 8th Division unit that participated in the W’orkl 
War II battle, acted as pallbearers, color guard and fir- 
ing squad for the funeral. Two buglers from thedisision 
band played “Echo Taps” after the firing of a 21-gun 
salute. ' 

More than 100 local civilians of all ages turned 
out in the freezing weather to honor the long-lost soldier 
who gave his life so long ago for their freedom. Repre- 
sentatives of various Belgian veterans associations par- 
ticipated in the ceremony, dipping their organizational 
colors as they walked past the coffin at the grave site. 

After 37 years in silent memoriam to the many 
soldiers still missing. PFC Paul Peternell can now rest in 
peace among those with whom he fought. C 

Members of the fir- 
ing squad from the 
2nd Battalion, 13th 
Infantry, 8th Division, 
bow their heads dur- 
ing a eulogy for PFC 
Paul Peternell, a 
World War II member 
of the division. Bat- 
talion members also 
served as pallbearers 
and the color guard 
in the Liege, Bel- 
gium, ceremony. 



-EBRUARY1983 53 



• More and more people seem to be taking 
part in some form of exercise these days. Maybe 
you have wondered why all the sudden interest in 
exercise. What can it do for you? 

A well-planned exercise program can do a 
lot for you. It can develop an efficient cardio- 

vascular system and thus reduce your chance of 
heart disease. It can lower your blood pressure, 
relieve stress and tension, and control bod>’ fats 
more efficiently. It can also slow down the 
deterioration of bones and provide a day-to-day 
feeling of well-being. 

Many people make excuses. 'Tm too old to 
exercise," is one of them. Cardiologists and 
exercise physiologists say the benefits of exer- 
cise can be attained at any age. 

An exercise program should be tailored to 
your individual lifestyle. It should include 
activities you really will do. .An effective 
exercise program should also be aerobic in 
nature. This means that it must strengthen both 
the cardiovascular system and the ability of the 
body to use oxygen efficiently. The most 
common aerobic activities are running (to in- 
clude running in place), walking, jogging, cross- 
country skiing, swimming, bike riding, ice skat- 
ing, roller skating, rowing and aerobic dancing. 
One of these exercises must be a part of your 
exercise program. This is because the secret of 
good health through exercise is directly related 
to how well you use your oxygen supply. 

It's smart to plan your exercise program 
with the help of your doctor. Your doctor knows 
your physical strengths and weaknesses and can 
recommend the best type of exercise for you. 

Like most everything else, exercise can be 
overdone or badly handled. Here are some things 
to be aware of before doing any type of exercise. 

—Don't exercise after a serious illness until 
your doctor gives you the go-ahead. 

— Don't exercise under dangerous conditions 
such as icy surfaces, extreme cold, or excessive 
heat and humidity. Wait until the conditions are 
better or exercise indoors. 

—Wear the proper equipment for your type 
of exercise, such as good running shoes if you are 
into jogging. 

—.Avoid aerobic exercise for at least two 
hours after eating. The best time to exorcise is 
before a meal. 

.As a result of exercise, lots of people are 
living fuller, healthier lives. So can you. 

(From TRADOC Sews Service) 



(More What’s New on Pages 2, 56) 

Last Gas, 20 Miles 

• A new petroleum hoseline 
system, left, developed by the U.S. 
Army Mobility Equipment Research 
and Development Command, is 
capable of mechanically laying and 
picking up 6-inch fuel hoseline. 
Designed for tactical use, it can 
operate cross-country from a 5-ton 
truck to handle 20 miles of hoseline 
per day. 

Good Conduct 

• The Army is urging personnel 
people and unit commanders to 
ensure that soldiers eligible for the 
Good Conduct Medal receive it 
before leaving the Army. Soldiers 
who meet the criteria in Army 
Regulation 672-5-1 can be awarded 
the medal up to 30 days before 

Go Airborne! 

• The Army is looking for sol- 
diers in military occupational 
specialties 17K, 97B, 98C, 98J and 
95B to volunteer for airborne train- 
ing. Applicants must comply with 
procedure 3-19 in Army Pamphlet 
600-8, and meet the qualifications 
outlined in Chapter 6, Army Regu- 
lation 614-200. Volunteers will get 
a stabilized assignment to Fort 
Devens, Mass., or Fort Bragg, N.C., 
after airborne training. 

• Department of the Army has 
ordered commanders to eliminate 
activities that use government- 
owned equipment to duplicate 
copyrighted video tapes and audio 
recordings for personal use. Dead- 
line is Sept. 30. 

Excess Luggage Means Penalty 

• If you're going overseas on a Military Airlift Command flight, 
be ready to pay a fee if you have too much luggage. You're allowed 
two pieces of checked baggage and one carry-on item that must fit 
under your seat. Each piece must weigh no more than 70 pounds and 
cannot exceed a 62-inch width and girth limit. The duffel bag 
counts as one piece, but is exempt from the measurement limit. 

A penalty is charged any passengers whose luggage exceeds the 
weight, size or number limits. For example, soldiers traveling to 
Germany can expect to pay a penalty of $35-40 for each piece of 
excess luggage. 

Good News for Check-Cashers 

• Soldiers on leave or temporary duty from Europe can now cash 
personal checks for up to $500 at stateside military finance centers. 
The soldier's commander must certify on the leave orders that the 
individual has at least 60 days' service remaining and is authorized 
check-cashing privileges in the parent command. 

The commander's statement must also authorize collection by 
casual payment should the check be dishonored, and it must include 
the servicing finance office's number. The soldier may be asked to 
sign a similar consent for collection on the back of the check. 



CHAMPUS Changes Announced 

• Department of Defense (DOD) has announced cost-cutting 
changes to the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the 
Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS). 

One key change will further limit the use of civilian medical 
facilities by military families living near military hospitals. Cur- 
rently, families living within 40 miles of a military hospital must get 
a statement of non-availability before CHAMPUS will pay for non- 
emergency, inpatient care at a civilian hospital. 

Under the new rules those who live in designated ZIP codes 
around a military hospital will have to get a statement. Some 
families more than 40 miles out may have to obtain statements in 
the future. Families living 35-50 miles from a military hospital 
should check with the hospital to see if they are in a new zone. 

The metropolitan Washington, D.C., area will be considered 
one military hospital zone even though it has five such facilities. 
DOD did not say how far out the zone would extend. 

As a test of another cost-saving plan, the Army, Navy and Air 
Force will each pick one hospital to begin issuing non-availability 
statements for outpatient care, as well as inpatient care. 

In another test, DOD is looking at ways to cap CHAMPUS 
costs in Denver, Seattle, San Francisco and San Antonio. Under this 
plan, a limit will be set on the number of non-availability statements 
that can be issued in these areas. DOD officials said, however, that 
this will not limit the availability of civilian or military medical 
care for those families entitled to receive it. 

Check with your local CHAMPUS coordinator to see if you are 
affected by any of these changes. Some are in effect now, and 
others will be phased in over the next two years. 

PXs Nix Starch 

• The exchange service has in- 
structed its laundry and dry clean- | 
ing outlets not to starch battle ’ 
dress uniforms (BDUs). The Army 
says starch makes the garment 
hotter and destroys its ability to 
resist infrared detection. 

• Soldiers, active or reserve, 
must be in uniform when traveling 
on military aircraft, unless orders 
authorize the wear of civilian 
clothes. Air Force Regulation 35- 
K? states that leave authorizations 
for other than emergencies are not 
considered orders and may not en- 
title you to wear civilian clothes 
when on ordinary leave. 

• A display of photos and mem- 

orabilia of the famed all-Japanese- 
American 100th Infantry Battalion 
and 442nd Regimental Combat 
Team is at the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Natural History until 
July 30.' Unit members earned 
18,143 decorations (9,486 Purple 
Hearts) during World War 11. ' 

Sill Tests FIST-V 

• The Fire Support Team Vehicle (FlST-V), 
left, has been undergoing testing at Fort Sill. 
Okla. The FIST-V is designed to be used by 
artillery fire support teams, which are the "eyes" 
of the artillery. The FIST-V is an armored 
personnel carrier modified to carry a laser 
locator-designator. Once a team locks onto a 
target with the laser, digital communication 
equipment sends the exact target location to a 
TACFIRE computer in the fire direction center. 
The computer selects the firing unit and sends 
the mission to the Battery Computer System. 
The laser can also be used to pinpoint targets for 
laser-guided projectiles such as the Copp>erhead 
artillery round and HELLFIRE missile. Produc- 
tion of the FIST-V is expected to begin this year. 




The scene here is only a training exercise. The real nnedical 
evacuation, or medevac, may save your life some day. The life- 
saving skills belong to the soldiers — the combat medical 
specialists, or combat medics — who will get you to the 
waiting helicopter. Sometimes those skills lie in how quickly and 
ably the medics can get you to the bird. More often, though, 
it’s the first treatment they’ll give before you’re ever 
moved from the battlefield. Training these 91-Bravos is seri- 
ous, sophisticated business. Medics-to-be are taught the 
know-how at the Academy of Health Sciences, Fort Sam Houston, 
Texas. The story behind their training starts on Page 14. 



I MARCH 1983 





DEPos. copy 


PAGES 28, 31 


One day in the not too far off future, 
soldiers could be together from their initial 
entry training through their entire first 
enlistment. In fact, the seeds are being 
planted right now — in the COHORT pro- 
gram. COHORT, for cohesion, operational 
readiness and training, is about halfway 
through its evaluation period. SOLDIERS 
followed one unit from Ft. Carson, Colo., 
to duty in West Germany. The journey 

starts on page 10. 


MARCH 1983 VOLUME 38, NO. 3 

John 0. Marsh Jr. 

Secretary of the Army 

Gen. E.C. Meyer Maj. Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. Col. John E. Taylor 

Chief of Staff Chief of Public Affairs Chief, Command information 



I ® 

I 10 

[ 14 


I 18 

I 25 



I 28 

I 36 
, 40 




Weed: Career Killer 

Marijuana can cost you everything 

COHORT: One Big Happy Family 

High marks for a cohesive program 


Tanks and troops return to the streets and fields 

Mauldin Returns to the Front 

The GIs’ cartoon chronicler watches REFORGER 

Buck Sergeant Billey 

Reports of Willie’s death were greatly exaggerated 

Standards of Conduct 

The public trust comes first and foremost 

Fitness: Getting into Shape 

Passing PT tests isn’t all there is to it 

Soldier Physical Fitness Center 

Where the trainers learn to whip you into shape 

Together Again: Vietnam Vets 

The nation finally says, “Thanks” 

POMCUS: CEGE Keeps Them Ready 

Why those REFORGER vehicles work so well 

The 2nd Infantry Division 

They say they’re second to none 

Go Fly a Kite 

Down through the ages, it’s been up in the air 

Fort Sam: Yesterday and Today 

Home of Pershing, Eisenhower and Army medicine 


Bigger Than a Blood Bank 

The American Red Cross is so much more 



What’s New 






Sports Stop 




Lighter Side 

PAGE 50 

Credits: Front and inside back cover photos by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason; inside front cover photo by SSgt. Gary Kieffer; and 
back cover photo by SSgt. Terri Wiram. 

:Editor in Chief, Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor, Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor, Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor, 
Maj. Keith P. Schneider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Assistant Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SFC Norman Oliver, SSgt. 
'Victoria Mouze, SSgt. Terri Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer; Executive Secretary, Sharon Stewart; and Secretary, Dolores King. 

SOLDIERS, the Army’s official magazine, is published under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timely, factual information on policies, plans, operations 
land technical developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Department 
lof the Army civilian employees. It also conveys views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in 
[achieving information objectives of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is authorized to; Editor, SOLDIERS, Cameron 
[Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314. ■ Phone: AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial (202)-274-6672. ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for cartoons, “by permission" and 
[copyright items) material may be reprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. ■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military 
distribution: From the Army Adjutant General Publications Center, 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21220, in accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by com- 
manders. ■ Individual subscriptions: $31 annually to stateside and APO addresses; $38.75 to foreign addresses. ■ Individual paid subscriptions are available through the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department of the Army, 
Dec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number: UA 23.A1S6. ■ SOLDIERS (ISSN 0093-8440) is mailed monthly at second-class rate from Alexandria, Va., and elsewhere. 

Foam Dome 

• Army engineers are exploring 
the possibility of using domes of 
quick-drying polyurethane foam, 
sprayed on an inflated shell, to 
replace tents and other temporary 
structures. The igloo-shaped 
domes, like the one being built at 
the right, can be fitted with all the 
comforts of home, from windows 
and doors to air conditioning and 
heating. The test dome has a 28- 
foot diameter and more than 600 
square feet of floor space. 

Cost of the dome is $3 to $5 
per square foot, which is competi- 
tive with the cost of general pur- 
pose medium tents. Unlike a tent, 
though, it can't be folded up and 
taken along on a deployment. 
Soldiers may some day call the 
dome home if the idea works. 

Army Tests Throwaway Regs 

• Guardsmen, reservists and 

veterans are not exempt from Se- 

• Army Reserve Component units are now getting copies of 

lective Service registration. All | 

"throw-away" regulations in a one-year test to reduce paperwork. 

males born in 1960 or later, who r 

The regs are in a publication called the Reserve Component 

are at least 18 years old must 

personnel "Update." It looks like a phone book and contains selected 

register. Veterans must register 

regs and changes that are important to people working on Reserve 

within 30 days of release from j 

Component personnel matters at the unit level. "Update" . will be 

active duty, unless they registered 

revised six times during 1983. 

before entering the Armed Forces. | 

Each issue makes the previous one disposable, eliminating the 

Registration forms are available at 

need to post changes. Aside from reducing paperwork, the 

post offices. 

throwaway method ensures that each unit has current information. 
If the test works, the idea could be applied Armywide. 

• The commissary surcharge 

goes up to 5 percent April 1, 1983. 

• Soldiers who are assigned overseas and those on temporary 

The surcharge, which has been 4 

duty who are granted emergency leave may benefit from a change to 

percent since 1976, is used to pay 

the Joint Travel Regulation. Change 361 permits round-trip 

operating expenses such as tele- 

commercial transportation when government-procured transporta- 

phones, utilities, ptaper bags, shop- 

tion is not reasonably available and the cost is not more than 

ping carts and display cases. It 

government-procured transportation. The change includes the travel 

also pays for maintenance of re- 

of family members. Round-trip commercial transportation may also 

frigeration units, equipment pur- 

be approved for command-sponsored family members to accompany 

chases, spoilage and pilferage | 

a soldier who is authorized emergency leave travel at government 

losses. Customers paid about $S9 j 


million in surcharges in FY 82. 



Compiled by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

(More What’s New on Pages 54-56) 

Apply for Warrant 

• The Army plans to appoint 
about 1,800 new warrant officers 
this fiscal year. Ninety-seven per- 
cent of warrant appointments go to 
enlisted soldiers. Warrant positions 
call for people who hold particular 
skills and specialized knowledge. If 
you are interested in the program, 
check with your military personnel 
officer and review Circular 601-82- 
13, which gives prerequisites and 
explains how to apply. 

Bad Check Fee Up 

• People who write bad checks 
to the Army and Air Force Ex- 
change Service (AAFES) will now 
have to pay a $15 service charge 
instead of $10. Last year one out 
of every 200 checks received by 
AAFES bounced the first time it 
was sent to the bank. The $14.93 
cost of handling each check de- 
creased what AAFES was able to 
give morale, welfare and recre- 
ation funds. 

Hotline for Maintenance Problems 

• Anniston Army Depot, Ala., has a hotline to assist with 
operation and maintenance problems with combat vehicles, small 
arms, and missile guidance and control systems. 

Systems include land combat control systems, M-48 and M-60 
tanks, small arms, ground TOW, TOW Cobra, Dragon, Lance and 
Shillelagh. The depot will analyze problems and work with the caller 
for a solution. The hotline AUTOVON number is 694-6582. A 
recording device offers callers round-the-clock service. 

After clearing your problem with your installation logistics 
assistance officer or field maintenance technicians, call the hotline 
and give your name, AUTOVON number, unit identification, unit 
location and a complete description of the problem. 

Uniforms Required on DOD Planes 

• You have to be in uniform to fly in aircraft owned or 
controlled by the Department of Defense whether travel is in a 
leave or official status. 

Civilian clothes may only be worn when required by the Air 
Force foreign clearance guide or appendix E of Army Regulation 
(AR) 670-1. 

Exceptions may be granted only by one of the authorities listed 
in paragraph l-4a, AR 670-1, or when a service member's military 
specialty requires the wear of civilian clothes. Authority to wear 
civilian clothes must be stated in official travel orders. Remarks on 
the leave form will not suffice. This policy applies to space 
available travel as well as space required. 

Alaska Guard Gets ACV 

• The Alaska Army National Guard's new air 
cushion vehicle (ACV), at the left, throws up a 
cloud of powder snow during a test run outside 

The vehicle will be used to provide logistic 
support to Guard detachments along the coast of 
the Bering Sea and rivers in the Kuskokwim 
Valley, west of Anchorage. After more testing 
and evaluation, the Alaska Guard may also use 
ACVs in the north and northwest areas of the 

The ACV, equipped with radar and elec- 
tronic navigational aids, and marine and single 
side-band radios, can operate in day or night. 
The ACVs will also be used for search and rescue 
during inclement weather. 



I am responding to PFC Andrew M. 
Roy's letter in Feedback, December 

Althaugh PFC Roy is basically 
correct in his assumption that combat 
type boots may be more appropriate 
than the tennis shoe for combat readi- 
ness, there is a more important con- 
sideration in any discussion of physical 
preparedness of the soldier. 

There are significant studies done 
by physical therapists both in and out 
of the service to indicate that wearing 
of combat-style boots is a primary 
source of stress fractures. The Army 
is a big business and time-loss acci- 
dents cost the taxpayers many 
thousands of dollars each year for 
medical treatment, lost time and prep- 
aration of troops: It is a small trade- 
off to wear tennis/running shoes or 
other appropriate low cut combat 
boots to train with, such as the old 
boondockers we had in the Marine 

This is a step in the right direction 
from a medical standpoint. There is a 
correlation between the soldier and 
the athlete in terms of training. This 
relationship is adaptable to troop 
performance in the physical training 

Maj. Charles F. Moyer, USAR 
Horseheads, N.Y. 

Having just read the December 
1982 issue of SOLDIERS, I came upon 
PFC Andrew M. Roy's view of tennis 
shoes. He asks, "Will the soldier 
carrying a 23-pound machine gun be 
able to survive in combat without his 
tennis shoes?" Answer, of course he 
will. But if running on pavement has 
caused stress fractures and he has a 
profile prohibiting him from being an 
infantryman, where does that leave 
him? The tennis shoes idea was 
developed so we can maintain our 

fitness and be combat ready! C'mon 
PFC Roy, I'm a supply sergeant and 
even I know that. 

Sgt. Anthony Valenzuela 
Pine Bluff Arsenal, Ark. 

“I don’t care if you have a note 
from your mother ... I'm not 
excusing you from physical training!" 

I was pleased to see that you and 
the U.S. Army have finally honored 
Colonel Floyd James Thompson. 
Colonel Thompson has for years quiet- 
ly ignored the fact that the U.S. 
military has allowed others to be 
described as "America's longest held 

Many semi-official publications of 
the various services have continually 
done articles on other service mem- 
bers, describing them as "America's 
longest held POW." What always 
amazed me was the Army's lack of 
response to these articles. Floyd 

Thompson certainly would rwt set the 
record straight himself. He is too 
damned proud. But r*ow you hove gone I 
far in your fine publication to put 
things right. I thank you for ttwt. 
Floyd Thompson is one of my few 
heroes. During my time in prison, he 
was a motivator for me. He hod been 
in jail so long that any shorter time 
seemed insignificont in comparison. 
While reoding your article, I thought 
how there ore two types of military 
men: those who serve to benefit 

themselves, making all the right 
career rrxrves along the way, ond those 
who are just "damned good soldiers." 
That's Floyd Thompson — a "damned 
good soldier." 

Maj. Mark A. Smith 

APO San FrorKisco 

We at SOLDIERS couldn’t agree 



Reference the article "So Long 01' 
Pot" by MSgt. Mike Mason (November 
1982). As ammunition inspectors ot 
Fort Bliss, Texas, we feel his article 
was humorous except for his reference | 
to the unserviceable claymore that fell 
apart. Our concern is that SOLDIERS 
is widely read by new soldiers and 
those unfamiliar with the hozords of | 
C-4 and any other explosive. Ammuni- 
tion inspectors, military and civilian, 
are greatly concerned with ammuni- 
tion/explosive safety. A light humor 
reference to an unsafe act such as that j 
which was widely done in Vietnom 
doesn't justify printing it. We're sur- 
prised we didn't read about how much 
fun it is to stamp out burning C-A. 

In a publication such as yours, any 
reference to such octs must not be 
printed except os a warning so it won't 
be done. A soldier will remember 
reading about it and drop o cloymore 
or break it open to get the C-A for 




i fuel, and he or she goes up in a puff. 

Please watch more closely what is 
printed for the sake of humor. We 
need to stress ammunition safety, and 
that could be a recurring theme in 
your publication. 

Other than that, your publication is 
first rate, so keep up the good work. 
SFC Edward C. Keeser 
Frank 0. Stanway 
SSgt. (P) Johnnie M. Hernandez 
Fort Bliss, Texas 

You are right. Ammunition and 
■ explosives are not toys. They should 
be used only in the proper manner and 
after proper training. Thanks for the 


In reference to "Getting Into the 
Spirit" and "Dateline: Little Big Horn" 
(October 1 982), pages 45-46 mentioned 
some of the Fort Leavenworth spirits, 
i In fact, page 45 was limited to men- 
' tioning those of Fort Leavenworth. 

Many service people have been 
confined at the Disciplinary Barracks 
at Fort Leavenworth; but like page 45, 
I'll limit my discussion to the free 
spirits at Fort Leavenworth. SSgf. 
Victoria Mouze failed to mention those 
who inhabit the Indian Mummy Trail at 
Camp Miles on Fort Leavenworth. 

Although the ghosts along the 
Indian Mummy Trail have not appeared 
before as many eyes as "The Lady in 
Black," these ghosts of the free Indian 
spirits should not be discounted. Many 
a settler was killed by an arrow shot 
by unseen Indians. It is doubtful that 
the courageous Indian braves would 
want to be seen in their Happy Hunting 
Ground but not during their prior lives. 

In any event, while reading "Date- 
line: Little Big Horn" and seeing 

General Miles' name, I was reminded 
. that your readers might like to be 
^ made aware that General Miles has the 

distinction of being "The" peacemaker 
with the Indians. SSgt. Mouze might 
like to wake up some of those spirits 
on the Indian Mummy Trail by writing 
an article about the many accomplish- 
ments of General Miles. 

Thomas P. Strider 

APO Miami 

Thanks for the tip regarding 
General Miles. We'll look into the 
story, and if it has a ghost of a chance, 
we will give it a run. 

“This is Sergeant Jennings, 
your camouflage instructor.” 

In your What's New section of 
February 1981, it was mentioned that 
certificates of promotion for non-com- 
missioned officers were to be issued, I 
think, starting October 1980. I do not 
remember the AR or the DA form 
number, but I was promoted in January 
to sergeant first class, and no one in 

my unit's S-l shop seems to know how 
to get a hold of this form. 

Could you help the NCO corps get 
the recognition it deserves? 

SFC John W. Honeywell, USAR 

Gaithersburg, Md. 

The certificates can be ordered 
through normal publications supply 

DA Form 4874 is used for specialist 
promotions, and DA Form 4872 is used 
for NCO promotions. 

For more information on the cer- 
tificates, see paragraph 7-66, AR 600- 
200 . 


I am writing to you in regard to 
your article on the Kevlar helmets. I 
wish to know more about these new 
helmets. Also, if I have to write to 
another address for the Kevlar, please 
let me know. 

I'm with C Battery, 1st Battalion, 
180th Field Artillery, Arizona Army 
National Guard, and we have a lot of 
real gungho guys and high morale. 
Because we're the best, I thought 
maybe I could find out if we could get 
the Kevlar helmets for our unit on a 
test run basis. 

Sp4 Michael A. Thomas 

Tempe, Ariz. 

The proponent office for the 
Kevlar helmet is the Office of Deputy 
Chief of Staff for Logistics, Services 
Branch, Attn: DALO-TST-B, Waking- 
ton, D.C. 20310. 

SOLDIERS is for soldiers and DA civilians. We invite 
readers' views. Stay under 150 words— a postcard wiil 
do— and inciude your name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name it you desire and may condense 
views because of space. We can't publish or answer 
every one but we'll use representative views. Send 
your letter to: Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, 
Alexandria, VA 22314. 

MARCH 1983 


Story by Faith Faircloth 
Illustrations by Anne Genders 

‘‘I had it all and 
now everything’s 
ruined. . . . You looT 
back and say, 
‘Damn, man, I wish 
I hadn’t lost it 
all.’ I just wish 
it didn’t happen.” 

i of basic training, at the top of my 
class, . . . honor graduate in AIT, 
‘maxed’ all my tests. I got 100 per- 
cent on my SQT. I’ve got a stack of 
I letters an inch thick. I went to the 
j E-5 board in two years — which is 
, an accomplishment for anybody — 
and they failed me. They failed me 
because of my Article 15.” 

“Dan,” a 22-year-old, is only 
one of the many soldiers busted this 
j year for drugs. 

“I had it all and now every- 
! thing’s ruined,” he continued. 

' “There’s no use kidding around. I’ll 
never be able to pick up where f was 
before. I can’t stay in because I 
can’t go anywhere, so I’ve got to get 
out. I guess it can happen to other 
people. I’m sure it has. I wish I 
could change that, I really do.” 

I The negative results of mari- 

juana use on a soldier’s career are 
inevitable. The debate rages on 
about the weed’s health effects. 

! Dan admitted that some of 

; the medical evidence scared him. 
“But when you’re using drugs, 
you’re blocked away from that 
stuff,” he said. “You’re in your 
I own little world, and your mind is 
I bent so that drugs become the most 
important thing in your life.” 

I Maj. Lee Barnes of the 

Army’s Drug and Alcohol Technical 
Activity in Falls Church, Va., agrees 
I with Dan. 

“Marijuana has the effect of 
making people think they’re per- 
forming better than they actually 
are,” he said. “There’s a feeling of 
well-being created by the drug that 
makes people think they’re doing 
well, when actually there are all 
kinds of physical things affecting 
1 them. Their depth perception, short- 
i term memory and ability to do com- 
I plex tasks are altered, and reaction 
time is slowed. All of these happen 
j without the individual realizing it.” 
“Carla” is a 25-year-old ser- 
geant who started using marijuana 
after she joined the Army. “It was a 

strange place and the people were 
strange. I did it to fit in,” she said. 
“I only smoked one or two joints a 
month, and never on the job.” 
Carla’s company had a urinalysis 
test. Carla came up positive, one 
week after smoking a joint. 

“1 didn’t worry about the 
health effects,” Carla said. “It’s 
just like tobacco and alcohol. You 
know it may cause a problem, but 
that’s a long way down the road. 
You face it when you come to it. 
They’ll probably have a cure for it 
by then anyway. 

“I quit because I don’t want 
to risk my career,” she said. “1 
think the fear of an Article 15 makes 
more people quit than anything 

“It’s hard to tell healthy 
18-or 19-year-olds that smoking 
marijuana is going to have a serious 
effect on them,” Barnes said. 
“They don’t know that. They can’t 
feel that. At 19, you’re immortal — 
you’re going to live forever. 

“Tell them the continual 
buildup of THC (tetrahydrocan- 
nabinol, the ‘high’ ingredient in 
marijuana) will affect their repro- 
ductive systems and cause all kinds 
of problems,” he said. “Tell women 
it can affect their menstrual cycles 
and their ability to bear children. 
Tell men it can create abnormal 
sperm, lower sperm count and tes- 
tosterone levels. 

“At the same time, they’re 
reading in Penthouse and Playboy 
that marijuana arouses sexual de- 
sire. They believe what they want to 
believe, because they enjoy the high 
and feel no immediate ill effects,” 
Barnes said. “So, over a period of 
time, they damage their bodies.” 

“Bill” is a 22-year-old spe- 
cialist four who started smoking 
marijuana in high school. He was 
busted recently for possession, and 
thinks marijuana could be a prob- 
lem for a lot of people. 

“The Army’s setting a lot of 
examples lately by putting people 

out,” he said. “I think the Army’s 
fair about kicking people out for re- 
peated offenses. They could catch a 
lot more people. 

“Really, all it takes is to tell 
them, ‘you’re going to be out if you 
don’t quit.’ 1 think when they know 
their urine’s going to be tested at 
any moment of the day, any day of 
the week, that’s going to make them 
think,” he said. “It’s a scare, it’s a 
threat, but it worked on me. 

“They haven’t found enough 
things healthwise that can scare a 
person. It (marijuana) results in loss 
of memory. I had that. But the best 
thing you can tell them is, ‘We’re 
going to be there, and you’re not go- 
ing to know when.’ ” 

And that’s just what the 
Army is doing. A urinalysis test can 
be ordered for one soldier or an en- 
tire company anytime a commander 
thinks drugs are being used. And 
when a whole company or unit is 
tested, people like Carla, who 
smoked one joint a week earlier, are 
going to be caught. 

“A lot of soldiers don’t 
know THC is not eliminated from 
the body the way alcohol is,” said 
Barnes. “Instead, it’s stored in the 
fat cells of the body, in the brain 
and in the reproductive organs. If 
you smoke a joint today, it may be 
three or four days before half that 
joint is washed away and take up to 
six weeks before the THC is entirely 
eliminated from your body.” 

If soldiers have a positive 
urinalysis, they are referred to the 
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Preven- 
tion and Control Program (AD- 
APCP) for screening. After the 
screening, they’re interviewed by an 
ADAPCP counselor and their com- 
mander. It’s entirely up to com- 
manders at that point to decide what 
to do. Soldiers can be referred to 
ADAPCP for treatment, given an 
Article 15 or court-martialed. 

Even if soldiers are referred 
to ADAPCP for treatment, they are 
still subject to other administrative 

MARCH 1983 


actions. If that’s not enough, amend- 
ments last year to the "Manual for 
Courts-Martial” almost tripled the 
maximum punishments for many 
drug-related offenses. 

The new laws carry a maxi- 
mum punishment of confinement at 
hard labor for five years, forfeiture 
of all pay and allowances, and a dis- 
honorable discharge for possession 
of more than 30 grams (about an 
ounce) of marijuana, or growing it. 
or introducing it onto a military in- 

Possession of less than 30 
grams, or use of marijuana, is now 
punishable by a maximum of con- 
finement at hard labor for two 
years, forfeiture of all pay and al- 
lowances, and a dishonorable dis- 

The maximum punishment 
for wrongful distribution or wrong- 
ful possession with intent to distrib- 
ute marijuana is confinement at 
hard labor for 15 years, forfeiture 
of all pay and allow ances, and a dis- 

Not a Harmless Drug 

"MARIJUANA Is Not a Harmless Drug," according to the 
Institute of Medicine report "Marijuana and Health 
1982"; the National Institute on Drug Abuse research 
monograph "Marijuana Research Findings; 1980"; and 
the National Academy of Science Committee on Sub- 
stance Abuse and Habitual Behavior report “An Analysis 
of Marijuana Policy: 1982": 

• Marijuana smoking damages lung arxl brorKhial 

• Marijuana has adverse effects on the heart 

• Marijuana may reduce the body’s immurte re- 
sponse to various infections and diseases 

• Heavy use of marijuana decreases the levels of sex 
hormones in both males and females. 

• Marijuana accumulation in the body may affect 
brain function. 

• Marijuana use interferes with psychomotor furK- 

• The active ingredients of marijuana accumulate in 
the body. 

• Heavy marijuana users develop a tolerance to the 

• A known cancer-causing agent found in tobacco 
smoke is 70 percent more abundant in marijuana. 





honorable discharge. 

“John” started smoking 
marijuana in the fifth grade. “It 
didn’t affect my job,” said the 
21 -year-old corporal. “A regular 
user can do anything he wants and 
no one will even know he’s high.” 
John was sent to ADAPCP by his 

“He said I must be on drugs 
or something because I was drag- 
ging my tail and was late for forma- 
tion a couple of times. Marijuana 
doesn’t affect your performance, 
but it makes you tired when you’re 
coming down,” John said. 

“It’s easy to rationalize,” 
Barnes said. “If you’ve been smok- 
ing marijuana since you were 12 or 
15 and you’re now 21 and don’t feel 
any ill effects, obviously everything 
you’re told is contrary to what you 
want to believe.” 

“Bob” is a 24-year-old spe- 
cialist four who volunteered for 
ADAPCP. “My wife objected to 
me smoking pot and it was causing 
other problems in my life,” he said. 
“The people here have helped me. 
They’ve helped me set some goals in 
my life. 

“Marijuana didn’t really af- 
fect my work, but a lot depends on 
what you’re doing. I wouldn’t want 
to be on the firing range with some- 
one stoned.” 

As far as being frightened 
by the health hazards. Bob said: 
“There’s too much confusion about 
it. They (the Army) say one thing. 
NORML (National Organization 
for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) 
says another. I don’t think anybody 
really knows.” 

“There’s been a lot of mari- 
juana research in recent years,” said 
Barnes. “But, quite honestly, we’re 
playing catch-up. We did the early 
research, and then there was a sort 
of flat period where we did nothing. 
And now, all of a sudden, we realize 
that the potency of marijuana today 
is extremely high and extremely dan- 

“Most of the research was 
done when the THC content of mari- 
juana we were finding was .2 to .4 
percent — in the 60s and early 70s. 
The strength of marijuana is now 
much, much higher — more than 4 
percent in 1980. So what people are 
putting in their bodies now is 10 to 
20 times stronger. It has significant 
health effects, particularly as far as 
what THC does.” 

A recent Newsweek maga- 
zine article, “Guns, Grass and 
Money,” reports that American 
weed is now among the finest and 
most sought-after marijuanas in the 
world, yielding a THC content as 
high as 12 or 13 percent. 

“Jim,” a 20-year-old special- 
ist four, didn’t use marijuana until 
AIT (advanced individual training). 
“The friends I got involved with 
would offer it,” he said. “In the 
beginning 1 would say no, but the 
more friends I had, the harder it 
became.” Jim spent seven months 
in the ADAPCP after a positive uri- 

“I never smoked on duty, 
but I could tell it was affecting my 
job. The next day I would feel like 1 
had a hangover, and it was getting 
to the point where I knew I had 
something to do, but I’d forget all 
about it,” he said. “It would be 
hard for anyone to smoke mari- 
juana and do their job. You’re not 
there. When you’re stoned, you’re 
there physically, but not mentally.” 

Jim feels strongly that the 
Army is no place for marijuana. “I 
think the Army should have started 
punishment a long time ago. They 
should have started it when they 
were first able to prove a positive 
urinalysis,” he said. 

“Right now, it’s almost im- 
possible to beat marijuana. If 
they’re going to beat it, they’ve got 
to start right now,” Jim asserted. “I 
think the NCOs are going to have 
to get more involved. Our com- 
mander’s taking affirmative action, 
but it’s not filtering down. 

“You can’t have an Army if 
you’re going to have marijuana. It’s 
as simple as that,” he concluded. 

“Chuck,” a 20-year-old spe- 
cialist five, started smoking mari- 
juana when he was 16. He smoked 
more after entering the Army be- 
cause of the availability. 

“It didn’t affect my job, but 
I don’t think people can do their job 
if they’re using it, especially when 
they’re high,” Chuck said. 

The health effect didn’t scare 
Chuck. What scared him was the 
night the MPs stopped him at the 
gate and searched his car. 

“I was lucky number seven 
coming through the gate,” he said. 
“They were checking every seventh 
car that night. They searched my car 
and found it — right in the glove 
compartment. What a dumb place 
to put it. 

“About a month later I got 
an Article 15. I could have been 
court-martialed. I was busted to E-4 
and fined $600. It wasn’t worth it.” 
It took more than a year for Chuck 
to regain his rank. 

Dan is getting out of the 
Army because he feels his career is 
ruined. He summed it up: 

“It’s too bad. It’s just too 
bad. You look back and say, ‘Damn, 
man, I wish I hadn’t lost it all.’ 1 
just wish it didn’t happen. Some- 
times I just sit back and wish I 
hadn’t had to go through it, because 
it didn’t get me anywhere. And you 
try and tell people. I mean, you tell 
them your own story, and they just 
don’t want to listen. 

“People — you have to edu- 
cate them when they’re young. 
There’s no use educating those al- 
ready into it because their brains are 
in another world and they’re not go- 
ing to listen. All they want is their 
pot and drugs. 

“I’m glad the Army’s getting 
them out. I think it’s going to make 
a better Army. When 1 get out, I 
want to make sure somebody’s fight- 
ing who knows what he’s doing.” □ 

MARCH 1983 


Sgt Ma; M lie Mason 


Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

Under the Army’s current 
assignment policies, you 
might be assigned to a unit 
for as little as six months to a 
year. But there are groups of 
soldiers now who spend three 
years together in one unit. 

THERE’S a special heaven for 
green tabbers. 

Green tabbers are the leaders 
in combat arms units — so called 
because of the bits of green felt they 
alone are allowed to wear on their 
shoulder loops. 

In that special heaven, squad 
leaders get to train their people and 
keep them. 

Squad leaders smile when 
they hear “ARTEP” (Army Train- 
ing and Evaluation Program). They 
know their soldiers have been 
thoroughly trained, and the squad 
won’t be wiped out by overseas 
levies and discharges just before the 
evaluation comes up. 

Company commanders smile 
a lot too. They never hear a squad 
leader say he’s not ready for the 
company ARTEP because he has 
too many guys who aren’t up to 
snuff on individual skills. These 

commanders get to concentrate on 
company-level training rather than 
watch their soldiers go through in- 
dividual and squad training again 
and again, trying to stay ahead of 
people turnovers. 

No one ever sees a soldier 
who needs a haircut or is wearing a 
ragbag uniform. 

Soldiers help keep each other 
straight. They become friends rather 
than short-term associates. 

So seldom do these soldiers 
get into trouble, the company com- 
mander has to refresh his memory 
on Article 15 procedures when he 
has to discipline someone. Morale 
and esprit are always high. 

Soldiers come to know and 
trust their leaders, and readily go to 
them for help with their personal 

l-'irst sergeants have forgot- 
ten what has to be done when a sol- 

dier goes absent without lea\e 

Wait I Put down that razor 


You don't have to die to go 
to units like that. The .\rmy has 
been creating them right here on 
earth since 1981 . They're called CO- 
HORT units. 

COHORT stands for cohe- 
sion. operational readiness and train- 
ing. It's a system aimed at improving 
unit training and operational readi- 
ness through cohesion and stability. 

That cohesion is created by 
recruiting soldiers and keeping them 
together in company-size combat 
arms units for their entire first 
enlistment. They take initial entry 
training (lET) as a group at the 
same post. 

.After lET, they join a cadre 
of non-commissioned officers 
(NCOs) and officers to form a CO- 



HORT unit. Some of the units rotate 
overseas for the last half of their life- 
cycle. Others remain in the United 
States for the entire three years. 

At the end of the three-year 
cycle, some of the first-termers will 
separate from the service. Everyone 
else will go on to new assignments, 
and a new COHORT unit will re- 
place the old. 

The NCO cadre is stabilized 
for the three-year cycle. Officer re- 
assignments are kept to a minimum, 
though officer professional develop- 
ment requires some movement. 

With this kind of stability, a 
rifle squad, tank crew or artillery 
crew may have to be trained just 
once as a group. The entire process 
won’t have to be repeated every few 
months because of turnovers. 

“Training a unit is like build- 
ing a pyramid,’’ explained Capt. 
Lawrence M. Gelhausen. He is the 
commander of Company A, 2nd 
Battalion, 66th Armor, 2nd Ar- 
mored Division (Forward), the first 
COHORT unit to be sent overseas. 

“You build a base with in- 
dividual skills,’’ he said. “On top of 
that, you have trained platoons, and 
a trained company is the top of the 

“Transfers and separations 
remove stones from the bottom, 
i Pull enough stones from the base 
and the pyramid starts falling,’’ 
Gelhausen said. 

COHORT units don’t have 
I that problem. They conduct some 
refresher training to keep skills up. 
“But we’ve never had to start all 
over again,’’ he said. 

“It seems you train them 
once, and that’s it,’’ said SFC Roger 
Steele, a platoon sergeant. “Maybe 
iyou need a little refresher training, 
but you have time to get into other 
Ithings. You can’t do that when you 
ihave a guy for six months to a year. 
Usually, with the turnover of guys, 
you have no time for personal inter- 
action, NBC (nuclear, biological 
land chemical training), or adventure 
itraining. Just shoot and move — 
ithat’s all you can train on. 

“With these guys, you have a 
personal interest,’’ Steele contin- 
ued. Knowing that their squads and 
platoons are going to remain intact. 

NCOS seem to work harder to hone 
their people’s skills. That extra effort 
shows up in evaluations such as the 
SQT (skill qualification test). “My 
platoon averaged 94-point-some- 
thing,’’ Steele said. “The company 
average is 92-something as a whole.’’ 

The unit’s ARTEP evalua- 
tion was outstanding and its tank 
gunnery surpasses Army standards, 
according to Steele. 

“Little things that make up 
the Army — ARTEPs, SQTs, gun- 
nery — are just indicators of what 
we can do. There’s nothing the 
Army can throw at us that we can’t 

This kind of enthusiasm and 
confidence carries over into other 
areas of military life. Although 
every unit in the Army has Article 
15s or AWOLs, COHORT compa- 
nies tend to have far fewer. Steele 
said he has little or no disciplinary 

“Maybe it’s the interper- 
sonal relationships,’’ he said. “As 
they grow, you grow with them. I 
know these guys and their families. 

“Never in my military career 
have I had the confidence I have 
now,’’ Steele remarked. “I’d go 
anywhere with them or for them. 
They’re my heroes. I love ’em.’’ 

The camaraderie also shows 
up in the lower ranks in COHORT 
units. PFC David Goldsberg of 
Company A attributes his platoon’s 
training success to his platoon ser- 

“He’s good,’’ Goldsberg 
said. “He knows what he’s doing. 
We just got out of Fort Irwin, and 
our platoon did real well because of 
him. He has trained us. And we do 
well because we’re good. We were 
supposedly the first battalion to win 
six out of seven battles at Irwin.’’ 
(Fort Irwin, Calif., is home to the 
National Training Center.) 

Goldsberg sees his unit as 
having a little bit more military 
bearing than non-COHORT units. 
Soldiers in the company know 
what’s expected of them and help 
keep each other straight. 

“If something’s wrong with 
your uniform, somebody will tell you 
about it,’’ Goldsberg said. “Our first 
sergeant is pretty strict on haircuts. 

so nobody lets it get too long.” 

“It’s almost a big brother, 
little brother situation,” added Cpl. 
Paul Atchley. “Sometimes there’s a 
scrap, but like with brothers, it’s 
squared away the next day.” 

COHORT success and en- 
thusiasm aren’t confined to just one 

Similar comments can be 
heard from soldiers in the 1st Battal- 
ion (Mechanized), 11th Infantry, 
4th Infantry Division (Mechanized), 
Fort Carson, Colo. That battalion 
was the first to get and train three 
COHORT companies at once. Each 
company had to conduct its own 
AIT and turn the trainees into 
mechanized infantry soldiers in 10 
weeks. As the trainees grew, so did 
the NCOs who taught them. 

“Because the NCOs had to 
train their own troops, they became 
more responsive,” said 1st Sgt. 
Arnold A. Colville of Company A, 
1st Battalion. “They’ve become 

Members of COHORT Company C, 1st 
Battalion, 11th Infantry, Fort Carson, 
Colo., inspect their personnel carrier. 

MARCH 1983 


SSgt Gary Klefler 

Youngsters play in a waiting area at McGuire Air Force Base, N.J., while their parents 
prepare for a flight to Germany. COHORT units generally deploy as a group — families 
and all. This is only one of the program’s good features. 

more responsive to the needs of the 
troops, military as well as personal. 
They’ve become a lot more profi- 
cient. They know this soldier be- 
longs to them, and they’ve done a 
heck of a lot better job.” 

COHORT stability has made 
the unit more willing to send sol- 
diers to local schools for added 
training, Colville said. Every squad 
in the company now has a man who 
has been to NBC school and every 
platoon has a man who has been to 
armorer school. 

“Before, you might not have 
sent a man to school because he 
might get levied in three or four 
months,” Colville said. “Being able 
to get these people to schools has 
been a big help to us.” 

Training the entire battalion 
as mechanized infantrymen from 
the start enables the battalion to 
maintain its vehicles better, accord- 
ing to Maj. Robert E. Andrews, ex- 
ecutive officer. 

“As infantrymen, we are 
often criticized that we don’t main- 
tain our (armored personnel) car- 
riers well,” Andrews said. “But we 
maintain our carriers well.” The 
soldiers were impressed with the im- 
portance of keeping vehicles up 
from the first day. Tlie best man 

from each squad was picked as 

“It was an honor to be se- 
lected as driver,” Andrews said. 

There are other benefits to 
stabilization. Soldiers have the 
chance to build lasting friendships. 
When his soldiers gathered at 
McGuire Air Force Base, N.J., for 
their flight to Germany, it was like a 
family reunion, Gelhausen said. 
Having been apart during their 
30-day leaves, his soldiers gathered 
in groups, passed around pictures 
and shared leave stories. In con- 
trast, individual soldiers who were 
going to Germany sat around the 
terminal looking lonely and bored, 
waiting for their Bights. 

Moving as a unit has other 
advantages. First Sgt. Jake Fryer 
cleared the entire company himself 
in about three hours. The passport 
people came to the company and 
processed family members all at 

When the unit arrived in Ger- 
many, the 2nd Armored Division 
(Forward) had processing stations 
set up in the recreation center. 

Processing was quick for im- 
mediate needs, such as ration and 
meal cards, partial pays and cur- 
rency exchanges. 

Within a few hours after 
their arris al. the soldiers were 
resting in their barracks or family 
quarters. Processing was completed 
the next day, and the unit was ready 
to go to work. 

Soldiers with family mem- 
bers who were eligible and willing to 
go to Germany were allowed con- 
current trasel. .All they had to do 
was extend long enough to complete 
a three-year tour. 

Family quaners were ready 
when the group arris ed. Sponsors 
had stocked the new families’ 
refrigerators with enough food to 
last until the svives could get to the 
commissary the next day. 

Future COHORT units going 
overseas, however, may not base 
blocks of family quarters set aside 
for them. 

“It took about 50 sets of 
quarters to take care of the first 
COHORT unit to go to Germany.” 
said Lt. Col. .Andrew Coffey, a 
Department of the .Arms staff of- 
ficer. The next unit might not base 
that many married people. Trying to 
accommodate esery COHORT unit 
svould create a roller-coaster effect 
svith quarters’ occupancy. 

The units will still go oser- 
seas as groups, though, and family 
members ssill be pan of the group 
svhen concurrent travel is authev- 

The .Army now has more than 
30 COHORT units and plans to 
have 80 by the end of fiscal year 

The .Army is esaluating its 
ability to manage and sustain the 
program, as well as cost and troop 

If the COHORT program 
lives up to expectations of increased 
readiness and improsed training, the 
.Army will begin expanding the pro- 
gram in fiscal year 1986. The system 
will be extended to include most 
combat arms units and will be the 
nucleus of the regimental system. 

The regimental system will 
allow soldiers to remain with one 
regiment for an entire career. The 
.Army hopes that together, the CO- 
HORT and regimental systems will 
aid cohesion, boost esprit and mo- 
rale. and increase readiness. 



Pen Pals Wanted 

SEOUL, South Korea — Imagine going to mail call one 
day and the mail clerk hands you a stack of letters — from 
people you don’t even know. 

This is what happened when the “Dear Abby” col- 
umn ran a message urging readers to write soldiers sta- 
tioned in Korea. After the item appeared, the main Army 
post office here was deluged with mail. In the first 10 
days, more than 10,000 letters came in. Even after several 
months, letters were arriving at a rate of a thousand per day. 

Letters addressed to “Operation Dear Abby” have 
been sent from all 50 states, plus Canada, Puerto Rico, 
Guam and Germany. Writers have included former sol- 
diers, retirees and other active duty soldiers. Families as 
well as entire grade-school classes have written. 

Some letters have been addressed as specifically 
as to “A Lady Staff Sergeant,” or as generally as “Opera- 
tion Dear Abby.” Some writers have asked for soldiers 
from their home state, but most just want pen pals. 

Thanks to Abby, thousands of soldiers are receiv- 
I ing mail now. One of the persons working with “Opera- 
‘ tion Dear Abby” said: “I didn’t realize we were thought of 
so much over here. It’s really nice to know there are peo- 
■ pie out there who care.” 

If you would like a pen pal, write to: Operation Dear 
Abby, c/o Commander, U.S. Forces, Korea, APO San Fran- 
cisco 96301. — SSgt. Cindi Small 

Water! Water! 

teaching soldiers how to find water in the desert. 

Since last fall, instructors from the Naval Con- 
struction Training Center, Port Hueneme, Calif., have 
traveled here to teach soldiers from Forts Campbell and 
Knox, Ky., and Bragg, N.C., how to find and drill for water. 

Forces Command at Fort McPherson, Ga., and the 
Engineer School at Fort Belvoir, Va., organized the quar- 
terly class to instruct Army drilling crews, especially 
those assigned to support the Rapid Deployment Force 
(RDF). If deployed to a remote area of the world, the RDF 
will use a drilling rig and a nine-man crew. 

Students spend one week in the classroom and 
! three weeks digging wells. When drilling, crews work in 
eight-hour shifts around the clock. 

Instructors teach their students how to find water 
jby looking for clues in rock samples, vegetation and old 
‘ Wells. Then, as they drill, the crews take samples of cut- 
tings and water at different depths for more information. 

So far, the classes are helping White Sands keep 
nrack of existing fresh water. Future classes may look for 
''' new water pockets on the range. And the Army will have 
i| trained crews ready to go anywhere in the world with their 
I rigs and find water. — Jim Eckles 

Islanders Stick Together 

HONOLULU, Hawaii — Think back to the day when you 
headed off for basic training. Remember that lonesome 
feeling as you boarded the bus all alone? 

Recruits for the Army Reserve in the Pacific area 
don’t have to face that. They attend basic together as a 
unit, plus they’re given a rousing send-off by families, 
friends and VIPs. 

It’s part of a pro- 
gram that began eight 
years ago in Hawaii as a 
recruiting device. The pro- 
gram now includes the en- 
tire Pacific basin. 

Last summer’s “All 
Pacific Platoon” consisted 
of more than 100 men and 
women from Guam, Ameri- 
can Samoa, Saipan and 
Hawaii. One of the re- 
cruits, Enrique Semar of 
Saipan, said: “I’m going to 
basic with mixed feelings. 

But it’s a good idea to 
have all of us from the Pa- 
cific go together so we 
can work together.” 

Of course, basic is 
still basic, full of drill ser- 
geants, long marches and 
quick meals. But at least 
the Pacific reservists have 
someone they can share 
the experience with in 
years to come. — Capt. 

James Boersema 


— The 1st Platoon (Air- 
borne), 245th Air Traffic 
Control (ATC) Company 
(Forward), 58th ATC Bat- 
talion (Corps), Fort Bragg, 
N.C., is the Army’s best 
tactical ATC platoon for 
1981-82. The Army Com- 
munications Command 
made the selection. 

Sp4 Anthony Coop- 
er was selected as control- 
ler of the year. Cooper is 
currently assigned to the 
16th ATC Battalion at Fort 
Hood, Texas. 

Sp6 Ronald Kondo, 
244th ATC Company (For- 
ward), Camp Morse, South 
Korea, was named mainte- 
nance specialist of the 
year. The Army Radar Ap- 
proach Control Facility at 
Fort Sill, Ckla., was named 
facility of the year. — - Al 

MARCH 1983 


Capt. James Boersema 


Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

THE road leads into the redeployment assembly area at 
Kulsheim, West Germany. Traveling on it during the 
waning days of REFORGER ’82, you could really start 
to get an appreciation of the scope of the exercise. 

Tanks, trucks, self-propelled howitzers, and ar- 
mored assault bridges lined both sides of the winding 
brick road. The rows of freshly washed vehicles, parked 
just inches apart, stretched for hundreds of meters. 

They led to a sprawling tent city that housed 
more than 3,400 soldiers of the 1st Infantry Division 
(Mechanized). Those soldiers were just a fraction of the 
nearly 20,000 soldiers and airmen who were heading 
home from REFORGER and a similar Air Force exer- 
cise called Crested Cap. 

REFORGER, which means return of forces to 
Germany, is an annual exercise. Through it, the United 
States shows its ability to reinforce Europe in a crisis. 
Other major Army units that took part in REFORGER 
’82 included the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort 
Bliss, Texas; Headquarters III Corps, and the 1st Bat- 
talion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division, both of Fort 
Hood, Texas; and the 82nd Airborne Division, Fort 
Bragg, N.C. 

There were also several combat support and 
combat service support units, plus 39 Reserve Compo- 
nent units taking part in the exercise. 

The REFORGER troops took part in NATO’s 
Autumn Forge exercises, along with U.S. troops based 
in Europe and soldiers from several NATO countries. 

More than 29,000 measurement tons of equip- 
ment (1 measurement ton = 40 cubic feet) were moved 
by sea and air to Europe for REFORGER and Crested 
Cap. That tonnage didn’t include most of the equip- 
ment seen around Kulsheim. The vast majority of 
equipment used by REFORGER troops came from 
prepositioned stocks. 

Looking over the masses of equipment, tents and 
people at Kulsheim, it boggles the mind to picture what 
it would look like if all the REFORGER folks and 
equipment were gathered in one place. 

“You should’ve seen it a few days ago,” said 
SSgt. Michael Pope. “We had almost 4,600 people and 
a lot more vehicles.” Pope’s outfit, the 2nd Battalion, 
39th Field Artillery, 3rd ID, ran two of the three assem- 
bly areas set up mainly for the 1st Infantry Division. 

Getting ready for the influx of REFORGER 
troops. Pope was able to put his civilian-learned carpen- 
try skills to good use. Racks for rifles, machine guns 
and pistols, tent partitions, and a movie screen all had 
to be built from scratch. 

“There’s always something for you to do — put- 
ting up cots and tents,” Pope said. “We put up quite a 
few GP (general purpose) medium tents.” 

“Yeah,” PFC Steven Seivers added, “so man>, 
you lose count after a while.” 

Besides the tents set up by the soldiers, German 
contractors put up several 120 meter by 25 meter "fesi” 
tents. One blue and white striped tent held a recreation 
center and movie theater. 

Army civilians Joyce Stull and Waterene Hard- 
wick operated the center. “On a slow day we have about 
150 sign-outs (of games),” Stull said. "W e never have 
that many people at one time in our center back in Wer- 
theim. It feels good to know we’re needed and reaching 
so many people.” 

“This rec center, it’s nice, really. “ said PFC 
Raymond King of the 4th Battalion, 63rd .Armor, 1st 
ID. “There’s not too much to do out here in the woods, 
so what is done is appreciated.” 

Kulsheim, a deserted farm village that is now a 
West German army reservation, definitely qualifies as 
“the woods.” Although it’s no resort, there were a few 
things to do. Besides board and card games, table tennis 
and quarter-eating video games, the rec center had 
sports equipment. At almost any time there were 
baskets being shot, and Frisbees and footballs being 

The Army and Air Force Exchange serv ice set up 
post exchange (PX) vans containing everyihint from 
toothpaste to souvenir beer steins. The PX also pro- 
vided food vans, a T-shirt concession, barber shop and 
a bratwurst stand. 

“The bratwurst was an afterthought," said 
Walter Stegmaier, the P.X representative. “We thought 
six food vans would do it, but they couldn’t handle all 
the people. So we brought in the bratwurst vendor. One 
day they sold 2,5(X) bratwursts.” The other PX facilities 
were well-used too. “At one time, there were 168 guys 
lined up for haircuts,” he added. 

The soldiers didn’t have to settle for bratwurst 
and the usual PX food van fare, though. W iih the field 
problem over, the cooks and the soldiers they served 
were reunited. Cooks working in self-contained mess 
trailers — real kitchens on wheels — pumped out three 
hots a day. For the most part, they had been cooking 
two hot meals a day during the exercise. But, w hen units 
are on the move, it sometimes takes a while for the food 
to catch up. 

“When soldiers come in from the field, most of 
them want hamburgers,” said SFC William NN'ooten, 
mess sergeant. 4th Battalion. 63rd .Armor. “.At one 
meal we went through two and a half cases of ham- 
burger patties — that’s about 240 patties. 

“And look at the kind of desserts we have," 
Wooten added. He displayed a devil’s food cake, 
frosted with chocolate pudding, coconut and pecans. 



Clockwise from top: 
Members of Battery A, 
1st Battalion, 319th Field 
Artillery, 82nd Airborne 
Division, rumble off for 
NATO’s Carbine Fortress 
exercise, and • set up 
howitzers outside Wurz- 
burg, West Germany. • 
82nd Airborne para- 
troopers hook up for a 
mass airdrop. • Blue and 
orange force tank col- 
umns create a morning 
traffic jam when they ac- 
cidentally meet head-on 
in a small village. 

MARCH 1983 


Ken Hackman Ken Hackman 

MSgt. Don Sutherland SSgt Bob Simons SSgt Jim Pearson 

Top, U.S. troops debark at Rhein-Main Air Base, West Germany. • 
Above, airmen unioad Black Hawks from a C-5 transport, and • an 
Army crew uses one of the helicopters at a REFORGER training site. 

• Center, RFC Grace Dunkley makes up a “burn victim” for a medical 
exercise. • Right, a soldier grabs a bite to eat in the town of Gailbach. 

• Tanks and other military vehicles are as common as cars and farm 
tractors in the German countryside during REFORGER. 



The cake looked good and smelled good. A visitor, 
picking the last few crumbs of a piece of it from his 
paper plate, pronounced it delicious. 

As good as the cake was, the customers don’t 
seem to show much appreciation for the cooks’ handi- 
work. At least that’s what Sp4 Dan Roebuck, who 
baked the cake, seemed to think. He expressed his frus- 
tration in a poem, hung onto a sheet of cardboard at the 
mess trailer entrance: 

An Army Cook 

The life of a cook is never gay 
Because we hustle our butts all day. 

A wake at three and to work we go 

With bacon and biscuits and taters and such. 

We work all day and into the night 
Trying to ensure the food tastes right. 

Then, when it seems we’re about to collapse 
Along comes “Joe” and calls it crap. 

We get riled up, but what can we do? 

When our only mission is to support you. 
Quality and quantity, we do our best. 

Even though we have little rest. 

So, remember next time you dine. 

What it may be like on our side of the line. 

Be pleasant and courteous and try saying thanks. 
Then go back to work on your dumb old tanks. 

When not busy playing “bug the cooks’’ or rec 
center games at Kulsheim, the soldiers could go on 
tours. Many took advantage of the chance to see the pic- 
turesque German countryside from something other 
than the hatch of an armored vehicle. 

There was also the chance to take it easy. In the 
fest tent that housed the 4th Battalion, 63rd Armor, sol- 
diers played cribbage, pinochle and solitaire. Some were 
stretched out on cots, reading or stacking a few “zzzs.’’ 
Others spit-shined boots and shot the bull. One group of 
spit-shiners was talking about the field exercise. 

“We’re A Company, the mighty ass-kickers,’’ 
PFC Nathaniel Grant announced to a visitor. 

“Tell him again,’’ said Sp4 Tucker Eleby. 

He did. 

“We kicked ass on that field problem,’’ said 
another spit-shiner, who identified himself as Teucher 
(pronounced “TOO-chur’’) the Tanker, a private who is 
sometimes also known as Dan. 

“They let everybody get wiped out, and then 
when there were 15 battalions on their side, they sent us 
in,’’ claimed PFC Liet Doel. “This company took on a 
battalion-size element and we wiped them up.’’ 

But for every kicker, there’s a kickee. Take the 
scout platoon that ran down a road instead of going 
across country, for example. As they rounded a curve, 
they found themselves staring at the business end of an 
entire tank battalion. They pulled off the road and got 
into a covered position, but not fast enough. Moments 
later an umpire’s jeep pulled up alongside the platoon 
leader’s armored personnel carrier (APC). Climbing up 
onto the hood of his jeep to talk to the platoon leader. 

the umpire asked, “If you could’ve come across coun- 
try, how would you have come?’’ 

Unharvested fields were off-limits to vehicles, so 
the umpire wanted to know what the lieutenant would 
have done had there been no restrictions on him. After 
the platoon leader explained what route he should have 
used, the umpire asked, “Could you have done that 
without crossing off-limits fields?’’ 

“Yes,’’ was the answer. 

“Why didn’t you?’’ 

“Because the platoon leader’s a dumb-ass,’’ re- 
plied the lieutenant. 

“Don’t be so hard on yourself,’’ the umpire said. 

“No, my company commander has been telling 
me for two weeks to stay off the roads, but 1 wouldn’t 

“Well, everybody’s dead except for one tank and 
one APC,’’ the umpire said. “You’d better call your 
CO and let him know what happened.’’ 

Reluctantly picking up his radio handset, the pla- 
toon leader called in his spot report. The commander 
answered the report with a question. 

“Did you take those losses because you went 
down the road instead of cross-country?’’ 

“That’s affirmative,’’ answered the lieutenant, 

“Lesson learned?’’ 

“That’s affirmative.’’ 

Learning lessons is what field problems are all 
about. Kickees who learn from their mistakes in training 
become kickers in combat. Losing a skirmish during a 
training exercise is not the end of the world, but no one 
feels good about it. It’s one of the bad times. 

There are a lot of bad times on an exercise like 
REFORGER: Like the supper that doesn’t catch up 
with you until 10 p.m. because you’ve been moving so 
fast and so far. Or the breakfast you haul around half a 
day before you get a chance to stop and eat. Like being 
roused from your sleep to refuel your truck, driving all 
hours of the night and day, trying to catch up with your 
units to deliver chow or fuel. Like eating what seems to 
be a million pounds of German dust each day, as you 
rumble over the countryside, getting stuck in a traffic 
jam of tanks, APCs and small civilian cars on the nar- 
row roads of German towns. 

But there are good times too: Like winning a bat- 
tle or seeing smiling Germans wave and make “V’’ signs 
with their fingers as you rumble through their towns. 
Like the time the traffic jam left you parked next to a 
butcher shop and you dashed in to get cold cuts for the 
platoon. Like the chances to see just enough of Ger- 
many, meet just enough of the people and taste just 
enough of their food to make you think you might want 
to come back. 

“1 loved it,” said Sp4 Edward Horton, a tank 
driver in Company A, 2nd Battalion, 63rd Armor, while 
cleaning his tank for turn-in. “1 might get married and 
bring my wife over here. But, right now, 1 can’t wait to 
get back to Fort Riley. We’ve done our job and I’m 
ready to go home.” □ 

MARCH 1983 





Bill Mauldin 


William Henry (bet- 
ter known as Bill) 

Mauldin is an award- 
winning cartoonist 
who first earned 
fame for his rendi- 
tions of infantry life 
in Europe during 
World War II. His 
Pulitzer Prize- win- 
ning work mirrored 
the man — a brash 
young soldier who 
held a broad irrever- 
ence for everyone but “grunts. ” He returned 
to Europe to cover the most recent 
REFORGER. Mauldin’s account of the exer- 
cise appears here courtesy of the author and 
Field Newspaper Syndicate. © 1982 Field 
Enterprises, Inc. 

Birth of a 
Proud Tradition 

DAY ONE: Blasted off at midnight 
in an Air Force C-I41 jet transport 
from McGuire Air Force Base in 
New Jersey, nonstop for Brussels. 
Belgium, along with a co\ ey of cor- 
respondents and a gaggle of armed 
cavalrymen and women from Fort 
Bliss. Texas, the latter wearing cam- 
ouHage suits and helmets. 

The cavernous. Spartan, win- 
dowless vibrating cabin and its oc- | 
cupants made me think of an e\pc- 
dition to take the moon. Military ij 
bucket seats have improved some- 
what from those in ancient C-4's. 
and. of course, planes are much 
faster now . Noisier too. Nothing be- 
tween those screaming kerosene 
gobblers strung out along the wing , 




I and your throbbing brain but thin 
j aluminum and eardrums. The crew 
j gives you plugs of putty to mold in- 
I to your aural passages, but the stuff 
irritated me even more than the 
noise, so I ended up with my head in 
a pillow sandwich. 

Breakfast at dawn consisted 
■ of beef chunks swimming in hot axle 
grease, a slice of white bread, boiled 
carrots, macaroni and a large cookie. 
After being informed that we jour- 
, nalists hold the rank of colonel for 
’ the trip, we wondered what the en- 
listed personnel would get to eat. 
Turned out to be the same stuff. 

We were also told this air- 
]i plane was identical to the one used 
to bring the Iranian hostages home, 
and the exact same breakfast was 
served as their first meal in freedom. 
Thus are proud traditions born. 


Joins the Army 

DAY TWO: In Antwerp we were 
taken to see a ship unload heavy 
U.S. military equipment. The char- 
tered vessel, designed for this work 
and called a “roll-on, roll-off,’’ dis- 
places 14,000 tons, is named 
Cygnus, out of New Orleans, and 
today was operating under Murphy’s 

The Cygnus unloads through 
a gaping hole (reminiscent of the 
way LSTs were unloaded) by way of 
a swiveling (or “slewing’’) ramp 
which facilitates operation to either 
side or dead astern. Halfway down, 
before a hundred awed journalistic 
eyes, the massive ramp snapped one 
of its main supporting cables. We 
were quickly hustled inside a build- 
ing for a briefing. 

One of our briefers was the 
Belgian owner of the dock. He was 
amiable enough until I asked him 
about several huge piles outside con- 
taining hundreds of miles of 4-foot- 
diameter steel pipeline sections. He 
glowered and snapped that they 

were destined for Mexico, barely 
refraining from adding, “. . .if it’s 
any of your business.’’ Pipelines ap- 
pear to be a touchy subject here. 

Finally the ramp was fixed 
and an assortment of anti-aircraft 
equipment, heavy trucks and bridge- 
laying devices on tank chassis rum- 
bled forth onto the dock without 
further incident and without undue 
haste. Fortunately the dock wasn’t 
under fire at the time. 

Some of the vehicles were be- 
ing driven by troops who were our 
fellow passengers on yesterday’s 
ear-busting flight from New Jersey. 
Despite their rolling stock they in- 
sisted they were still cavalrymen and 

They still wore the same cam- 
ouflage suits. Probably the same 
socks, too. While we civilians — 
with the temporary rank of colonel 
— had been taken to a hotel, they 
had been bivouacked in a nearby 
woods without even a case of beer. 
That’s the trouble with being in a 
volunteer army. If you don’t like 
what you get, you’re reminded that 
you asked for it. 

MARCH 1983 


By Force of 
American Arms 

DAY THREE: I think they brought 
in the media too early for this 
NATO exercise and are faced with 
the problem of keeping us interested 
until the real fun starts. 

Today we were taken to an 
airfield in Belgium to see rolling 
equipment discharged from low-fly- 
ing planes without benefit of para- 
chutes. Having long been addicted 
to vehicle-busting shows such as 
“The Dukes of Hazzard,” I was in 
the forefront of volunteers to watch 
this performance. 

The airplanes were big turbo- 
props, similar to our old C-130s, but 
made and flown by Germans. It was 
a shock to me to see that dreaded 
black Maltese cross, 6 feet high, 
painted on the sides of an aircraft 
full of friendly American trucks. 

The Luftwaffe crews looked very 
Luftwaffe, too. Spooky. 

Alas, the demolition derby 
had been called off — if indeed it 
had ever been planned. Instead, we 
watched a truck being driven in and 
out and in and out of one of the air- 

There was a certain enter- 
tainment value even to this. The 
American driver, a prototypical 
trucker if ever there was one, draped 
one of his massive elbows languidly 
over the doorsill, kept but one hand 
on the wheel, and sat in a negligent 
slouch as he tooled expertly along 
with an inch to spare on each side. 

Meanwhile, the Luftwaffe 
types teetered on the balls of their 
feet, craning and scowling this way 
and that, fearful that this big slob 
would beat up their immaculate 

He never left a scratch. 

A Stealthy 

DAY FOUR: \i last 1 know wh> 
they brought the press to Europe a 
week before the real start of the 
N.ATO maneuvers. They wanted 
time to brief, or program, us at their 
leisure and discretion. 

“They" are mostly the colo- 
nels and commanders of all nation- 
alities involved. They want to be 
sure we ha\e got the word before we 
send out any words. Of course, 
most briefings are “background." 
which means off the record. 

1 ha\e a system to beat back- 
ground briefings. 1 don’t attend 
them. Giving a man background in- 
formation is like gi\ing him steak 
and telling him he can chew but not 

There are situations, espe- 
cially military ones, where some of 
this is probably justifiable. Suppose 
you’re a general who’s going to hit 
the enemy on the right Hank, and 
you want him to expev't you from 



Memories of 

DAY FIVE: Earlier I mentioned my 
trauma at seeing German military 
insignia on a friendly aircraft. Since 
then I’ve been up to my ears in 
Maltese crosses. 

NATO assigned a Bavarian 
captain, Eduard Schmid, to guide 
me among German units involved in 
the maneuvers. One of Schmid’s 
first efforts was to get me to say 
Bundeswehr instead of Wehrmacht. 
I suppose the old name does stir up 
controversial memories, although 
the Wehrmacht existed long before 
the Nazis. After all, they still call the 
Luftwaffe by its old name. 

Panzers are still panzers, too. 
Several times Schmid and I became 
caught in thundering columns of 
Leopard tanks from the 12th Panzer 
Division, displaying orange discs to 

show their side and racing through 
German villages to engage the Blue 

The Leopard tank is the suc- 
cessor of the Panther and Tiger. Ask 
your granddaddy about those. An- 
noying as the Germans might have 
been in my distant past, they always 
had my attention and when it came 
to pure soldierly strut, they had my 
grudging respect. Their tanks, artil- 
lery and small arms have always had 
the lethal beauty of feral cats. 

These new panzer soldiers 
loping along in their Leopards were 
young enough to be my own grand- 
children. Only their heads and 
shoulders showed above the turrets 
of the roaring vehicles. But to a man 
they had that familiar old style. 
What was it? Of course! They wore 
crash helmets with Rommel goggles, 
and every single helmet was cocked 
at a Rommelian rake. 

the left. You call in the press for a 
briefing and announce you are go- 
ing to move left on the record and 
right off the record. 

The briefed reporter now has 
no choice but to do his duty by his 
country and drag red herrings be- 
fore the enemy, to say nothing of 
the readers. The journalist’s reward 
is in knowing where to go and wait 
for the real action. 

The way to beat this game is 
to hang around outside the briefing 
and ask all the guys what they 
learned in there. Of course, ethics 
prevent you from actually exposing 
the grand strategy. But this way, 
you’re not betraying your readers, 

Well, there have now been 
two solid days of briefings in Brus- 
sels and each busload of journalists 
has found me waiting for them 
around the cafes of Antwerp. 

Tomorrow I leave for the 
right flank, veering toward the 
center at first, to fool anybody who 
might be following. 

MARCH 1983 


Stalking the Elusive 

DAY SEVEN: One of ihe smaller 
and presumably more colorful units 
listed among maneusering NATO 
forces is Luxembourg’s 1st Light In- 
fantry Battalion. 

N.ATO planners should be 
aware that where this outfit is indi- 
cated in the defense line, a gap 
might e.xist. 

God knows 1 tried to find the 
ghostly battalion. 1 was accompa- 
nied by the Bundeswehr’s Capt. 
Eduard Schmid, a portfolio of mili- 
tary maps, and an alleged itinerary 
of Lu.xembourgian movements. 

“Luxembourg? Ja. ja. — 
that way.” .A German .MP officer at 
a crossroad pointed positively. 
Hours later we concluded he had di- 
rected us toward the country itself. 

“No, no. man — this way!” 
-An .American .MP studied our charts 
and jabbed a forefinger into a 
woods. There we found only scat- 

Bundeswehr Troops: 
A Crack 

and Admired Outfit 

DAY SIX: Yesterday’s essay about 
the Bundeswehr of today vis-a-vis 
the Wehrmacht of yore was mostly 
about style. What of substance? The 
following impressions were gathered 
hastily over a very few days. How- 
ever, 1 have been hanging around 
various armies for 40-odd years, 
and often know what to look for. 

Germans have a long-stand- 
ing love affair with machinery. Even 
the youngest soldiers handle equip- 
ment, weapons and vehicles with re- 
spect and care. (Americans often 
seem determined to take out various 
frustrations on clutches, gears and 
sheet metal.) 

Spending time with a Ger- 
man artillery observation unit which 
uses small, unmanned drones for 
target spotting, I found the techni- 
cians eager to explain things once 

they realized 1 was genuinely inter- 
ested. Who wouldn’t be? These little 
buzzjobs can pinpoint even the most 
cleverly camouflaged tactical targets 
and have them under fire within 

There appears to be immense 
affection between German troops 
and villagers, at least in this part of 
Bavaria. One reason Bundeswehr 
units can be hard to find by “foes” 
in these NATO maneuvers is that 
tanks and cannon are often parked 
in trellised gardens and under porch 
roofs by invitation of the residents. 
Troops are forbidden to partake of 
alcoholic hospitality, but plenty is 

As soldiers 1 found them 
sharp and motivated. At lower lev- 
els, at least, the old spirit of Prus- 
sianism must have evaporated. Dis- 
cipline seems tight but not chicken. 
I’m still not used to being on the 
same side with them, but the thought 
no longer causes me any pain. 




tered elements of Belgium’s 2nd Ca- 
rabinier Cyclist Battalion. 

(This was a coup in itself. 
Other journalists had been search- 
ing with growing skepticism for the 
Belgium battalion.) 

Word of my quest got 
around. An hour before dawn I was 
awakened by Greg Mathieson, a 
photographer, Capt. Bob Bristow, 
his guide, and my own Capt. 
Schmid, all in a state of excitement. 

“We’ve found your Luxem- 
bourgers!’’ Greg cried. “You know 
the big bridge across the Main River 
the Blues ‘bombed’ yesterday? A 
pontoon bridge is going in and your 
battalion will be the first to cross.’’ 

In the dark and fog on the 
river bank we could see nothing but 
could hear the clank of construc- 
tion. As day broke, Greg readied his 
camera and I opened my trembling 
notebook. The American 1st Ar- 
mored Division rumbled across in 
all its might, but no Luxem- 

A Nylon 

DAY EIGHT: Sometimes our mili- 
tary machine can really do it. Today 
we stood in a Bavarian sugar-beet 
field to watch 700 men of the 82nd 
Airborne Division drop in on us 
after a 5,000-mile, 10-hour, nonstop 
trip from Ft. Bragg, N.C., their 
home base, in a display of quick- 
strike capability. 

They were due at 5:20 p.m. 
to reinforce some hardpressed 
Orange allies in the NATO maneu- 
vers. It was a still, warm day. At 
precisely 5:19:55 the first C-141, a 
four-engine jet built for this pur- 
pose, appeared out of the haze at 
900 feet altitude. Then a dozen or so 
others took shape, but now nobody 
was bothering to count airplanes. 

The first cargo chutes opened. 
Trucks, jeeps and artillery pieces 
rained down in front of us, each on 

a wooden pallet under its huge can- 
opy, bounced once on the beets, and 
settled upright. And now the sky 
was full of men and parachutes: a 
nylon overcast. 

Paratroopers raced to their 
vehicles and within what seemed like 
seconds had them rolling. Foot- 
chutists, each landing with almost 
150 pounds of weapons and equip- 
ment, briskly formed up and moved 
out. Howitzers were unlimbered and 
exuberantly fired thunderous blanks. 

Trying to keep pace with a 
pair of fast-stepping troopers, I 
asked if they’d had a nice trip. They 
shrugged soundlessly and one point- 
ed at his ear. Suddenly I remem- 
bered that I had also recently ridden 
a C-141 nonstop from the states. 

After 10 hours in one of 
those screeching monsters, I am. 
convinced that most men would be 
willing to jump out of it without a 

MARCH 1983 


for Nuttin’ 

DAY NINE: You can’t maneuver 
several armored divisions and thou- 
sands of foot soldiers through prime 
German farmland and narrow vil- 
lage streets without messing up lots 
of property. There’s obvious dam- 
age, such as deep ruts and broken 
curbs, and the subtle kind, which 
manifests itself in ceiling and wall 

According to NATO, Ger- 
man property laws differ from ours. 
If these maneuvers were held in the 
U.S. Midwest, for example, I can 
envision farmers brandishing shot- 
guns and posting “no trespassing’’ 

If I had just plowed a field, I 
wouldn’t want 50-ton tanks grind- 
ing my carefully nurtured topsoil 
through my subsoil. If I sued the 
government it would take 10 years 

to collect — if the suit were suc- 
cessful. Better to just keep ’em off. 

Germans can’t keep ’em off. 
When a general decides to run his 
whole damned corps through a 
Bavarian’s backyard and turn a 
lovely garden into deep-churned 
mud, there’s no stopping the action. 
So how come the village and coun- 
try folk I saw seemed to have such a 
benign attitude toward all the de- 
struction coming down on them? 

The answer lies in a Beet of 
NATO jeeps roaming the country- 
side with “damage control” signs 
on their bumpers. They’re behind 
every armored column like fellows 
with brooms following elephants on 

The occupants of the jeeps 
carry cash and arc experts at assess- 
ing messes. In most cases they settle 
on the spot. If adjudication is neces- 
sary, it is swift and usually ends in 

Something Old, 
Something New . . . 

DAY TEN: Last time I attended 
peacetime military maneuver-. 
Dwight Eisenhower was a lieutenant 

We used stovepip>e\ to -emu- 
late mortars and 2-bv-4s on toy 
wagon wheels for anti-tank guns. 
The .Army was so broke 1 was issued 
exactly five cartridges for range 
practice in my first year as an infan- 
try rifleman. 

My pay was S21 per month. 
.An airplane salesman named Bill 
Strohmeier dropped little paper 
bags of flour on our heads from a 
Piper Cub to demonstrate the value 
of close air support. The 1st Cavalry 
Division was still on horseback and 
having a hard time finding fodder. 



EDITOR ’S NOTE: Bill Mauldin ’s cartoon character “Willie” is a real flesh- 
and-blood person named Rayson J. Billey. Billey talked about Mauldin, 
“Willie” and World War II comrades during his visit to the dedication and 
open house of the 316th Quartermaster Battalion, an Army Reserve unit in 
Stigler, Ok la. 

THE 63-year-old Choctaw Indian 
sat in his wheelchair wearing an 
Australian-type bush hat and khaki 
shirt. His hat was covered with mili- 
tary pins and campaign ribbons, 
and his shirt had a bright red and 
gold 45th Infantry Division patch 
on the left sleeve. 

The old soldier slowly and si- 
lently looked at the World War II 
memorabilia and photographs show- 
ing some of the action of “his divi- 
sion” during the “Big War.” He 
carefully picked up one of the pho- 
tographs and intently stared at it for 

public affairs officer, 122nd Army Reserve Command, 
North Liftle Rock, Ark. 

a few minutes, then lowered his 
head, raised his glasses with a 
gnarled hand and wiped his eyes. 
Memories of comrades from a war 
fought almost 40 years ago painfully 
and sadly came back to “Buck Ser- 
geant” Rayson J. Billey. 

“There were some awfully 
good men who didn’t come back. I 
was lucky and got back, although a 
little crippled up. These men were 
true Americans who fought because 
their country sent them and they be- 
lieved in what they were doing,” he 
said in a clear, soft voice. 

“Sometimes I can’t under- 
stand young folks today. They don’t 
believe in their country like these 

So I’ve been watching these 
current NATO maneuvers with the 
pop-eyed wonder of a kid in a toy 
store. In a few days I’ve been ex- 
posed to skies full of helicopters and 
armored columns stretching as far 
as I could see. Almost a thousand 
men and their heavy equipment ca- 
sually made a flawless parachute 
drop on a tiny German beetfield 
precisely on time only 10 nonstop 
hours from their U.S. base. 

Our soldiers are better paid 
now. Even though the money doesn’t 
go far in civilian stores these days, 
the military has been attracting a 
high grade of recruit. (I’ve always 
felt that people whose lives are on 
the line, such as soldiers and cops, 
are at least entitled to a full belly.) 
It’s good to find lots of women in the 
armed forces. What took so long? 


Story and Photo by Lt. Col. Robert D. Williams 

MARCH 1983 


guys did and like I still do,” he added. 

Billey is one of the men who 
gave editorial cartoonist Bill Maul- 
din ideas for his famous cartoons 
depicting the infantry soldier during 
the war. Billey was Mauldin’s in- 
spiration for the cartoon character 
of “Willie.” 

“1 don’t know who his ex- 
ample for ‘Joe’ was, but Bill said I 
was ‘Willie.’ ” The cartoons and his 
writing helped Mauldin win a 
Pulitzer Prize for journalism 
following the war. 

When asked how be became 
Mauldin’s inspiration, Billey said, 
“I was the hand-to-hand-combat in- 
structor when Bill joined Company 
K of the 45th Division’s 180th In- 
fantry. He was really green. 

“The reason I got his atten- 
tion real fast was the same reason I 
got everybody else’s attention. I was 
the meanest damn sergeant in the 
whole United States Army and 
everybody knew it,” Billey said dur- 
ing the dedication and open house 
of the 316th Quartermaster Battal- 
ion, an Army Reserve unit in Stig- 
ler, Okla. 

Lt. Col. Ray Fioretti, 316th 
commander, said, “Sgt. Billey was 
one of the unit’s biggest supporters 
when we were trying to organize. He 
expressed his support when he saw 
the article about our activation in 
the paper, so I thought it was ap- 
propriate to send a special invitation 
to him.” The unit was activated last 

“1 haven’t always felt that 
outfits like the Stigler unit were im- 
portant. For a long time in my 
younger days, 1 thought that anyone 
who wasn’t in the infantry was 
‘chicken,’ ” Billey said. “I felt that 
way and said it every chance 1 got 
until one time my company almost 
ran out of ammunition on the Anzio 

“We were getting ready to 
stand and fight until we all died be- 
cause we weren’t going to retreat in- 
to the water. We didn’t have any- 

where else to go,” he continued. 
“And then one of those ammuni- 
tion companies that 1 had been call- 
ing chicken got ammunition to us 
somehow and saved our hides. I 
never called them chicken again and 
really realized that the infantry 
couldn’t fight if they didn’t have 
bullets and supplies. 

“This type Army Reserve 
outfit is very important because it 
will resupply the infantry during a 

Billey had his scrapbook 
along, which he added to the old 
uniform and photograph display 
loaned by the 45th Infantry Brigade 

"Go ahead, Willie. If ya don’t bust it 
ya’ll worry about it alt night. " 

“Thunderbird” museum from 
Oklahoma City. It contained many 
newspaper articles, letters and pho- 
tographs from people who had been 
trained by Billey and later fought by 
his side, including Mauldin. 

When asked about his 
awards, the man who said his rank 
was buck sergeant replied in his 
Oklahoma Indian drawl: “Awards 
aren’t important and a person in 
combat is always scared anyway. ,\t 
least 1 was, but my country gave me 
some stripes and those stripes gave 
me the responsibility to lead. That is 

w hat 1 tried to do, as best as I could. 
Besides, all my awards are in the 
45ih museum and I’m not sure what 
I got anyway.” 

check with the museum re- 
vealed Billey was awarded two 
Bronze Stars for valor, two Purple 
Hearts and a Combat Infantryman 
Badge, along with a number of ser- 
vice ribbons. .\ newspap>er article in 
the museum noted that he had been 
captured and escaped from the Ger- 
mans and was twice listed as killed 
in action. 

“1 got shot in the head and 
through both knees, so I ha\e to use 
this,” he said, explaining the wheel- 
chair. “It kinda hampers me. but 1 
manage to get around and fish and 
do some other things people don’t 
think 1 can do.” 

During a break in the music 
furnished by the 95th Division 
(Training) band for the open house. 
Billey showed he wasn’t totally 
hampered. “Watch this,” he said. 
He rolled his wheelchair to a nearby 
piano, fle.xed his stubby fingers and 
started his left hand moving on the 
keyboard in a smooth, strong, 
boogie-woogie beat. 

.As he moved his right hand 
to the keyboard, he looked up with 
a smile and said, “See. they can’t do 
this because most of them have 
never even heard this type music, 
but it gets 'em goin’. no matter what 
age they are.” The crowd in the 
center did as he expected and quick- 
ly surrounded the piano to listen. 

.After playing a number of 
songs from the ’40s and receiving 
applause from the people at the 
open house, he moved his wheel- 
chair back to the display. He began 
slowly looking at all of the display, 
again sadly remembering. 

“I wish 1 could be in this Re- 
serve outfit.” Billey suddenly looked 
up and said. “It is a good unit and is 
good for this part of Oklahoma, 
^'ou know, if 1 could join this unit. I 
bet I would still be the best sergeant 
in the United States .Army!” 




Faith Faircloth 

“GO VERNMENT service or employment, as a public trust, requires that DA 
personnel place loyalty to country, ethical principles, and law above private 
gain and other interests. The performance of their duties should be in keeping 
with the highest tradition of the military service and civilian service to the 
U.S. Government. ” — AR 600-50 

FOOTBALL pools, raffles and lotteries are as Ameri- 
can as apple pie to most people. Even churches and state 
governments have them in one form or another. 

But taking part in these activities while on gov- 
ernment property or on duty for the government is a 
violation of Army Regulation (AR) 600-50 (Standards 
of Conduct for Department of the Army Personnel). 
This regulation tells how to avoid conflicts and the ap- 
pearance of conflicts of interest. 

Conflict of interest is defined as a conflict be- 
tween an individual’s private interests and his duties or 
actions as a government official. 

While having a financial interest in a company 
that does business with the government can cause a con- 
flict of interest, there are other areas that can cause the 
appearance of a conflict of interest. The regulation 
spells out the dos and don’ts to avoid this. 

The regulation gives some common sense rules to 
follow in day-to-day ac- 
tivities. For instance, DA 
personnel who work as sales 
agents (home care products, 
cosmetics and so forth) can- 
not seek sales from lower- 
ranking employees. This 
rule prevents the appear- 
ance of a conflict of interest 
that one is using rank or 
grade to influence others 
for personal profit. 

The regulation does 
not, however, prevent some- 
one from selling or leasing a 
privately owned former res- 
idence or certain kinds of 
personal property to some- 
one junior in rank or grade. 

It also does not affect off- 
duty employment of Army 
personnel or their spouses 
with respect to across-the- 
counter sales in retail stores. 

Employees cannot accept gifts from someone do- 
ing or seeking to do business with the government. So is 
asking for contributions from other Department of 
Defense (DOD) employees for a gift to a superior. AR 
600-50 does not forbid voluntary gifts of a sentimental 
nature or small value. 

Using government property, supplies and per- 
sonnel for personal business or allowing others to use 
them violates the regulation. This rule applies to every- 
thing from stationery to chauffeur services. 

Using a civilian or military title or position in 
connection with any commercial business or endorsing 
any commercial product is forbidden. This even applies 
to retired military people if their approval of a product 
appears to give Army or DOD approval. 

A part-time job or other outside activities could 
also create a conflict of interest if it interferes with the 
employee’s duties or has a bad effect on the Army or 

government. An example 
could be expressing per- 
sonal opinions in uniform 
to a civic group. The group 
could believe the opinions 
were the Army’s or govern- 

The regulation also 
covers debts, financial dis- 
closures, prohibited jobs 
after federal service and 
other subjects. Agencies, 
commands and installations 
have standards of conduct 
counselors to assist workers. 

Because the appear- 
ance of a conflict can be 
just as bad as the real thing, 
one might avoid a lot of 
trouble by asking, “Would 
I think it fishy if someone 
else was doing it?’’ See a 
counselor if you can’t an- 
swer that question. □ 

“But how could I have won? I never 
bought a raffle ticket for a six-week 
vacation in Greenland!” 

MARCH 1983 






Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

IF you can do push-ups, sit-ups and run two 
miles to pass the physical fitness (PT) test, 
you probably think you’re physically fit, but 
that ain’t necessarily so. It just means that 
you’re at a certain level of physical fitness. 

Today, Army leaders are interested in 
more than just passing PT tests. 

“This era of physical fitness isn’t just 
a focus on exercise,’’ said Lt. Col. Gerald C. 
Werner, a former Pentagon Army physical 
fitness staff officer. “It’s a whole range of 
things — like improving your lifestyle, 
changing your eating habits, not smoking 
and things like that. 

“Our focus is on trying to change the 
soldiers’ lifestyle from one of burning the 
candle at both ends,’’ he said, “to one that, 
when they become senior NCOs or officers, 
they are still able to carry on effectively. 
They don’t have their arteries blocked up, 
they can see their shoes without leaning over 
their tummy, they can work and lead the way 
they should.’’ 

The physical fitness regulation, AR 
350-15, tries to coordinate that entire pro- 
gram, Werner said. It does that by setting 
new guidelines for soldiers age 40 and over, 
the type of uniform worn for PT, Reserve 
Component testing, and safety. 

“One of the biggest changes we made 
was the 40-and-over program,’’ Werner 
said. “You’ll be notified to schedule your 
medical exam, and get a special screening 
which gives you a risk factor. That number 
predicts your chances of having a heart at- 
tack or heart disease during the next six 
years. Anybody with a 5 percent risk factor 
will take further tests.’’ 

Soldiers 40 and over who have been 
medically cleared do just the two-mile run 



)! MARCH 1983 

Body Fat Percentages 

The maximum allowable percent body fat standards are as 

Age Group 

17-20 21-27 28-39 40 + Olde r 

Male (% body fat) 20 22 24 26 

Female (% body fat) 28 30 32 34 

However, all personnel are encouraged to achieve the more strin- 
gent DOD-wide goal, which is 20 percent body fat for males and 
26 percent for females. 

Weight For Height Table 

(screening table weight) 


Age Age 





40 -t- 




















































































































































































































part of the PT test on a “go/no-go” basis. 
Push-ups and sit-ups will be added in April. 

Soldiers who are 40 and over should 
not begin an exercise program or raise their 
present level of activity until they have been 
medically cleared, he warned. 

“This is serious business,” Werner 
said. “If you have a risk factor or if you 
have chest pains, if you can’t breathe or 
whatever, for God’s sake, don’t think you’re 
immune to this sort of thing.” 

The importance of safety is also 
stressed in the new regulation. It points out 
things that people conducting PT should 
look for, like shortness of breath, nausea 
and muscle cramps. 

Under the new program, the stan- 
dards for Active and Reserve components 
are pretty much the same, Werner said. 

“Up until now, the reserves had their 
own test, consisting of a four-mile march,” 
Werner said. “Now, they are gradually con- 
verting.” The Army Reserve has already 



Soldiers at Fort Benja- 
min Harrison, Ind., 
exercise together in 
preparation for a com- 
mander’s run. 

switched to the three-event PT test for those 
under 40. Reservists over 40 still do only the 
four-mile march. The Army National Guard 
plans to adopt all three events for all age 
groups in FY 84. 

Another thing changed by the new 
regulation is what is worn during PT. “VS'e 
also wanted to change the emphasis on w hat 
kind of uniform we wear,” Werner said. 
‘‘We wanted to get away from combat 
boots. There is going to be a change issued to 
the regulation. It will say commanders de- 
cide the uniform.” 

‘‘Hopefully, that will make exercise 
more fun and less painful,” said Lt. Col. 
Joseph Di Eduardo, deputy director of the 
Soldier Physical Fitness Center, Fort Benja- 
min Harrison, Ind. 

Another idea being considered is a fit- 
ness badge to be worn on the class A uni- 
form. ‘‘The badge would be for someone 
who has really achieved excellence in fitness, 
not just a one-time flash in the pan,” 
Werner said. ‘‘They won’t give it to him this 
year and next year he turns into a lard pail.” 

The problem of being overweight is 
addressed in AR 600-9, The Army Weight 
Control Program. Under this new regula- 
tion, soldiers are considered overweight 
when their percentage of body fat exceeds 
Army standards. That is, if a soldier exceeds 
the height-for-weight table in the regulation, 
then medical personnel measure his or her 
body fat. For example, a male aged 17 to 20 
who is 5 feet 10 inches tall can weigh up to 
180 pounds. Soldiers may also have their 
body fat measured if they appear overweight. 

If soldiers meet body fat standards, 
then no further action is taken. If soldiers 
don’t meet those standards, they will be 
checked to see if they have a medical prob- 
lem. If so, they receive medical help. Other- 
wise, they enter the weight control program. 

The new weight control regulation 
tells soldiers what is expected. The Army is 
also concerned about how they got that way. 

“Leadership and knowledge on the 
part of the people who ha\e recognized, as 
they got older, that they abused their bodice 
by wrong eating habits can instruct the 
young soldiers coming in,” V^ erncr said. 

Teaching soldiers about good nutri- 
tion by what is served in the dining facilitv 
also important, he noted. “If we’ve got a big 
ice cream machine there and a soda machine, 
heavy fat gravies and all that, we’re telling 
the soldier that this is the wav the Armv 
wants you to eat,” Werner said. 

The Army is working on reducing the 
fat and calories in dining facilitv meals, and 
is trying to find ways to improve soldiers’ 
eating habits. In fact, low -calorie meals will 
be served also. a 

Smoking is another concern. “Per- | 
haps the single most effective lifestyle iT 
change we could make in this country is to ' 
stop cigarette smoking,” said Lt. Gen. B.T. 
Mittemeyer, the .Army Surgeon General. “If 
the bad effects were more immediate, most j 
people would not smoke.” 

For some people, the more involved 
you are in a fitness program, the less you 
smoke. “1 smoked for eight years.” Werner 
said. “1 started smoking in Vietnam. The 
thing that made me quit was 1 started run- 
ning again. 1 realized that running was just j 
marking time because my smoking defeated | 
all the benefits I got out of running. ' 

“It’s sort of like when you realize 
that what you’re after is a bit of the fountain j. 
of youth, a little bit of extra energy.” he J 
said. “Smoking destroys everything you’re 
working for.” 

“Before 1 got involved in a big way in » 
my own fitness program. 1 smoked for 20 * 
years,” Di Eduardo said. “There are other 
people here at the center who smoked that 
no longer smoke. It is just something that 
naturally occurs.” I 

Werner commented that he would , 
like to see almost a subculture of well-being 
throughout the .Army. “We’ve tended over ^ 
the years to get soft — where we go out and ^ 
exercise, and have to have a case of soda f 
for the platoon. ’’ he said. “Then you come , 
back to the platoon area and find a big trash 
area with soda and C ration cans and every- ' 
thing else laying around. It shows a lack of ^ 

\\ enter admits that it’s going to take r 
more than just regulations to reach the level f 
of total fitness that the Army wants. 

“.A regulation is just a piece of L 
paper," he said. “What makes the differ- 
ence is the commander, the leadership and | 
the people who follow the poliev.” [|i 



Capt. Molly Maguire demonstrates the proper way to take body fat measurements for students in the physical activities specialist 
course at the Soldier Physical Fitness Center, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. 





Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

Some soldiers brush up on their 
skills here, while others will come 
here to become trainers. 

THE next best thing to having someone take 
your physical training (PT) test for you is 
having someone give you a helping hand 
with it. The Army actually has people who 
are doing that. They work at the Soldier 
Physical Fitness Center, Fort Benjamin Har- 
rison, Ind. 

The center is the central point for all 
of the Army’s physical fitness activities. 
However, it does more than just help with 
sit-ups, push-ups and running. The staff is 
interested also in diet, weight control and 
teaching soldiers to take better care of their 

“What we’re doing is taking what has 
been done in the civilian community and see- 
ing how it applies to our missions in the 
Army,’’ said Lt. Col. Joseph Di Eduardo, 
the center’s deputy director. “The ultimate 
goal is having a more combat ready force.’’ 

One route to this goal is to get people 
“to make conscious lifestyle changes that en- 
hance their total health and fitness,’’ Di 

MARCH 1983 


Eduardo said. For example, the center’s 
Physical Fitness Academy trains soldiers 
who already hold the physical activities spe- 
cialist MOS (military occupational specialty 

“The Army felt that one of the things 
we needed to do to improve our physical fit- 
ness was to educate our personnel,’’ said 
Capt. Dale Fletcher, 03C course director. 
“The 03Cs work in our gymnasiums and 
outdoor recreation activities. Up to this 
point, they have not been trained.’’ 

“They will be trained in how to main- 
tain a facility and how to run a sports pro- 
gram,’’ he said. “They will also get more 
than 90 hours of instruction in individual 
conditioning, basic exercises and how the 
body functions. With that training they can 
assist the commander in developing pro- 
grams for individuals who need help. That is 
something that has never been done before.’’ 

There are about 8(K) 03Cs in the field 
who will attend the seven-week course at the 
academy in the next couple of years, Fletcher 
said. The academy plans to run about 10 
classes per year during that time just to train 

Capt. Dale Fletcher, di- 
rector of the physical 
activities specialist 
course, watches 
students during the 
hands-on portion of a 
classroom assign- 

the soldiers holding the .MOS. Di 

Eduardo said. 

.Although every fitness center in the 
Army does not have 03Cs, the academy ix 
recommending that they be assigned to every 
fitness facility, said Lt. Col. Harry Hick^, 
academy director. 

“Everybody has worked hard, both 
the staff and the students.” said Capt. Molly 
Maguire, chief of physical therapy. Institute 
of Surgical Research. Fort Sam Houston. 

.Maguire w as on temporary duty from 
Fort Sam for three months to help set up and 
teach the pilot course, which ran last Octo- 
ber and November. She has a master’s de- 
gree in sports medicine and exercise physiol- 
ogy, and is a certified athletic trainer. 

“The class is going really well." she 
said. “The students have been eager and 
have worked hard. I think they’re going to 
set the trend.” 

“For me. it’s been a good and en- 
lightening course.’’ said Sp4 .Mark \k illiams. 
an 03C at the U.S. Military .Academy. \S est 
Point, N.Y. “It’s really the first time that 
I’ve been around 03Cs.“ 

The center also plans to begin prepar- 
ing physical fitness trainers in .May. “The 
trainers will have the capacity, skills and 
knowledge to design programs for a unit, 
small group or an individual,” Di Eduardo 
said. “They will be able to work with per- 
sons to assess their total fitness. They will 
also be able to work with people in the areas 
of diet and nutrition, weight control and 
medical limitations. If persons have a pro- 
file, the trainer will be able to work with 
them so they can maintain a viable program 
for themselves.’’ 

The academy plans to graduate about 
1,100 physical fitness trainers per year, Di 
Eduardo said. They will be assigned to every 
level in the .Army, not only in battalion-si/ed 
units, but also in schools and headquarters. 

“.A guy can go to the physical fitness 
trainer and say. ‘I can’t do push-ups, what 
can 1 do to help myself?’ ’’ said Hicks. 
“When the trainers graduate from here, 
they'll be able to give guys some advice be- 
cause they’re going to know the equipment, 
which they might not have known in the 
past. They’re going to know about the 
body’s structure, so if the guy says he can't 
do push-ups. the trainer will be able to help 
him set up a program — suggest something 
he can do that will work on that part of the 

Basically, there will be one trainer 
for every 700 soldiers in the Arinv.” Di 







Eduardo said. “That individual will be an 
assistant to commanders, directors and staff 
chiefs. He or she will ensure that safe, sound 
physical conditioning programs are being 
conducted to promote healthy lifestyle 
changes that produce a more combat-ready 

The center has also published a com- 
mander’s guide to physical fitness (DA Pam 
350-15). “The guide gives the commander an 
idea of how to structure a program from an 
individual point of view,” said Lt. Col. 
Gerald C. Werner, former Pentagon Army 
physical fitness staff officer. “There are 
some things that are not covered in FM 21-20 
;(field manual on physical readiness training) 
that are mentioned in the guide. 

“The FM could probably do a better 
job on stretching warm-ups, post-exercise 
activities and modern stretching tech- 
niques,” he said. “The handbook has infor- 
.mation on those. It also has tables on aero- 
bic fitness and gives workout plans. It also 
can be used in instructing a remedial pro- 

Besides the commander’s guide, the 
center staff has also prepared an individual 
handbook on physical fitness. “It’s a sort of 
a cookbook,” Di Eduardo said. “Individu- 
als can use the book to assess both their 
health and physical fitness. Then, they are 
directed where to go in the book to design 
Itheir own programs. The book’s really for 
(Soldiers who don’t have access to an orga- 
Inized program, such as headquarters staffs, 
[recruiters and such. We feel the Reserve 
Components will use it because they don’t 
|get together very often.” 

[ The center’s unit sports division is 
looking for new ways to get people involved 
in unit sports. “What we’re trying to come 
lup with are sports that the entire unit can 
[take part in which don’t require special 
iskills,” Di Eduardo said. 

“We’re trying to get unit programs 
with some variety,” Werner said. “We tend 
to put PT on the schedule, show up, and 
every day it’s the same thing. We want to get 
a little variety in there. We’ve got some ob- 
stacle courses and some places have par- 
. courses (station-to-station exercise courses). 
There’s a new thing coming out called 
‘Marsh ball,’ named after Secretary of the 
Army (John O.) Marsh.” 

Marsh ball is push ball with new 
rules, he said. “It’s played sort of like you 
^were in a combat environment, where each 
team has to defend its goal and try to get a 
ball across to the opponent’s goal.” 

“In Marsh ball, the leaders have a 

few reserves,” Di Eduardo said. “Since 
you’re using two balls, you sort of have an 
offense and defense together. The leader has 
to decide how many people he wants on each 
one, how often he needs to shift them and 
when he wants to commit his reserves.” 

These types of sports are as much re- 
lated to combat as to physical fitness, Di 
Eduardo said. “You know that’s what we’re 
going to have to do if we go into combat. 
You’ve got to make those types of decisions 
and make them quickly. We know that we’re 
outgunned and outnumbered, so we’ve got 
to get used to working against superior num- 
bers. These games are designed for that dual 
purpose — not only to provide conditioning 
and variety to our standard programs, but 
also to provide some mental work too.” 

The center has also sent a four-hour 
block of instruction on physical exercise, 
diet and nutrition, stress management, 
weight control and substance abuse to all 
Army service schools. 

The center has also produced a TV 
tape on the PT test. “It is designed to train 
PT testers on how to administer the test,” Di 
Eduardo said. “But it also gives soldiers tips 
on how to do push-ups and sit-ups, and con- 
duct a run properly.” 

Although the center is helping sol- 
diers get fit, it’s still up to each person to get 

“The bottom line is you’re going to 
be taking part in a program, whether you 
want to or not,” Di Eduardo said. “I can get 
you physically fit, whether you want to or 
not. What we hope to achieve is that you will 
then want to do it on your own.” □ 

Students in the physi- 
cal activities specialist 
course work together 
to help each other 
determine their level 
of physical fitness as 
well as ensure that 
exercises are per- 
formed correctly. 

MARCH 1983 


Sgt. Willie Means 



Gomez; Clown 

Sp5 Raymond 
Gomez didn’t go to Korea 
to clown around, but that’s 
exactly what he has been 

The 28-year-old 
traffic management spe- 
cialist, stationed at Osan 
Air Base, said he got the 
idea after reading about 
the orphanages in Korea. 

“It gave me the 
idea to put on an act for 
them," he said. "I got in 
touch with chapel activi- 
ties and they gave me all 
the information I needed 
to get started. I’ve been 

doing my ‘Mitchaso’ act 
ever since. Mitchaso is Ko- 
rean for ‘crazy,’ " he said. 

Gomez admits an 
ulterior motive for his 
clown performances. "Just 
being with these kids fills 
the emptiness of not be- 
ing with my own family in 
the states,” Gomez said. 
“I get more out of making 
the kids laugh and being 
with them than they get 
out of the act. When I per- 
form, the Koreans come 
up and touch my face to 
see if it’s real. I guess they 
never saw a clown before.” 

The unicycle he 
rides also causes a stir. 
“They don’t know what to 
make of the unicycle,” 
Gomez said. “They can’t 
figure out where the other 
part of my bicycle is.” — 
Sp5 Linda Spillane 

The Drill Sergeant 
of the Year for 1982 said 
he wasn’t sure he even 
wanted to be a drill ser- 
geant when he was se- 
lected to become one. 

“I enjoyed assign- 
ments working with sol- 
diers as a team, and the 
idea of training soldiers 
didn’t appeal to me,” SFC 
Charles W. Fitzpatrick 
said. “My opinion began 
to change as I got into the 
job. Helping to shape sol- 
diers from the beginning 
turned out to be very re- 

Six of the seven ba- 
sic training platoons he 
has trained at Fort Knox. 
Ky.. have been named dis- 
tinguished honor pla- 

Fitzpatrick, who 
competed with more than 
250 other drill sergeants 
for the 1982 title, believes 
competent drill sergeants 
are vital. “If you’ve got 

Compiled by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

good drill sergeants to 
tram the soldiers, you've 
got a good Army, " he said. 
— SFC Robert W. Griffin 

A Fort Rucker. Ala., 
military policeman has 
been honored by the Ala- 
bama Legislature for his 
work with the youth of the 
military and civilian com- 
munities of Dale County 

Sgt. Carl K. Can- 
non, the provost marshal 
community relations NCO. 
started the "Officer Friend- 
ly” program and the Junior 
MP Cadets at Fort Rucker. 

The mam objective 
of the Junior MP Cadets is 
to create a favorable im- 
age of law enforcement of- 
ficers and a greater re- 
spect for the law. 

“I have lived 
around the world, but have 
never heard my children 
say anything positive 
about police until now." 
said one parent, CWO 2 
Jerry W. Sturdivant. Stur- 
divant said that before 
Cannon s “Officer Friend- 
ly” program, his children 
feared the police. 

Cannon also 
coaches baseball, softball 
and chaperons youth ac- 

The commanding 
general of Fort Rucker, a 
state representative, a 

Fitzpatrick: Top OS 


Cannon: Officer Friendly 










jband and 600 students 
[turned out to see Cannon 
deceive the legislature’s 
resolution honoring him. 

“I know myself, it 
wouldn’t have been possi- 
ble at all without ‘my 
kids,’ ” said the 22-year- 
old Cannon. “They’re all 
mine, each and every 
one.” — Jacquelyn Griffin 

You don’t get many 
social calls at 2 a.m. when 
you’re out in the field. 

For brothers Virgil 
and Jackie Adams, a break 
in REFORGER activities 
gave the two a chance for 
a short family reunion in 
the back of an armored 
personnel carrier. 

Virgil is assigned 
to 2nd Battalion, 16th In- 
fantry, 1st Infantry Divi- 

sion, Fort Riley, Kan. 
Jackie is assigned to the 
2nd Battalion, 36th Infan- 
try, 3rd Armored Division, 
U.S. Army Europe. 

Jackie said he 
knew Virgil would be in 
Germany for REFORGER 
’82. “I got letters from 
Mom telling me that Virgil 
was in Germany,” he said. 
“I didn’t try to call him be- 
cause I knew that he was 
in the field. So I just de- 
cided to come down here 
and try to find him.” When 
Jackie finally found his 
brother, they exchanged 
news of home. 

“I was surprised 
and happy to see him,” 
Virgil said. And of his trip 
to Europe, he added, “RE- 
FORGER’s not that bad. 
It’s turning out better than 
I thought it would.” — 
Maj. Ed Aymar 

A Rhode Island 
Army National Guardsman 
is an Emmy winner for his 
civilian TV coverage of the 
Claus von Bulow trial. 

Capt. Glenn V. Lax- 
ton, radio and TV officer of 
the noth Public Affairs 
Detachment, received the 
Emmy for Outstanding 
Special News Program 
from the National Acad- 

Adams Brothers: Reunited 

Laxton: Emmy Winner 

emy of Arts and Sciences 
during ceremonies in Bos- 
ton. A TV reporter and an- 
chorman at station WPRI 
in Providence, R.I., Laxton 
covered the trial for nine 

An international 
businessman, von Bulow 
was tried and convicted of 
the attempted murder of 
his wife. He is appealing 
the decision. The trial 
drew international media 
attention and also marked 
the first time in the state 
that TV and still cameras 
were allowed into court. 

Laxton, a guards- 
man for 10 years, pro- 
duced a number of fea- 
tures for Armed Forces 
Television during RE- 
FORGER ’82 exercises in 
West Germany. — Capt. 
John P. Leistritz 


Edward O. Aymar 





Story and Photos by 
SSgt. Victoria Mouze 
and SSgt. Terri Wiram 

TO SOME, it was a time for questions. .As 
two men walked back to their hotel, one 
said that it was the first time he had felt 
“loose” in 10 years. His friend replied. 
“Yeah, me too. But how do you explain to 
these kids what we fought for?” 

To others, it was a time for thanks. 
Former 1st Lt. Maryagnes Cole served with 
the 85th Evacuation Hospital in Qui Nhon. 
“Over there, 1 had to keep telling patients 
1 wasn’t a ‘Doughnut Dolly.’ But y’know, 
now the guys arc thanking me for helping 
save their lives. This is the first time I've 
heard that.” 

More than l(X).tXX) people had come 
to Washington, D.C., during November to 
honor the men and women who served in 

MARCH 1983 


Vietnam. The national salute brought 
together Vietnam veterans and their 
families, and veterans of other wars. 
Events included a Veterans Day ceremony, 
a parade, and the dedication of the Viet- 
nam Veterans memorial. 

On Nov. 11, a color guard stood 
outside the Arlington National Cemetery 
amphitheater waiting to march in. Inside, 
the traditional Veterans Day observance 
honored the Vietnam veterans. Two days 
later, thousands of yets from every state 
marched down Washington’s Constitution 
Avenue. People from the sidelines called 
out, “We love you!’’ and “Welcome 

home!’’ The vets marched out of step and 
some wore rag-tag uniforms, but it didn’t 
matter. This was their day. 

After the parade, people watched as 
the memorial’s two sloping walls — in- 
scribed with 57,939 names — were 

A former Marine yelled, “Look at 
that wall, just look at that wall. It’s 
enough to make a grown man cry!’’ 

Another man answered, “We fought 
for peace. Let’s just enjoy that.’’ He 
started singing “Amazing Grace.’’ Some in 
the crowd joined in. 

Others cried. □ 

MARCH 1983 




Story and Photos by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

ASK A MAN who drives one. 

“Better than anything we got back in the states.” 
“I’d like to put it into a bag and take it home.” 
“The first time I’ve been on an e.xereise with five 
trucks and none of ’em broke down. The guys just did 
their PM (preventive maintenance) and they kept on go- 

That’s what you hear from soldiers who have 
driven POMCUS vehicles. POMCUS stands for prepo- 
sitioning of materiel configured to unit sets. POMCUS 
stockpiles in IZuropc contain enough equipment to out- 
fit four divisions, their corps support units and an ar- 
mored cavalry regiment. That means nearly 17,5(X) 
wheeled and more than 5,000 tracked vehicles. But it 
takes more than vehicles to outfit Army units. 

POMCUS stocks also include generators, mess 

sets, crew-served weapons, tents, camounage screens 
and communications gear. Selected rations, fuel and 
medical items are being added to POMCUS stocks. 

Troops coming to Germany, whether for RT- 
FORGER exercises or war. need only bring their indi- 
vidual clothing, equipment and weapons, plus any spe- 
cial tools they may need. 

•Ammo, helicopters, missiles, cvtinnuinications 
security equipment and maps are about the only things 
not kept in POMCUS stocks. These items are either 
airlifted in with the troops or are sent o\er by ship. 

The mission of recei\ing. storing, maintain- 
ing and issuing I’OMCL'S equipment belongs to the 
Combat Equipment Group Europe. CT-GE (pro- 
nounced “KEiCi-ghee”) has three combat equipment 
battalions, which are di\ided into combat equipment 



companies (CEC). The companies operate the sites at 
which the POMCUS equipment is stored. 

When a unit arrives from the states, all it has to 
do is go to one site, where all the equipment is stored. 
As soon as batteries and fuel are put into the vehicles 
and the lubricant levels are checked, units are ready to 

“You may get a little black smoke and they may 
run a little rough at first, because of the preservative oil 
in the engines,” said Maj. Charles R. Thornton, CEGE 
deputy commander. “But you can count on 99 percent 
of them driving off the site.” 

Making sure the vehicles roll requires the CEGE 
people to take a lot of care with the storage and mainte- 
ii nance tasks of their mission. 

I Much of the equipment is stored in controlled- 

[ humidity warehouses (CHWs). The 40,000-square-foot 
CHWs are kept dry enough to keep metal from rusting, 
yet damp enough to keep rubber from cracking, 
j “That’s our first choice,” Thornton said. “We’d 

I like to have everything in CHWs, but we just don’t have 
j enough of them.” 

j CEGE also has 26 stress tension structures (STS), 
i which are like large tents. They can be humidity-con- 
trolled, though, and two of them equal the size of a 
CHW. “They’re a quick-fix,” Thornton said, “and you 
^lose a little bit with them. You lose some floor space be- 
cause the walls slope, and an STS has only two doors 
compared to the CHW’s six doors.” 

Conventional warehouses are another choice. 
They are used to store items for which humidity control 
jis not as critical. Items which are too large for storage or 
that have a low dollar value are stored outside. 

“Open storage is our last choice,” Thornton 
said. “Generally speaking, everything with an engine 
goes inside. Things like trailers are stored outside.” 
j Of course, there are always exceptions. Graders, 

for instance, are kept outside, he remarked, because 
they’re too big to go into warehouses. Besides, they’re 

designed to be kept outside. 

While the equipment is in storage, it is continual- 
ly checked for leaks and flat tires. Unit sets are pulled 
out of storage and sent through a maintenance cycle reg- 
ularly. Equipment stored in CHWs or STSs goes 
through maintenance every four years. Other equipment 
has to be put through the cycle every two years. 

CEGE sites are staffed with a small cadre of sol- 
diers and civilians. Because the units are small, keeping 
the equipment up is a year-round job. 

“We run about eight battalions sets through 
cyclic maintenance in a year,” said 1st Lt. Mark Chand- 
ler, a CEC property book officer. That company stores 
POMCUS equipment for three self-propelled artillery 
battalions, two mechanized infantry battalions and an 
armor battalion. They also store equipment for smaller 
units ranging from a transportation headquarters com- 
pany to an entomology detachment with only one ve- 

To help speed the maintenance process, CEGE 
tries to tie cyclic maintenance to REFORGER exercises. 
Each unit set stored by CEGE is earmarked for a certain 
unit in the United States. In past years when a unit came 
to Germany for REFORGER, the unit would get its 
own set. That’s not always the case anymore. 

“That has us running around in circles,” Thorn- 
ton said. A unit might come in and draw a set that had 
just gone through cyclic maintenance. That set would 
have to go through the cycle again after the exercise. 
Then the CEGE people would still be faced with pulling 
maintenance on another set that was due for a checkup. 

“An infantry battalion is an infantry battalion,” 
Thornton said. “It doesn’t matter whether a battalion 
commander gets his set of equipment or another set. 
That way, we can use a set that’s due for maintenance 

Doing this during REFORGER gives the equip- 
ment a good workout and helps locate any bugs it may 
have. Following the exercise, users can help the CEGE 

Right, keeping 
POMCUS equip- 
ment up is a 
year-round job 
for these CEGE 
When they 
finish with the 
personnel car- 
rier, it will be 
stored in a giant 
warehouse. • 
Far right, an en- 
tire artillery bat- 
talion’s vehicles 
are together in a 

MARCH 1983 

folks pull maintenance, greatly speeding the process. 

“The troops should help us maintain the equip- 
ment because they’ll be using it in combat,” said Thorn- 
ton. “They may need it before the next REFORGER. 

“Two weeks ago, after a no-notice exercise, a 
major combat unit, for the first time, put away 100 per- 
cent of its equipment,” Thornton said. “It blew our 
minds. Now the equipment is more ready than when 
they drew it.” 

When vehicles come back to the sites for turn-in, 
all the tools, radios, camouflage screens and such are 
unloaded. Everything that comes off the vehicles has to 
be cleaned, counted and checked to make sure it works. 
Then it’s arranged into sets to go back onto vehicles 
after they are serviced. 

“The hardest part is keeping track of all these 
small tools and getting them back into order for specific 

A 1st Infantry Division mechanic works on a personnel carrier, 
readying it for turn-in and storage after REFORGER ’82. 

vehicles,” said Sgt. Willie Buie, a CEC storage special- 
ist. “There’s really just a small amount of loss, though. 
I’d say over 90 percent of the stuff comes back in.” 

In fact, CEGE boasts an accountability rate of 
more than 99 percent. Having issued more than 1,000 
tracked vehicles alone for REFORGER, they have rea- 
son to be proud of that rate. Granted, it’s hard to mis- 
place an M-60 tank. It is easy, however, to misplace 
some of the tools, a first aid kit or a flashlight carried on 

After unloading the vehicles, soldiers from RE- 
FORGER units help CEGE to place, wash and grease 
equipment before returning it to storage. “And if units 
have mechanics, they do repair work,” Chandler ex- 

The serviced vehicles arc then given a technical 
inspection (TI) and the mechanics go to work fixing 

The weeks following REEORGER are the busiest 
for the vehicle shops. Civilians and soldiers alike put in 
12-hour days. The work goes on every day, including 
Saturday and Sunday. 

“These civilians don’t have to work those hours 

if they don’t want to.” said Capt. Gary W. Gcnir>, a 
CEC maintenance officer. “They could just say, ‘Hey. 
I’m not going to work today.’ ” But they do come to 
work and put in the same long, hard hours a> the 

“It’s good work, hard work,” said Bernhard 
“Blackie” Lambacher, shopmasier. “The hardest pan 
is keeping an eye on the REFORGER troops who are 
helping out with the maintenance. They’re in a strange 
place. We have to watch them to make sure they don’t 
kill themselves.” 

“Bodies get tired,” Gentr\ explained. "ENer>- 
body’s anxious to get home, especially the mechanics. 
They’re the ones who get all the work and no glory. 
They’re usually the last to go home, but they’re good. 
They’re dedicated.” 

The CEGE military mechanics supervise the 
REFORGER soldiers working the gigs off the TI sheets. 
They have to make sure the troops get the pans they 
need and that the parts are put on. 

“The hardest part is keeping people on track,” 
said Sgt. Rodell Johnson. “You have to make sure they 
don’t do too much or get off track. You have to keep 
them on track with the TI sheet.” 

When the post-REFORGER rush is over and the 
helpers are gone, activity doesn’t stop at the CEGE 
sites. There’s always something to do. 

“Cyclic maintenance keeps us busy,” Johnson 
said. “It keeps me ready. I know what 1 ha\e to do 
when I get up. I don’t have to go anywhere but my shop 
or my company to get anything done.” 

Upgraded equipment sometimes comes in to re- 
place older items on hand. The new items have to be 
checked before they are put into storage. 

“Last year at this time we got in 72 new guns 
(self-propelled howitzers), upgraded from M-I09AIs to 
A3s,” Chandler said. “You don’t know if you’re recei\- 
ing a track that may have been damaged in transit. You 
have to TI it and make sure it’s fixed.” 

Other work has to be done as well, like painting 
vehicles in camoufiage patterns. “W e just had 10 people 
paint 2.500 pieces of equipment.” Chandler said. And 
then there’s something called uploading. 

“That’s what we’ve been doing for the past few 
years,” Chandler said. “I’ve been know n as ‘Lieutenant 
Upload’ for the past two years.” 

Uploading is placing onto vehicles all the basic 
issue items, camoufiage screens, shop sets and installa- 
tion of communications that are needed to perform a 
mission. Those items used to be issued separately. This 
past REFORGER was the first time all the vehicles were 
issued loaded. “That’s four fewer things that have to be 
rearranged before they can go to war.” Chandler said. 

In peacetime, duty at CEGE site is like a circle. 
Equipment is stored — or “put to sleep.” as the CEGE 
people like to say — awakened, checked out and put 
back to sleep again. It’s a circle that remains unbroken 
as long as the peace is unbroken. If the peace is broken, 
you can be sure the vehicles won't be. 

.Ask a man who drives one. 




ORGANIZED in Bourmont, France, 
jon Oct. 26, 1917, the 2nd Infantry 
iDivision was formed from Army 
and Marine Corps units and had a 
Marine brigadier general as its first 
commander. In World War I, the 
2nd Division participated in six ma- 
jor campaigns and won more deco- 
rations than any other U.S. divi- 
sion. The division departed France 
jjin August 1919 for Camp Travis, 

In the years between World 
‘War I and World War II, the divi- 
.;sion made its home at Fort Sam 
Houston, Texas. In November 
1942, it moved to Camp McCoy, 
Wis. October 1943 found the 2nd 
Division deployed to England for 
training. During World War II, the 
division landed in Normandy on 
■June 7, 1944; it fought through 
'France and Germany and reached 
Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, when the 
European fighting ended. The unit 
participated in five campaigns dur- 
ing World War II. It moved to Fort 
Lewis, Wash., in April 1946. 

In July 1950, the division 
deployed to South Korea, where it 
participated in 10 campaigns and 
was awarded the Presidential Unit 
Citation and two Republic of Korea 
Presidential Unit citations. The divi- 

This article on an Active Army division is one in a 
series compiled from official Army sources by Danny 
M. Johnson, a management analyst who works for the 
assistant chief of staff for intelligence at the Penta- 

> MARCH 1983 

sion returned to Fort Lewis in Octo- 
ber 1954. 

In August 1956, the division 
replaced elements of the 71st Infan- 
try Division in Alaska and the 
northwestern United States. In De- 
cember 1957, the division was re- 
duced to zero strength under De- 
partment of the Army control. It 
was brought up to strength as a 
combat division in March 1958 at 
Fort Benning, Ga. 

On July 1, 1965, the division 
was transferred, minus personnel 

and equipment, to South Korea. 

Since April 1971, the 2nd In- 
fantry has been the only U.S. divi- 
sion in South Korea. An integral 
part of the Republic of Korea-U.S. 
Combined Forces Command and 
8th U.S. Army, the 2nd Infantry 
plays a special role in the plans for 
the defense of Korea. The division is 
located along a principal invasion 
route leading to the capital city, 
Seoul. Proximity to the demilita- 
rized zone makes tasks meaningful 
and urgent for division soldiers. □ 

Men and M-26 tanks of the 9th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, hold their 
ground near the Naktong River along the “Pusan Perimeter” on Sept. 3, 1950. With 
their backs to the sea and surrounded on three sides by North Koreans, the U.S. and 
South Korean forces would break out on Sept. 16 and force the enemy back into North 
Korea by the end of the month. 


CpI. Thomas Marotta 

Story and Photos by SSgt. Gary KieMer 

WHEN SOMEONE tells you to go Oy a kite, besides 
getting lost, what else are they talking about? 

Kite-Hying is for people of all ages. It’s the na- 
tional pastime in some .\sian countries. The Chinese arc 
said to have invented the kite centuries before anyone 
else. However, some believe the Greeks inxented the kite 
in the fifth century B.C. 

No matter who invented kites, these airborne 
free spirits have had many around the world. 

Kites have been used in religious celebrations and 
military operations. They have pulled cables across 
gorges to help build bridges. Benjamin Franklin used a 
kite for his famous experiment with lightning and elec- 
tricity in 1752. 

Aviation pioneers such as the \\ right brothers 
used kites to test aerodynamic theories. Alexander 
Graham Bell, when he wasn’t working on his telephone, 
was an avid kite llier. He designed a kite that actually 


The coming of spring beckons a rainbow of kites into the crisp 
air. Gentle breezes tug the kites against their harnesses, held 
in check by children of all ages. 

lifted a man 200 feet into the air over Nova Scotia, 
Canada, in 1907. 

But for most people, kite-flying means fun and 

Kites are named for the graceful swallow-tailed 
hawks of the same name. They are fabric- or paper- 
covered frames that rely on the winds to keep them 

They come in a dizzying array of designs, from 
the surprisingly simple to the extremely complex. Some 
types of kites are: deltoid, dihedral, compound and 

But as one expert said, “There are really only 
two types of kites: those that fly, and those that don’t.’’ 

Depending upon the design and the materials 
used, kites can vary in price from virtually nothing to 
hundreds of dollars. If you add the antique or ancient 
kites sought by collectors, the prices rise into the thou- 
sands of dollars. 

Kites are flown in competition, solo or in combat 
with other kites. They can be flown by children and 

Kite-flying requires little skill or athletic ability. 
Yet they are able to draw attention away from daily 
stress and troubles and provide a means of relaxation. 

When spring erupts with blooming flowers and 
the gentle winds roll across the countryside, kites 
naturally follow. Kites are best when flown in winds be- 
tween 10 to 20 miles per hour, preferably in open fields 
free of kite-eating trees and high-voltage power lines. 

Kites should never be flown in bad weather be- 
cause wet string can conduct electricity from lightning 
or static charges in the atmosphere. Then too, they 
should never be built with wire, foil or any other metal 

With just a little time and forethought, kite-fly- 
ing can prove to be an enjoyable, inexpensive, relaxing 
and fulfilling hobby. 

Kites go well with picnics in the country or to the 
beach for an afternoon of sun. 

It seems that whenever the weather turns warm, 
when the warm winds whisper through the budding 
trees, kites appear in the sky as if they, too, are another 
rite of spring. 

So the next time you’re told to go fly a kite, do it. 
And let your spirits ride with the winds. □ 

MARCH 1983 


U S Army Pt>otO 




Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 
IN its more than 100-year history, Fort Sam 
Houston, Texas, has sheltered the famous 
and the not-so-famous. It has been the home 
of Indians, mule drivers and future presi- 

In 1876 the Army started construc- 
tion on what was then called the Post of San 
Antonio. The post was built on 40 acres of 
land donated in 1870 by the city of San 

The Quadrangle was the first build- 
ing. It consisted of a seven-and-a-half-acre 
square that housed rooms, offices, shops 
and wagon sheds. The Quadrangle was fin- 
ished in 1879 and was occupied as a quarter- 
master depot. Work was started soon after 
on 15 sets of permanent officers’ quarters 
and a temporary hospital. 

From the time the post was founded 
until the late 1800s, Fort Sam soldiers were 
sent to areas of the Southwest to quell Indian 
unrest caused by the Apache warrior Geron- 
imo and other Indian leaders in Arizona and 
New Mexico. 

Geronimo himself was among the 
first of several famous personalities who 
would call Fort Sam home. In September 
1886 he, his son Chapo, Chief Natchez (son 
of Cochise) and about 30 other Apache rene- 
gades surrendered in Arizona and were es- 
corted to the Quadrangle. There, tents 
served as their wigwams. Many stories sur- 
round their stay. 

After being confined in the Quad- 
rangle for about 40 days, the Indians were 
taken to Fort Pickens, Fla., for resettlement. 
With Geronimo’s surrender, the last impor- 
tant Indian campaign in the region ended. 

In 1890 the War Department renamed 
the post after General Sam Houston, presi- 
dent of the Republic of Texas, governor of 
Texas, Indian scout and hero of Texas inde- 
pendence. He is credited with the famous 
cry, “Remember the Alamo!’’ 

By that time, the area had lost much 
of its frontier character. Band concerts, 
parties and 6 o’clock dress parades were 
popular. Within a few years all that would 


Clockwise from left: Lt. Benjamin Foulois, first mili- 
tary pilot to fly a military airplane. • Bachelor of- 
ficer quarters at Fort Sam. • Quadrangle under con- 
struction in the late 1870s. • Young Dwight and 
Mamie Eisenhower. • The watch tower in the Quad- 
rangle today. • A statue honors combat medics. 

Fort Sam ‘‘Firsts 

3 3 

OVER the years, Fort Sam has been the site 
of several Army “firsts," including: 

• The first flight of a military airplane 
by a military pilot. Lt. Benjamin Foulois 
would arrive in November 1909 and later lay 
the groundwork for the Army Air Corps by 
flying a Wright Bros.’ airplane for seven 
minutes. The Army would have no other 
planes or full time pilots until spring 1911. 

• First airborne maneuvers and the 
birth of airborne infantry. The maneuvers 
were conducted in 1942 between Fort Sam 
and old Fort Clark in Brackettville, Texas. 

• Testing jeeps for military use, and 
using mechanized artillery instead of horse- 
drawn caissons. The testing was conducted 
by the 2nd Infantry Division during the 

• First MAST program (Military As- 
sistance to Safety and Traffic). The 507th 
Medical Company (Air Ambulance) tested 
the program in 1970. 

In April 1898 the Spanish-American 
War was declared, and the 18th Infantry left 
Fort Sam for the war. In May the 5th Cav- 
alry left the post to join them. The departure 
of troops for the war left the garrison with 
eight soldiers, the post surgeon and the quar- 
termaster. Then the first units of the 1st 
Volunteer Cavalry arrived. 

Better known as the “Rough Riders,” 
the regiment was made up mostly of men 
from the West. There were gunmen and 
horsemen from Tombstone and other parts 
of Arizona. There were also volunteers from 
Oklahoma in the unit as well as the sons of 
millionaires. The Rough Riders were led by 
Col. Leonard Wood and Lt. Col. Theodore 
Roosevelt. The unit was outfitted and sup- 
plied at Fort Sam before going to Cuba and 
the war. Three years later, Roosevelt would 
become the 26th U.S. president. 

Wood, who had started his military 
career as a surgeon during the Indian Wars, 
would attain two-star rank and become 
Army chief of staff in 1910. When he arrived 
at Fort Sam, he had just received a belated 
Medal of Honor for combat action 12 years 
earlier against Geronimo’s allies. Like Gen. 
Sam Houston, Wood would have a post 
named after him at a later date. 

Fort Sam was also the home of 
another famous general. Brig. Gen. John J. 
“Black Jack” Pershing, used the post as a 
supply base and led border expeditions 
against Francisco “Pancho” Villa in 1916. 
Villa was a Mexican guerrilla leader who had 
killed 16 Americans in Mexico and attacked 
the town of Columbus, N.M. 

The death of Fort Sam’s commander 


From top to bottom; 
Brooke Army Medical 
Center’s main hospital 
building. • The Persh- 
ing House, named in 
honor of Gen. John J. 

“Black Jack” Persh- 
ing, who commanded 
Fort Sam Houston at 
one time. • Hope 
Chapel, built in 1909 
and dedicated by Pres- 
ident William Taft. • 
Barracks at Fort Sam 
Houston today. 

caused Pershing’s recall to take charge of the 
post. While stationed there, he was chosen to 
command the American Expeditionary 
Forces in France during World War I. 

Another future president spent his 
early years at Fort Sam. Second Lt. Dwight 
D. Eisenhower’s first assignment following 
graduation from West Point in 1915 was 
Fort Sam. Fie met Mamie Doud, and on July 
1, 1916, they were married. For the next 
year, they lived at Fort Sam. They returned 
to the post again in 1941 on their 25th wed- 
ding anniversary. It was here in December 
that Eisenhower received word of the war. 
He left the post, and went on to become the 
supreme commander of the allied forces in 
Europe during World War II and later 34th 
president of the United States. 

Today, Fort Sam is the home of Army 
medicine. In 1946, the Academy of Health 
Sciences moved there from Carlisle Bar- 
racks, Pa. The academy is the largest health 
care center in the free world and one of the 
Army’s largest service schools. Each year it 
trains more than 35,000 enlisted and officer 
students in more than 150 medical special- 

Fort Sam is also home to many other 
units. Among them are the U.S. Modern 
Pentathlon Training Center, and headquar- 
ters to the U.S. Army Health Services Com- 
mand and the 5th U.S. Army. 

The Modern Pentathlon Training 
Center is the only one of its kind in the coun- 
try. It trains both military and civilian ath- 
letes in riding, swimming, fencing, shooting 
and running. 

Health Services Command, a major 
Army command, manages all Army health 
care services in the United States. 

Fifth Army supervises the training of 
Army National Guard units and commands 
Arm.y Reserve units in 13 states. Army Read- 
iness and Mobilization Region VI 1 (ARMR 
VII) headquarters is also on the post. ARMR 
VII coordinates Active Army support of 
training and readiness for Reserve Compo- 
nents in a four-state area. 

Brooke Army Medical Center, one of 
the Army’s largest teaching and medical cen- 
ters, is also at Fort Sam. Brooke supports 
the Army Institute of Surgical Research, 
which is located on the post and is interna- 
tionally known for its treatment and re- 
search in burn cases. 

Fort Sam is a llavorful mixture of old 
and new in other ways too. The area’s His- 
panic influence on many of the older build- 
ings — whitewashed walls and red-tiled 
roofs — contrasts with the modern, sand- 

colored brick of facilities -uch as the p>ost ex- 
change and dental clinic. 

The century-old Quadrangle, which 
houses 5th .Army headquarters, is still the 
hub of the post. The building opens onto an 
inner courtyard that has a park-like netting. 
Deer, ducks, rabbits and peacock'- live where I 
Indians once camped. Wide glas- window;, 
have replaced earlier openings. The original 
bare, split-log floors are gone. Still, the , 
stone walls recall the post’s past. 

In the middle of the yard is an 8'’-fooi 
tower. Stationed 65 feet up in an open 
guardroom, soldiers once kept watch on all 
the storerooms and on the goings-on down 

The tower once supported a water 
tank, but it was replaced in 1882 by a four- 
faced clock that’s still in use today. Beneath 
the clock’s south face is the inscription: 
“.AD 1876. In Peace, Prepare for War.’’ 

The tower also has a bell that tolls the 
time. Legend has it the bell came from a gun- 
boat grounded in Galveston Harbor. The 
bell was taken to the .-Mamo in San Antonio. 
.After a fire in the old mission, the bell was 
moved to the tower at Fort Sam. 

The first 15 quarters, now called the 
staff post, have been in serxice since the 
1880s. With stone walls more than a foot ' 
thick, the houses are large and roomy . Quar- I 
ters No. 6, for example, has six bedrooms, 
three living rooms and two Boors of 
screened-in porches surrounding the house. 
Completed in 1881. it is the commanding 
general’s quarters. 

In other areas of the post, asphalt 
now covers the trails where horses once 
picked their way through mud and dust. \ 
swimming pool now occupies the ground 
that once supported a clapboard warehouse. | 
What some people say is the Army’s best 
golf course was once a machine-gun range. ) 
Fort Sam Houston’s historical imixsr- j 
tance was recognized by the National Park 
Service, which designated it a national his- 
torical landmark in 1976. i 

Visitors to the post’s military muse- 
um can find out more about the history of 
Fort Sam and San .\ntonio. They can also 
see the Pershing House. Eisenhower’s quar- j 
ters and other historical buildings still being 
used. ] 

I rom its original 40 acres, the post | 
has grown to more than 35. (XXI acres. From 
its beginning as a quartermaster depot. 1 ort 
Sam Houston has become a major \rmy [ 
training post. Although its job has changed ■ 
over the years, history is still \ery much a 
part of the post today. 



GoldtnLi/i • 

The Running Shoe Express 

ii/!arathon — some call it the ultimate test of a runner, 
■ilany who have run it simply call it a new kind of pain. 
Last year at least half a million Americans ran a mara- 
hon. About half ran the 26.2-mile endurance race for the 
irst time. 

Typifying the sport’s mass appeal, more than 180 
‘Hell on Wheels” soldiers (photo) from the 2nd Armored 
pivision joined their boss, Maj. Gen. John W. Wood- 
nansee, in November’s Killeen (Texas) Marathon. First Lt. 
David Malone, coming off a knee injury sustained in the 
view York Marathon, crossed the finish line first in 
;?:43:31 . Prior to the race, Malone and division surgeon Dr. 
iMaj.) Robert Hales developed a marathon training pro- 
gram and wrote a series of weekly newspaper articles on 
raining, health and nutrition. 

The Fort Hood soldiers weren’t the only ones who 
were “Hell on Heels” last year. The 82nd Airborne Divi- 
sion’s marathon team ran away with top honors in the 
British Military Marathon at Hereford, England. Four para- 
Toopers finished in the top ten including co-champions 
1st Lt. John Zizzi and Sp4 Jerry Tanner. Despite heavy 
ain, wind gusts to 35 mph and 40-degree temperatures, 
the duo finished in 2:41:24. 

At least two soldiers are taking aim at the Olympic 
tryouts. Sgt. Richard Mata of Fort Carson, Colo., ran his 
10th marathon, the Fiesta Bowl Marathon, at Scottsdale, 
Ariz., in 2:31. 

SSgt. Walter F. Mann Jr. was the top Army finisher 
and 20th overall In the Marine Corps Marathon in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Mann, who works at the Military Personnel 
Center in Alexandria, Va., finished in 2:27:51. 

U.S. Boxers Take 3rd in CISM 

ALGIERS, Algeria — The U.S. boxing team finished third 
in the annual CISM bouts in December. CISM is the French 
abbreviation for International Military Sports Council. 

Algeria came in tops with 24 points, followed by 
Egypt with 14 and the United States with 13. 

The three soldiers on the interservice team were 
Sgt. James McGee (heavyweight), who won a silver med- 
al, and Sp4s Steve Hayward (bantamweight) and Dewayne 
Embrey (light heavyweight), who claimed bronze medals. 
The three are from Fort Bragg, N.C. — Sp5 Bill Branley 

AMU Shooters Shine 

CARACAS, Venezuela — Sp5 Daniel Carlisle captured the 
only U.S. individual gold medal at the 43rd World Shoot- 
ing Championships in November. The Soviet Union 
dominated the matches and took home 34 gold, 15 silver 
and 15 bronze medals. The United States wound up sec- 
ond with three gold, nine silver and eight bronze medals. 

Carlisle took his crown in the skeet event. The reg- 
ulation shooting ended with three shooters tied at 199 out 
of 200 targets hit. Carlisle then broke 75 straight to win 
the shoot-off. 

Carlisle is a member of the Army Marksmanship 
Unit from Fort Banning, Ga. He and fellow unit members 
SFC Alger Mullins and Sgt. Matt Dryke competed on the 
four-member team, which took top honors in the skeet 
championships. Carlisle’s wife, Terry, and Dryke’s sister, 
Ellen, shot on the U.S. women’s team, which scored a 
gold medal in clay pigeon shooting. — Tommy Pool 

MARCH 1983 



Story by SFC Norman Oliver 
Photos courtesy of the American Red Cross 

A hospitalized serviceman dictates a letter home to a Red Cross volunteer. The Ameri- 
can Red Cross has staff and volunteers at military bases and hospitals worldwide. 

IT’S A BIRTHRIGHT for most of 
us. You can’t put a price on what 
soldiers have fought and died for — 
American citizenship. But some- 
times money can stand in its way. 

At Fort Ord, Calif., last Sep- 
tember, Sgt. Thomas S. Bernard was 
about to miss a deadline for naturali- 
zation. He needed the filing fee and 
gas money. His wallet was thin. 

“I walked into the Fort Ord 
Red Cross office for financial aid. I 
knew my situation was unique and 
felt doubtful about receiving any 
help,” he said. 

‘T received the $25 for the 
filing fee with the U.S. government. 
In addition, I received $15 to pay 
for gas to make the trip to San Fran- 
cisco. Without this needed $40, I 
would have had to reapply for my 

Last year, military members 
and their families needed about $20 
million in help from the Red Cross 
for more than 100,000 loans or 
grants. Help also came as high- 
speed messages home, or as insights 
into problems. 

Helping soldiers is how the 
Red Cross began. Battlefield hor- 
rors of a century ago sparked the 
movement on two continents. 

In the United States, Clara 
Barton, a former school teacher, 
was working in Washington, D.C., 
at the outbreak of the Civil War. In 
1861, the year she would turn 40, 
the first Union soldiers poured into 
the city. The war was young, the 
troops green, and the citizens 
alarmed and confused. 

Among the soldiers was the 
6th Massachusetts Regiment from 
Barton’s home state. Many of the 
soldiers were her friends and former 

The regiment had lost its 
baggage between Baltimore and 
Washington. The incident opened 
Barton’s eyes to the needs of those 

in distress. 

During the war. Barton read 
to soldiers, wrote their letters and lis- 
tened to their problems. She tended 
the wounded and comforted the dy- 
ing. She appealed for supplies and 
learned how to store and distribute 

Barton saw the greatest need 
at the front. She kept after leaders 

in government and the .Army. Final- • 
ly, she was allowed to bring help to ■ 
battlegrounds and field hospitals. , 
After the war, she worked in the 
search for missing soldiers. 

She sought rest in Gcne\a. 
Switzerland, in 1869. There, friends J 
told her of the Red Cross move- H 
mem. barely a decade old. I 

In 1859, Henry Dunam, ag 



30-year-old French businessman, 
saw the human waste of the Battle 
of Solferino. That one-day clash be- 
tween French and Austrian armies 
‘in northern Italy left 40,000 dead 
^nd wounded. Dunant joined the re- 
lief workers, sent his carriage for 
supplies and wrote to friends in 
Switzerland for aid. Three days in 
the makeshift hospitals left him a 
bhanged man. 

Dunant wrote a book, “A 
jMemory of Solferino,” proposing 
elief societies in all countries. He 
called for trained volunteers and in- 
ternational cooperation. He mailed 
his book to influential Europeans. It 
Was a hit, and his ideas caught on. 
|In 1 864 his proposals led to the for- 
mation of the International Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross and the 
Geneva Convention for the protec- 
tion of battlefield casualties. 

I Spurred on by Dunant’ s 
movement and before leaving 
Europe, Barton helped with Red 
Cross relief in the 1870 Franco- 
Prussian War. Back in the United 
[States, she lobbied for U.S. ratifica- 
tion of the 1864 Geneva Treaty. In 
1881 she founded the American Red 
Cross. A year later the United States 
ratified the Geneva Convention. 

The American Red Cross — 
jwith about 3,000 local chapters — 
operates under a congressional char- 
ter, but is a private group supported 
by public donations, 
j The Red Cross receives mon- 
ey from local United Way groups, 
the Combined Federal Campaign, 
memberships, disaster campaigns, 
gifts and “at cost” fees for its blood 
services. It also gets funds from 
wills, trusts, foundation grants, 
[government contracts, and interest 
from endowments and investments. 

The Red Cross has three mis- 
sions from Congress: to provide ser- 
vices and aid to members of the mil- 
itary; to run disaster readiness and 
relief programs; and to assist in car- 
rying out the Geneva convention. 

In a century of service, the 
Red Cross has met repeated chal- 
lenges. Its first mission in the United 
States was disaster relief, for which 
it is regarded as the expert in the 
field. The Red Cross is there for 
sheltering, feeding, immediate assis- 

tance to families and surveys of 
damage. Last year, the Red Cross 
spent $48 million on disaster readi- 
ness and relief. All aid to disaster 
victims is free. 

Blood donor recruiting be- 
gan before U.S. entry into World 
War II. Today the American Red 
Cross has the world’s largest pro- 
gram for voluntarily donated blood. 

The Red Cross also has a spe- 
cial program for military members, 
their families and veterans. It’s run 
by station directors at military posts 
and hospitals and by local chapters. 

“The thing that makes us a 
little bit different from any other or- 
ganization in or out of the military 
is that we have worldwide communi- 
cations,” says Katherine Van Auken. 
Van Auken is associate director of 
the military program, called Ser- 
vices to the Armed Forces and Vet- 

Many soldiers lose touch 
with home. They find it hard to 
write about their feelings and 
thoughts. When letters home are 
few and far between, families begin 
to worry about loved ones. Fears 
grow worse. In emergencies, mail 
can take too long. 

‘‘We have a special ability to 
contact people in their home com- 
munities and to reach them on a mil- 
itary post,” Van Auken said. 

‘‘Many military families are 
still in home communities. There 
may not be a post exchange for miles 
around. There is no military hospital 
where they can take a sick child. 

‘‘They’re still back in Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, or wherever. Well, the 
Red Cross is in Keokuk as well as 
where the military person is,” she 
said. ‘‘It’s this ability to communi- 
cate back and forth in behalf of 
separated families that no other or- 
ganization has.” 

The Red Cross runs a com- 
munications center at national head- 
quarters in Washington, D.C. The 
center links local chapters with the 
U.S. military worldwide. To do this, 
it can use the military communica- 
tions network. 

The center handles 1,700 to 
2,200 high-speed overseas messages 
a day. That’s about one every 48 
seconds, day in and day out. The 

Red Cross can reach soldiers at re- 
mote outposts and sailors on ships 
at sea. 

Most of these messages are 
about emergencies — death, serious 
illness, marital problems, disasters. 
These crises often create a need for 

Italy, 1943; Top, mud in a 5th Army field 
hospital can’t stop Red Cross worker 
Nancy Wright. • Medic RFC Harvey 
White gives Red Cross plasma to a 
wounded buddy. 

counseling and other services. The 
Red Cross is ready to offer them. 

The Red Cross can get re- 
ports from families and experts in 
the community and can contact doc- i 

tors, lawyers, teachers, ministers ' 

and social workers. These reports 
help overseas soldiers and their I 

commanders make decisions about i 

emergency leave. (In the continental 
United States, a Red Cross report 

MARCH 1983 


isn’t required for emergency leave.) 

Sometimes the soldier isn’t 
needed at home. The report may 
bring reassurance. The local chap- 
ter, alerted by the report, may be 
able to counsel or aid the soldier’s 

wife and four children were left 
stranded and had to clear post 
alone. They needed money to move 
back to the states on short notice. 
The Red Cross station director in 
Giessen pitched in “before the wink 
of an eye,’’ said Landers. 

W.Va., 1924: 
The symbol 
and uniform 
made it easy 
to find a Red 
Cross public 
health nurse 
in time of ill- 
ness or emer- 

Some soldiers have families 
who are foreign citizens living in 
foreign countries. Reports on their 
health and well-being are available 
only sometimes. Many foreign soci- 
eties aren’t set up to give reports as 
the American Red Cross does. In 
some cases, the Red Cross can help 
the soldier get in touch with a doctor 
or hospital who is treating the fam- 
ily member. 

Sometimes local agencies are 
unfamiliar with the stresses of mili- 
tary life. Red Cross counseling can 
help a soldier understand problems 
and identify solutions. Soldiers 
move frequently. The Red Cross can 
supply knowledge about resources 
in new communities and make re- 
ferrals. Soldiers and their families 
may not be legal residents where 
they’re stationed. That may make 
them ineligible for local and state 
benefits. The Red Cross may have 
to help directly. 

SSgt. Cyril A. Landers 
knows how vital Red Cross aid can 
be. He was evacuated from Ger- 
many to Walter Reed Army Medical 
Center in Washington, D.C. His 

Once in Washington, Lan- 
ders’ family stayed with his older 
brother. Two days later, a fire 
burned out his brother’s home. The 
Washington Red Cross helped the. 

Landers’ stay in the hospital 
grew longer. His family again 
needed help with lodging and food 
costs. The Red Cross at Walter Reed 
helped out with a grant. “Again the 
Red Cross was available to help in a 
time of confusion, stress, aaxiety 
and humiliation,’’ said Landers. 

Red Cross helps with either 
interest-free loans or grants. Loans 
are usually repaid by allotment, 
geared to a soldier’s means. If pay- 
ments would cause extra hardship, 
then a grant is made. Sometimes 
help is a mix of a loan and grant. 
The most common types of help are: 

• Emergency leave expenses. The Red Cross 
helps soldiers who lack money for travel and 
living costs, when there's a death, serious ill- 
ness or other emergency in the family. 

• Convalescent leave expenses. Soldiers in 
military hospitals may get convalescent leave 
as part of their treatment. The Red Cross 
helps when they lack money for travel and 
living costs. 

• Travel of Mext of kia to ■ miliuirv bosplul 
oveneas. Wliea a patieat b terioavJv bl m a 
military hospital, the docion auv samaioa 
hb or her famUv. The Red Cross raa hcTf 
with travel and Uviag costs. 

• Support of families. Red Cross caa help 
with costs until a soldier's first paycheck 
comes or an allotment starts. It caa ah« help 
when either b delayed. Overseas, it helps with 
the high costs of starling np a household. 

• Stranded families. W hen a soldier's faatily 
b without mooev at a aew post or en route 
between posts. Red Cross raa help. 

Last year the Red Cross 
helped veterans and their survivors 
secure more than S350 million m 
veteran benefits, according to the 
Veterans .Administration (\ .At. Red 
Cross workers are trained »o help 
veterans apply for benefits and deal 
with the bureaucracy. Mans chap- 
ters cooperate with other groups 
and people to help sets adjust to 
civilian life. 

The Red Cross also has 
trained workers at \ .A offices. 
Members of local chapters can guide 
vets who apply for a review or cor- 
rection of their military records. 
Red Cross specialists can represent 
vets before discharge resiew and 
correction boards. 

The volunteer spirit of Clara 
Barton still guides the .American 
Red Cross. .Across the nation last 
year, 1.3 million volunteers ga%c 
their time and effort. More than 
12,000 volunteers at any one time 
are working at military posts and 
hospitals. .More than 900 are fully 
qualified case workers. They can 
provide all Red Cross help, includ- 
ing financial aid. 

Volunteerism isn’t a one-way 
street, says the Red Cross. Many 
learn the skills and self-confidence 
needed for professional life. Many 
military spouses find a sense of com- 
munity through volunteer work. 
Commanders have recognized this, 
the Red Cross says. Many posts are 
upgrading facilities and giving more 
support to volunteers. 

Confederate cannon fire 
shook a bridge across the Rappahan- 
nock River in \ irginia 1 20 years ago. 
Shrapnel tore Clara Barton’s cloth- 
ing as she crossed. But it didn’t stop 
her from bringing help to a Union 
surgeon. In peace and war. ttxJay’s 
Red Cross carries on that superb 
tradition of ser\ ice to the military . 







7 t 




“Talk about your tough outfits — each Saturday 
night, the entire battery went down to the 
club and drank-up every orange soda in the place!’ 

“Fillmond! ... In seven weeks, I want to be able to 
charge 40 pounds of you with desertion.” 

“It’s really very simple. You make out the duty 
roster, I disapprove it, make out my own and you 
type six copies.” 

MARCH 1983 



• If your car is burning more gas than you 
think it should, you may need a tune-up or other 
routine maintenance. 

An engine that needs a tune-up uses an 
average of 11 percent more gas than it would if 
it were performing up to par, says the Car Care 
Council. This percentage increases with smaller 
engines. One misfiring spark plug out of four has 
a greater effect than one out of six or eight. 

Industry reports show our nation's cars are 
in the worst shape ever, according to the council. 
The average age of an automobile is at an all- 
time high of 6.6 years. Meanwhile, because 
money has been tight and recent winters un- 
seasonably mild, many motorists have found it 
easy to postpone routine maintenance. 

Additionally, there is a misconception that 
engines with electronic ignitions are virtually 
maintenance free, that there is no need for a 
tune-up because of extended service intervals. 

It's true that electronic-ignition engines 
don't need ignition points or condensers. But 
spark plugs, distributor caps, rotors and ignition 
wiring still need periodic replacement. Adjust- 
ments of ignition timing, carburetor and choke 
are essential, as is attention to the PCV valve. 


and fuel and air filters. 

How can you tell when your engine needs a 
tune-up? The council lists the following symp- 

A noticeable increase in fuel use. Keep a 
running record of fuel used vs. mileage to be 
aware of increasing consumption. 

Rough idling or roughness on acceleration. 

Hard starting. 

Dieseling, or run-on, where the engine 
keeps running a few seconds after the ignition is 
turned off. 

Knocking or pinging, especially under load. 
This can be caused by running on fuel with too 
low an octane, but it can also be due to the need 
of a tune-up. 

A noticeable drop in power or performance. 

If your engine is a fairly simple one and you 
can get the proper tools and instruction (from 
books or a crafts shop instructor), you can save 
some money by doing your own tune-ups. Other- 
wise, the council advises having a professional 
mechanic do it. 

Another factor that can reduce gas mileage 
is rolling resistance. When underinflated, tires 
don't roll as easily as they should and it takes 
more energy to keep the car in motion. If tires 
are underinflated by four pounds, gas consump- 
tion goes up about 8 percent. 

Rolling resistance due to incorrect wheel 
alignment also cuts gas mileage. A one-quarter 
inch misalignment can cost about 2 percent. 

Misalignment and underinflation can dras- 
tically cut tire life, too. 

If the thermostat in the cooling system is 
missing or stuck in the open position, the engine 
could run too cool. This could cut mileage 
another 7 percent. A sticking choke could cut 
mileage even more. 

Now take a car that normally gets 20 miles 
per gallon and assume it's driven 1,000 miles per 
month and gas costs $1.40 per gallon. 

Needing a tune-up could add $7.70 to the 
monthly gas bill. Tire underinflation could add 
$5.60 and misalignment, $1.40. Add $4.90 for a 
bad thermostat and you'd waste $19.60 every 



(More What’s New on Pages 2, 56) 

Maintenance Award 

• U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) units can 
compete for a Department of the Army award 
for maintenance excellence. 

The new annual award to the company or 
battery with the best maintenance operation, is 
sponsored by the American Defense Preparedness 

Major subordinate USAREUR commands 
may nominate one unit in each of three cate- 
gories by Nov. 1. The categories, based on 
pieces of authorized equipment, are light (50-700 
pieces), intermediate (701-1000 pieces) and 
heavy (more than 1,000). 

The USAREUR logistics office will eval- 
uate nominees in five areas - readiness, training, 
management, cost and innovation - and select 
finalists by mid-January to represent the com- 
mand in the Armywide competition. USAREUR 
awards will be presented to the winners and 
runners-up in each category. 


• CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical 
Program for the Uniformed Services) claims for 
Arizona, California, Nevada and New Mexico are 
now being processed by Blue Cross of Washing- 

The new CHAMPUS claims processor is 
offering a toll-free number for questions about 
claims. People in the four-state area can call 
(800) 426-8802. 

Blue Cross of Washington/Alaska also has a 
different post office box number for claims from 
each of the four states. The post office box 
numbers are: 

Arizona, P.O. Box 1808; 

California, P.O. Box 1231; 

Nevada, P.O. Box 2616; 

New Mexico, P.O. Box 21364. 

Using the correct post office box number, 
send claims to Blue Cross of Washington/Alaska, 
Seattle, Wash. 98111. 

• EXJAM, an artillery shell 
that delivers expendable communi- 
cations jammers, right, was found 
to be gun-rugged and safe to fire 
during engineering tests at Yuma 
Proving Ground. 

The 155mm EXJAM howitzer 
round contains several jammers 
that are released at preset intei^ 
vals during flight. When the jam- 
mers hit the ground, they are 
imbedded one to three inches. An 
antenna is then deployed and jam- 
ming begins automatically within 
seconds. EXJAM can disrupt 
nearly every type of communica- 
tions, according to Howard Phalan, 
an EXJAM project leader. 

The shell was developed by 
the Army Electronics Research and 
Development Command's Signals 
Warfare Laboratory. Joseph W. 
Miller, a project engineer, pointed 
out that the jammers are harder to 
detect and less expensive than 
those now in the field. 

Re-up Priorities 

• The Army has set up re- 
enlistment priorities and screening 
boards in an effort to keep top- 
quality first-termers. E-5s are 
priority one and those on an E5 
promotion list are priority two. 
They may re-enlist if qualified and 
recommended by their commander. 
E-4s and E-3s are priority three 
and should apply for re-enlistment 
at least seven months before their 
release date. If the unit command- 
er recommends approval, the appli- 
cation will be considered. 

• A change to the Veterans 
Administration loan guaranty pol- 
icy now allows veterans to take 
part in home purchase programs 
that benefit low and moderate in- 
come families. The new policy 
applies to conventional and mobile 
homes, but not to those sold with 
age restrictions to the owner. 

MARCH 1983 


(More What's Ne^ on Pages 2. S4 

New Patch, Crests Designed 

• The Institute of Heraldry, Cameron Station, Va., has designed 
a shoulder patch, above left, for the National Training Center 
(NTC), Fort Irwin, Calif. The nine-sided green insignia has 
converging arrowheads of infantry blue, armor yellow and artillery 
red that symbolize NTC's mission and capabilities. 

The new Fort Dix, N.J., crest, second from left, has a green 
silhouetted soldier over a gold compass rose on a blue and red disc. 
The other units crests are, left to right, for the 203rd Military 
Intelligence Battalion, Fort Monmouth, N.J.; the 341st Medical 
Group (USAR), Seagoville, Texas; and the 505th Engineer Battalion, 
North Carolina National Guard. 

Article 15 Records Can Be Moved 

• Officers and enlisted soldiers in grades E-6 and above may now 
petition the Department of the Army Suitability Evaluation Board 
(DASEB) to transfer records of Article 15s from the performance to 
the restricted portion of their official file. 

The board will not normally consider petitions unless the 
Article 15 has been in the file for at least a year and the soldier has 
received at least one official evaluation report (other than an 
academic report). Petitions and appeals that don't fall within these 
limits may be returned without action. 

The board considers the member's age and grade at the time of 
Article 15; severity and circumstances of offenses; performance 
before and after the Article 15 was imposed; recommendations of 
imposing officials or the current chain of command, or both; effect 
of the Article 15 on the petitioner's career; and the quality of 
evidence presented. 

A favorable ruling by DASEB will not be the basis for special 
selection board consideration. DASEB also will not act on requests 
that Article 15 records be removed because of error or injustice. 
Such requests are handled in different channels. 

Petitions must be made before Nov. 1, 1985, or within three 
years after the Article 15 was imposed or the appeal was denied, or 
within three years of making E-6, whichever is later. Petitions must 
be submitted to the President, DA Suitability Evaluation Board, 
HQDA (DAPE-MPC-E), Washington, D.C. 20310. 

PX Sells Furniture 

• Thirteen post exchanges in 
the United States now have casual 
living furniture departments. A 
new Defense Department directive 
now allows exchanges to sell 
"knockdown" furniture - types that 
are completely disassembled and 
can be assembled by customers. 
The stores stock traditional and 
modern designs in wood, glass and 
chrome for living rooms, family 
rooms, dining rooms, kitchens and 
children's rooms. Exchanges must 
have at least 500 square feet for 
furniture displays before they can 
join the program. The posts cur- 
rently carrying the furniture are 
Forts Knox and Camp>t>ell, Ky.; 
Leonard Wood, Mo.; Riley, Kan.; 
Carson, Colo.; Lewis, Wash.; 
Eustis, Va.; Dix, N.J.; Polk, La.; 
Sill, Okla; and Sam Houston, Bliss | 
and Hood, Texas. Others will be i 
added when space can be allocated, j 

Overseas Births 

• Soldiers will no longer have 
to get a Certificate of Citizenship 
for family members born overseas. 
Public Law 97-241, passed Aug. 
24, 1982, now makes an unexpired 
full-validity U.S. passport and the 
Foreign Service Report of Birth 
Abroad acceptable proof of U.S. 

ARMRs Out 

• The Army will reorganize the 
Army Reserve management struc- 
ture by eliminating the nine Army 
Readiness and Mobilization Regions 
(ARMR) and adding two continental 
army headquarters. ARMR func- 
tions and resources will be passed 
on to continental armies, readiness 
groups. Army Reserve commands 
and other headquarters. 





here were wet nights and long road 
arches, cold C’s for dinner and a 
jriissed meal. You attacked, defended 
jind counter-attacked, and saw Ger- 
nany from the loader’s hatch of an 
k-60 tank. You proved you are among 
he finest. You came to do a job, and 
lid it with style. But REFORGER, just 
ke this day, is done. Now it’s time 
b clean up and go home. 

1 [ 






■ j 
1 ] 

r i 


. „ CW cSBoWM^^7„;anO-«' “"rp oC«" '° 

co»““ "Tf.“ I'"' ' 


John O. Marsh Jr. Gen. E.C. Meyer Maj. Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. Col. John E. Taylor 

Secretary of the Army Chief of Staff Chief of Public Affairs Chief, Command Information 





j 38 
I 40 

Cross-Country Tracks 

Tank crews have a good thing going with the M-1 

Graf Upgrade 

Working to make a target range like no other 

The Patriots 

From 13 “colonists” to a united 500 

Deadline at le Shima 

Ernie Pyle hated war, but couldn’t stay away 

Maverick Garners Heart 

Army supports Rockford’s claims 

From Dispensary to Medical Center 

The story of Brooke AMC 

ISR: Famous for Its Care 

These burn specialists make house calls 

Getting More for Your Banking Dollar 

It’s a jungle out there for consumers 


Making ends meet can be painless — almost 

Get a Headstart 

Learn the language before you go 

Come Fly With Me 

Redlegs can be airborne too 

Shoot-Out in Peking 

U.S. sharpshooters are on target 

The Ranger Challenge 

The black beret can’t be bought 

The Wild World of Golf 

Having a ball with this swinging game 

Major Howard 

You’d want him on your side 

All Was Calm — Until . . . 

Bloody Tuesday at City Point, Va. 



What’s New 


1 Sports Stop 




Home Front 




1 Lighter Side 





PAGE 38 

PAGE 46 

Credits: Front cover art by Anne Genders; inside front cover photo by SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer; inside back cover photos by 
Maj. Dick C rossiand and John Pinderhughes; back cover photo by Air Force SSgt. Bob Simons. 

Editor in Chief, Lt. Coi. Charies G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor, Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor, Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor, 
Maj. Keith P. Schneider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Assistant Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SFC Norman Oliver, SSgt. 

! Victoria Mouze, SSgt. Terri Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer; Executive Secretary. Sharon Stewart; and Secretary. Dolores King. 

SOLDIERS, the Army's official magazine, is published under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timely, factual information on policies, plans, operations 
and technical developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Department 
lof the Army civilian employees. It also conveys views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in 
ilachieving information objectives of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is authorized to; Editor, SOLDIERS. Cameron 
jStation, Alexandria, Va. 22314, ■ Phone; AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial (202)-274-6672. ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except tor cartoons, "by permission" and 
jcopyright items) material may be reprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. ■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military 
f; distribution; From the Army Adjutant General Publications Center, 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21220, in accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by com- 
imanders. ■ Individual subscriptions; $31 annually to stateside and APO addresses; $38.75 to foreign addresses. ■ Individual paid subscriptions are available through the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department of the Army, 
iDec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number; UA 23.A1S6. ■ SOLDIERS (ISSN 0093-8440) is mailed monthly at second-class rate from Alexandria, Va., and elsewhere. 



Wickham Nominated for CSA 

• Gen, John A. Wickham Jr. has been nominated to become the 
30th Army chief of staff. Wickham, vice chief since June 1982, <»ill 
succeed Gen, Edward C. Meyer, who will retire in June. 

In accepting President Reagan's nomination, Wickham said, 
"The task will be to ensure that the Army is provided with the best 
leadership, best training and best equipment possible as we fulfill 
national security tasks." 

His past assignments include commands of an infantry battal- 
ion with the 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam, a brigade in the 3rd 
Infantry Division, and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). In 
addition, Wickham was the commander of 8th U.S. Army and U.S. 
Forces, Korea, and commander in chief of the U.N. Command, and 
served as senior military assistant to two secretaries of defense. 

"He's a combat veteran with an outstanding record of courage 
and valor," said Army Secretary John O. Marsh. "He possesses a 
concern and an understanding for the individual soldier and the 
proven capacity to deal with policy decisions at the highest levels.” 

The New York native is a 1950 West Point graduate. His 
awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with two 
oak leaf clusters. Silver Star with oak leaf cluster. Legion of Merit 
with three oak leaf clusters. Bronze Star with valor device. Purple 
Heart, and Expert and Combat Infantryman badges. 

Discount Bus Fares Offered 

• Active duty military personnel and their families, and service 
academy cadets can take advantage of special discount bus fares 
when traveling at their own expense within the 48 contiguous states. 

The discount fares are offered by 64 bus companies and are 
patterned after a 1982 discount program that expired in December. 
The discounts apply to interstate travel only. 

When the standard adult one-way fare is between $30 and $40, 
the reduced fare will be $30. A 25 percent discount will apply when 
the adult one-way fare is between $40 and $60. The discount fare is 
a flat $45 when the standard fare is between $60 and $75. Fares of 
more than $75 will be discounted 40 percent, 

Servicemembers are not required to wear uniforms to take 
advantage of the discounts. Travelers must, however, be prepared 
to show military identification. 

Family members must travel with their military sponsors to 
receive the discounts. Children aged 5 and under may travel free. 

Return Defective Lawn Mowers 

• The Lawn-Boy 21-inch, self-propelled lawn mower (model 
8240) has been removed from exchange shelves until modification is 
made to the mower's blade brake clutch. Owners of this model lawn 
mower should take it to a local lyawn-Boy service center. 

• Soldiers who want to start 
direct pay deposits with a bank or 
other tinancial institution are re- 
quired to fill out an additional form 
because of a recent change in the 
method of transferring monies. 

A completed SF 1199A (Auth- 
orization for Deposit of Recurring 
Payments) must accompany the D \ 
Form 3685 (JUMPS Army Pay Flec- 
tions) if a soldier selects the 
check-to-bank option for the first 
time, or if changing any existing 
deposit instructions. 

The remarks portion of the 
Leave and Earnings Statement will 
note a routing number beside the 
financial organization's name and 
the word "guaranteed" will be re- 
placed by the term "direct 
deposit." The changes stem from 
the Treasury De(xirtment's shift 
from composite checks to an elec- 
tronic fund-transfer system. 



Compiled by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

(More What’s New on Pages 54-56) 

Improved M-16 

• Though it may not happen for a few years, 
when the Army buys new rifles, it will buy the 
M-16A2 (shown at left), the improved version of 
the M-16. The improvements to the rifle 

-a heavier barrel with increased rifling 
twist, to provide more accuracy and longer range 
with the heavier NATO standard SS109 5.56mm 
ammunition (called M855 in the United States); 

-automatic fire changed to three-round 

-a new rear sight adjustment knob that can 
be grasped with the fingers, and a square-edged 
front sight; 

-rounded handguards for better cooling, and 
a redesigned slip ring that makes handguard 
removal easier; 

-changes to the upper receiver to deflect 
cartridges away from faces of left-handed 

-a buttstock that is five-eighths of an inch 
longer, to improve the user's line of sight; and 

-elimination of the lower slot in the flash 
suppressor to retard muzzle climb during auto- 
matic fire. 

The Marine Corps plans to replace all its 
M-16A1S within five years. The Army will 
replace them only as they wear out. 

Catalytic Converter Changeover 

• Automobiles shipped to the United States from another 
country must meet U.S. emission control standards. Military Traffic 
Management Command officials warn. In many cases, that means 
reinstalling the catalytic converter, oxygen sensor and other 
emission control components which were removed before taking the 
car overseas. This must be done at the overseas port or in the states 
within five days after picking up the car at the U.S. port. In the 
latter case, the parts must be shipped with the car. 

If you have been burning leaded gas in an unleaded-only engine, 
without removing the emission control components, you will have to 
replace them at the port or ship new ones with the car for 
installation in the states. 

Overseas Ford owners can get new catalytic converters at a 
discount by contacting the Ford Export Division, 153 Halsey St., 
Newark, N.J. 07102. 

• The new Retirement Points 
Accounting System (RPAS) for 
members of the Reserve Compo- 
nents is now in use for individual 
ready reservists. Unit members 
should be included in the system by 
late summer. The old system 
provided a statement of points 
earned during the current year 
only. Under RPAS, reservists will 
receive statements that will show 
all points earned. The statements 
will go out annually, following the 
member's retirement year ending 
date. To correct errors on the 
statements, send documentation to 
the address on the form. 

APRIL 1983 



Your January issue of SOLDIERS 
was excellent but I would like to point 
out one mistake. The photograph of a 
B Company ranger on page 18 was 
identified as RFC Mark Beaudro. This 
is incorrect. The ranger in that photo 
is then - RFC Thomas R. Williams, 
since promoted to specialist four. I 
would appreciate a correction to that 

Sp4 Thomas R. Williams 

Fort Lewis, Wash. 

We checked again with the 
photographer, and he has verified that 
the soldier pictured is - as originally 
identified - PFC Mark Beaudro. May- 
be you have a twin. 


I have read your January 1983 issue 
of SOLDIERS, and was very dis- 
appointed with little or no mention 
about signal soldiers. 

Most of our job is not just training. 
It is the real thing to have day-to-day 
communications that support the sol- 
diers you mention so they can perform 
their training. You also omitted us in 

paragraph 5, page 1 5. 

A command is nothing without 
communications. So give us a full 
page like the ones you gave the MRs or 
the medics. 

Sp5 John H. Edmond Jr. 

Fort Monroe, Va. 

We, too, were disappointed. None of 
your signal comrades thought June 17, 
1982, to be important enough to sub- 
mit usable photographs to us of their 
activities on that day. All input for 
that day was solicited through several 
channels. In other words, we used 
what we received. It's too bad signal 
photographers out there failed to 
capture their own corps in photos. 

Several readers have written us 
about the front cover (at right) of the 
January 1983 issue on "A Day in the 
Life of the Army." Here is a response 
to their comments: 

Sgt. Dekleermaeker and his fellow 
soldiers as shown in the photograph are 
members of a Gabriel demonstration 
team at Ft. Bragg, N.C. The informa- 
tion originally on the photo submitted 

to us was incorrect. 

As a general rule, soldters who 
wear the beret in garrison wear tF< 
steel pot or BDL' cap in a tacucat 
environment. Exceptions are a matter 
of local command policy. Spectai | 
Forces soldiers, as member ^ of mobilo^ 
training teams in foreign countries, 
could wear the beret for identification ^ 
purposes. ' 

Dekleermaeker is wearing camou- 
flaged jungle fatigues, not a battle 
dress uniform. As the commies wear 
out that Bragg Green Berets recen'ed 
as organizational clothing, they are 
being replaced by BDL's. How or when 
sleeves are rolled is another matter of 
local policy. Also, Army Regulation 
670-1, which contains information on 
uniform wear, does not address the 
wearing of jewelry, subdued or other- 
wise, in a tactical environment. 

Finally, DekleermaekeHs weapon 
was purposely modified to be in- 
operative. The M-I6 which he was 
carrying in the photo was permanently 
inoperative after it was determined to 
be uneconomical to repair. 

4 - 




Bravo! Your January 1983 issue, 
"A Day in the Life of the Army," was a 
masterpiece. The varied photos and 
superb text complemented each other 
perfectly. In one single issue you have 
captured a realistic, true-to-life an- 
swer to the question, "What do people 
in the Army do?" This is something 
that countless government-contracted 
advertising agencies have been trying 
to do for years — usually with minimal 

Personnel assigned to duties requir- 
ing extensive contact with the civilian 
community (recruiting, ROTC, etc.) 
have never had a more effective re- 
cruiting publicity item than this issue 
of SOLDIERS. The meager quantity I 
received was quickly exhausted 
through distribution to ROTC students, 
prospects, and campus leaders alike. 
Everyone seems to find it interesting 
and very informative. Several people 
have asked me for additional copies. 

Congratulations to SSgt. Kieffer, 
Maj. Bernath, Mr. Zidek, and all others 
who did a splendid job in this pro- 
fessional example of military 

Capt. John L. Hutchinson 

Southwest Missouri State Univ. 

Thanks for the kudos. Many 
others like the special issue as well. 
Hope we can surprise you with some- 
thing again in January. 


In your article "Airborne Cyclists," 
which appeared in SOLDIERS, Decem- 
ber 1982, you stated that motorbikes 
were also being used by the lOlst 
Airborne Division and the 4th Battal- 
ion, 9th Cavalry, at Fort Hood. 
Omitted were the motorcycle scouts 
of our unit — the 2nd Squadron (AIR), 
lOth Cavalry, 7th Infantry Division. 

The Buffalo soldiers received their 
Yamaha XT 250s in August 1981 and 

have made significant innovations in 
their utilization ever since. We have 
fabricated motorcycle racks for our 
UH-I aircraft, and our cyclists are 
routinely deployed from aircraft to 
perform remote scouting missions. 
Our scouts have been deployed to the 
National Training Center at Fort 
Irwin, Calif., and Cowan Field. Idaho. 
In the spring of 1982 they were de- 
ployed to Korea for Team Spirit '82 in 
support of the 3rd Battalion, 32d In- 
fantry, 7th Infantry Division. In June 
1982 they participated in the Calif- 
ornia National Airshow. 

Far from being an "also ran," the 
motorcycle platoon of the 2nd Squad- 
ron (AIR), 1 0th Cavalry, has made 
great strides in developing the employ- 
ment techniques which will enhance 
the effectiveness of the motorcycle on 
the modern battlefield. 

Capt. John T. Plant Jr. 

Fort Ord, Calif. 

Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 39 years 
ago. As I'm in this picture, could I get 
a big blowup of it? My unit was 
Company A, 132 Infantry, Americal 

SFC Jack C. Henley, USAR 
Elk City, Okla. 

Sorry, we can't release the only 
photo we have of your tank. But 
you're still in luck. You may order the 
photo as large as you probably want 
from the following address: 

Defense Audiovisual Agency 
Still Photo Depository 
Room 5A518 

Washington, D.C. 20310 
Use photo reference number SC-USA- 
320560. Sizes available and prices are 
as follows: 8x10 black and white 

glossy, $1.25; 11x14 matte finish, 

$4.20; 16x20 matte, $5.50; and 20x24 
matte, $7.75. 

Right you are! Thanks for keep- 
ing our wheels on track. 


In SOLDIERS, September 1981, 
page 22, is a picture of a tank. Lucky 
Legs II, and men in a firefight. 

This is the tank I worked behind on 

SOLDIERS is for soldiers and DA civilians. We Invite 
readers' views. Stay under 150 words — a postcard will 
do — and include your name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire and may condense 
views because of space. We- can't publish or answer 
every one but we'll use representative views. Send 
your letter to: Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, 
Alexandria. VA 22314. 



Sp4 Buck Bfignano 



SSgt. Victoria M| 

These guys have a fighting machine that goes from zero to 20 iri 
seconds flat, has 1,500 horses under the hood and weighs 60 toil 


THERE’S something akin to a love 
affair going on between some tank- 
ers and 120,000 pounds of rolling 
steel. There is pride in the men’s 
voices when they call their tank the 
most accurate, fastest, and smooth- 
est one around. They say if ever put 
to the ultimate test, they’d feel 
much safer going into battle with it. 

The object of this affection is 
the Army’s M-1 Abrams tank. The 
tank’s fan club is members of 2nd 
Battalion, 67th Armor, 2nd Ar- 

mored Division, Fort Hood, Texas, 
and 1st and 2nd Battalions, 64th 
Armor, 3rd Infantry Division, Kitz- 
ingen. West Germany. 

The M-1 is the Army’s first 
new main battle tank in about 20 
years. It is replacing the M-60 series 

The M-1 program started in 
December 1971 after Congress nixed 
two other tank designs, the MBT-70 
and the XM-803, as too expensive 
and complex. After nine years of de- 
velopment, limited M-1 production 
began in February 1980 at the Lima 
Army Tank Plant in Lima, Ohio. 

In the fall of 1980, opera- 
tional tests were made at Forts 
Knox, Ky., and Hood, Texas. The 
Lima plant started full-scale pro- 
duction in November 1981. The 
Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in War- 
ren, Mich., became the second pro- 
ducer in March 1982. 

The tank was fielded last 
year and boasts state-of-the-art com- 
puterized fire control, a 1,500-horse- 
power gas-turbine engine, and im- 
proved crew protection. Mainte- 
nance is also easier. 

Tankers in Company C, 2nd 
Battalion, 67th Armor, got their 
M-ls early last year. The unit was 
part of the Army’s first fully opera- 
tional M-1 tank battalion. “We 
thought it might be too complicated 
for the tankers to go from the M-60s 
to the M-1,’’ said Capt. Rick Werner, 
company commander. “At first, the 
training process was long and drawn 
out. But we learned that the soldiers 
picked it up very quickly. The tran- 
sition isn’t tough.’’ 

“When I first saw the tank, I 
thought it was too complex,’’ said 
SSgt. Ronald Coplan, a C Company 
tank commander. “I took one look 
inside the turret, saw all that high 
tech stuff, and thought, ‘Wow, is 
this tank ever going to be hard to 
learn.’ But after I trained on it and 
studied it, it wasn’t. It looks com- 
plicated, but anyone can handle the 
simplified computer.’’ 

The digital ballistic computer 
is part of the tank’s fire control sys- 
tem. Once the gunner identifies the 
target, he lines up the cross hairs, 
selects the type of ammunition he 
wants and pushes a button that 

starts the tank’s laser rangefinder. 

While the rangefinder mea- 
sures the distance to the target, 
other instruments take readings that 
will affect the flight of the round. 
The data is automatically fed into 
the computer. 

“When we fired the M-60’s 
main gun, we had to stay station- 
ary,’’ Werner said. “But, we can 
shoot on the move with the M-1.’’ 
An M-1 crew can zip along at speeds 
up to 30 mph over the roughest ter- 
rain and the main gun will stay on 
target. The gun’s stabilizer takes 
care of that. It senses every motion 
of the tank and sends signals to the 
hydraulic system that controls the 
turret, keeping it on target. 

“We get a higher percentage 
of first-round hits with the M-1 than 
with the M-60,’’ said Cpl. Darrell 
Hawkins, a loader assigned to C 
Company. “The main gun is defi- 
nitely more accurate and faster.’’ 

“Plus, we have improved 
night-firing capabilities,’’ said gun- 
ner Sp5 Michael Dameron, also of C 
Company. “With the M-60, we had 
to use flares and searchlights to illu- 
minate the target, but that gave our 
position away. But with the M-l’s 
TIS (thermal imaging day/night 
sight), we can see everything with- 
out that danger.’’ 

Dameron said that when he 
turns on the TIS at night, everything 
looks like daylight. Greenish, ghost- 
like images with super-imposed 
cross-hairs appear in the sight. The 
TIS also lets the crew fire in all 
kinds of conditions, including dust, 
haze and smoke screens. 

“You just can’t compare the 
two tanks in terms of the fire con- 
trol system,’’ Werner said. “It’s 
definitely an improvement. 

“Another good point is im- 
proved mobility,’’ Werner said. 
“The speed and smoothness of the 
ride are the best things about the 
M-1.’’ The tank’s 1,500-horsepower 
turbine engine has twice the M-60’s 
horsepower. It can go from zero to 
20 mph in just 7 seconds. And for a 
tank weighing 60 tons, that ain’t 
bad. Top speed with a governor is 
45 mph on hard surfaces and 30 
mph cross-country. Top road speed 
for the M-60A3 is 30 mph. The en- 



MSgl Rick Diaz 

A .50-caliber and two 7.62mm machine guns and a 105mm main gun make up the M-1's 
armament. The main gun can lock on target and shoot while the tank is on the move 
over the roughest terrain. 

gine, improved torsion-bar springs 
and rotary shock absorbers give 
tankers a much smoother ride. 

“I just can’t believe it when 
we ride over rough terrain,” said 
SSgt. Ollie Lowder, a tank com- 
mander with Company C, 1st Bat- 
talion, 64th Armor, 3rd Infantry Di- 
vision, Kitzingen, West Germany. 
“The tank’s stability is great. When 
we hit those big holes, the ride is as 
smooth as a Cadillac. By being 
smoother, you don’t have to con- 
centrate as much on the terrain. You 
can think more about your job, like 
looking for fields of fire or targets.” 

Lowder also said that he 
would feel 100 percent safer going 
into combat with the M-1 than with 
the M-60. “You just can’t compare 
the survivability of this with the 
M-60. If I went in with a ’60, I’d feel 
as safe as if I were in a submarine 
made out of screen doors.” 

“I’ve never been shot at in an 
M-1, but from what I’ve seen I’d 
definitely feel more confident in 
one,” Werner said. He said he had 
seen a movie where an M-1 was fired 
upon by Soviet tank guns. The M-1 
was then driven down a tank course 
and was still operational. 

The tank’s special armor 
protects the crew from all known 
armor-piercing ammo. That’s be- 
cause of improved, layered and 
spaced armor that can break up 
.solid projectiles or shaped-charge 
gases. If charges stowed inside the 
crew compartment were set off, 
blowoff doors on the tank’s top, or 
bustle, would break away, sending 
the explosion away from the crew. 

Sliding steel doors separate 
the crew from on-board main-gun 
ammunition and protect them from 
its possible detonation. .After the 
loader takes out a round, the door 
automatically closes. 

Although the M-1 is more so- 
phisticated than older tanks, it’s 
easier to maintain and repair. Easy 
maintenance is built-in. For exam- 
ple, a mechanic can pull mainte- 
nance on 70 percent of the engine 
and transmission without having to 
remove them. If they do need re- 
moving, it takes about one hour 
compared to almost four required 
on the M-60. 

The M-l’s oil never needs 
changing. The tank even has built-in 
test equipment that lets the driver 
and mechanics know if something is 

“The maintenance isn’t hard 
at all,” said SFC Orlando Lacy, a 
platoon sergeant with Company C. 
2nd Battalion, 67th Armor. “The 

parts and components are \er\ ac- 
cessible. e don’t base problems 
with that. 

hat we do ha\e problems 
with is the engine’s air filter ssv 
tern,” Lacy said. “Dust clogs the 
filter, causing it to overheat.” 

\S hen that happens. Damer- 
on and Hawkins said, you just take 
the filter out. clean it and put it back 
in. “Then, you’re ready to roll.” 
Dameron added. 

While the 67th’s tankers at 
Hood had problems with the air fil- 
ter. the 64th’s tankers in Germany- 
had problems with track life. “They 
get chewed up pretty quick.” said 
Pvt. 2 Kenneth Henery. a driver as- 
signed to Company A. 2nd Battal- 
ion. 64th .Armor. “That’s a bad 

The .Army is working on these 
problems. For example, improve- 
ment efforts are under way for the 
tracks, which are lightweight by 
design and haven’t yet met their 
2.000-mile design life. 

Engineers with the Tank 
.Automotive Command in Warren. 
Mich., are researching ways to make 
the parts better to improve the tank. 
Changes include replacing the cur- 
rent 105mm main gun with a 120mm. 
the same one used on West Ger- 
many’s Leopard 2 tank, and adding 
a nuclear, biological, chemical over- 
pressure system. Production of the 
improved tank is due in 1985. with 
fielding set for 1987. 

For the time being, though, 
tankers like the M-1 . As Werner put 
it, “Once a tanker gets on an M-1. 
he’ll never go back to a ’60.” 

An M-1 tank crew travels through Gailsbach, West Germany, during REFORGER '82. 
M-1s made their European field training debut during the exercise. 




Story and Photos by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 


The M-1 Abrams can hit targets while traveling at speeds of about 50 kilometers per hour. The 7th Army Training Command’s Grafen- 
woehr ranges are being upgraded so crews can fully exploit the Abrams and, when they come on line, the Bradley fighting vehicles. 

THERE’S one sure way to bring 
folks out of the woodwork. Just 
publicly state that you have the big- 
gest, smallest, shortest, tallest, skin- 
niest, fattest, fastest, slowest, pret- 
tiest, ugliest — or any other “-est” 
you can come up with — anything. 
Quicker than you can say, “That’s a 
fact,’’ everyone in the entire world 
will try to prove you wrong. 

That doesn’t scare the com- 
mander of 7th Army’s 18th Engi- 
neer Brigade, Karlsruhe, West Ger- 

“Unequivocally,’’ said Col. 
Charles E. Williams, “this is the 
largest troop construction project 
our Army has undertaken since 
World War 11.’’ 

Williams was talking about a 
three-year project to upgrade ranges 
at the 7th Army Training Com- 
mand’s Grafenwoehr Training Area. 
He backed up his claim with a lot of 

During Graf ’82, as they 
dubbed the first phase of the proj- 

ect, engineers worked non-stop on 
six of the training ranges from April 
into November. 

Augmented by V Corps’ 
317th Combat Engineer Battalion 
and VII Corps’ 82nd Combat Engi- 
neer Battalion, the brigade had one 
support and six construction battal- 
ions working on the project. 

They put in 550 target pits, 
17 moving target systems, and 44 
firing positions. They built 52 kilo- 
meters of roads, dug 33 kilometers 
of trenching for electrical cables, 
and erected five kilometers of fenc- 
ing. The engineers also built 24 con- 
crete turn pads to keep tanks from 
screwing themselves into the ground 
when they make 90-degree turns. 
Add to all that 16 pre-engineered 
buildings for field messing and 
sleeping facilities. 

This month, Graf ’83 begins. 
The final phase of the project is 
scheduled to begin next year. 

Last year’s introduction of 
the Abrams tank to U.S. Army, 

Europe, and the pending arrival of 
the Bradley fighting vehicles there 
drove the upgrading of the ranges. 

“The Abrams can move at 50 
kilometers per hour, acquire a target 
and kill it,’’ said Maj. Tom Gray, 
Grafenwoehr Training Area opera- 
tions officer. “So, we had to take a 
look at weapons systems capabilities 
vs. the ranges to support them.’’ 

Shooting on the move, the 
Abrams engages five separate tar- 
gets over 9,300 meters of road. No 
range at Grafenwoehr could handle 
that. More course roads had to be 

“One thing is for sure,’’ 
Gray said. “Graf isn’t going to get 
any larger.’’ The amount of space 
available is fixed. So new ranges 
couldn’t be built nor old ones ex- 
panded, Gray explained. Existing 
ranges had to be modified to accom- 
modate the fast-moving weapons 

With the limited amount of 
space, tanks have to make more than 

APRIL 1983 


Ma|. Don Maple 

one pass to get through all their re- 
quired tasks. That meant putting in 
more targets to keep the gunner from 
seeing the same scenario on each 
pass. So to satisfy a need for three 
tank targets, nine were installed. 

The moving targets, like the 
weapons system firing at them, are 
more sophisticated than older ver- 
sions. The variable-speed moving 
targets can travel on elevated rails at 
speeds of up to 50 kilometers per 
hour, make turns and move up 8 
percent grades. Because the rails 
follow the contour of the ground, 
the targets simulate combat vehicles 
on the battlefield. Gray explained. 

All the targets on the upgrad- 
ed ranges are hooked up to the con- 
trol tower by electrical cables. In 
each tower, a programmable control 
unit (PCU) controls the targets and 
scores hits. Various scenarios can be 
programmed into the PCU. During 
the firing, the PCU shows when a 
target popped up, how long it was 
up, and how many times it was hit. 
The unit can also give a printout 
showing a vehicle’s total hits. Scor- 
ers no longer have to peer down- 
range through binoculars to deter- 
mine hits. 

Much of the upgrade work 
had to be done in an impact area. 
Over the years, thousands of high- 
explosive rounds have been fired in- 
to the area. Not all of them explod- 
ed. A slight movement could set off 


those duds. Before the engineers 
could start putting in new target pits 
and course roads, they had to make 
a safe place to work. 

Clearing the entire impact 
area would have been an impossible 
task. So the engineers and explosive 
ordnance disposal (EOD) people 
cleared only those areas where work 
was to be done. 

An engineer range clearing 
battalion and an EOD detachment 
spent a month and a half clearing 
the range. Walking shoulder to 
shoulder, the engineers swept the 
area, identifying and marking duds. 
Then they had to go back through to 
confirm their findings before the 
EOD team blew the duds in place. 

“Basically, we’re working in 
the middle of a minefield." Wil- 

liams said. “Thai’s got to make you 
a little nervous.” 

Nervous or not. morale wa> 
high. The challenge of the projeci 
seemed to offset the family separa- 
tions. long hours and grueling work. 

“\S hai has fine-tuned morale 
is that the soldiers working here are 
doing the job they joined the Arms 
to do.” W illiams said. “It's a real- 
time project. They’\e moved din. 
blown things up. put concrete down 
and it stayed. The\ are working 
harder and happier." 

"It gives us a chance to use 
our skills, our abilities.” said Sj'sJ 
.lames Sieverson. Companv B. v''2nd 
Engineers.” as he pushed a plate | 
compactor up the sloping ground 
near a target pit. “It's a challenge to 
do both combat engineering and 




Clockwise, from top left: Soldiers of 
Company B, 82nd Engineer Battal- 
ion, fuel a bucket loader during Graf 
’82. • Others shovel in earth around 
new concrete target pits • which is 
then tamped down with a plate com- 
pactor. • Drainage is a problem 
solved with a lot of pick and shovel 
work. • One of the improvements 
going into the Grafenwoehr ranges 
is new moving targets. The targets 
travel on rails high enough off the 
ground that they won’t be impeded 
by rain. The targets follow the con- 
tour of the ground, make turns and 
can move at up to 50 kilometers per 
hour, and more closely represent a 
vehicle on a battlefield than older 
types of targets. • After running its 
course, the target returns to its con- 
crete shelter. 

r construction engineering.” 

' As Steverson pushed, Sp4 

Anthony Ryland and Pvt. 2 Dave 
j McCoy pulled the compactor with 
I rakes hooked to the machine, 
i “The worst part is putting up 

j with the weather,” Steverson con- 

1 “The rain, mud and all 

[ that,” McCoy added. 

[ “This thing gets stuck in the 
I mud,” Ryland explained. 

: “Everything gets stuck,” 

McCoy said. 

j The weather was a major ob- 

stacle last year. 

“A good rain can delay us 
i two to three days,” Williams ex- 
[ plained. “We have to take care of 
i! the water, then repair any damage 
i that was done. It seems we spend 

more time putting in temporary 
drainage than anything else.” 

The first year’s effort includ- 
ed more than half of all the up- 
grades scheduled, so the last two 
years won’t be as hard, Army of- 
ficials in the Pentagon noted. 

Williams pointed out the 
engineers made 141 field changes to 
the original design last year. As they 
worked, they learned a lot about 
how to do the project. 

“It’s like baking a cake,” 
Williams said. “We didn’t have the 
recipe before. As we started explor- 
ing what we were supposed to build, 
we saw how things could be im- 

To the soldiers who will use 
the upgraded ranges, the value of 
the project lies in the finished proj- 

ect. To the engineers, however, the 
real value is in the hands-on doing 
and learning. 

“This is without question the 
best training engineer soldiers can 
get,” Williams said. “After six 
months’ experience, they probably 
are the best trained soldiers I have 
seen in 21 years of service.” 

The key to the success of the 
project has been the individual sol- 
dier, Williams stressed. 

“They’ve been the real 
trump card,” Williams said. “There 
has been a lot said about the quality 
of our soldiers and how they would 
hold up under a stressful situation. 
Having led 3,700 soldiers in a dif- 
ficult wartime-like mission, there’s 
no doubt in my mind that they can 
hold up.” □ 

APRIL 1983 


Iwa Batters Schofield 

Guardsmen Lend Helping Hand 

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Army National Guard units m 
several states spent the Christmas holiday season help- 
ing civilian authorities in rescue operations. 

Soldiers from Colorado. Kansas, and Nebraska 
provided medical evacuation and transportation support 
during snowstorms that covered the three states. Units 
were the 5th Battalion of the I9th Special Forces, 3650th 
Maintenance Company and 21 7th Medical Battalion, ail of 
Colorado: Battery C of the 161st Field Artillery Battalion. 
Detachments 1 and 2 of the 995th Maintenance Company. 

and Headquarters Detach- 
ment of the 287th Mainte- 
nance Battalion, all of 
Kansas; and B and Sup- 
port companies of the 
195th Armor of Nebraska. 

Fire units evacu- 
ated people, towed ve- 
hicles and hauled sand- 
bags during a severe flood 
in Louisiana. The units 
were; 527th Engineer Bat- 
talion; 2nd Battalion. 156th 
Infantry; 415th Mainte- 
nance Company; 108th Me- 
dium Truck Company; and 
the 199th Support Battal- 
ion.— Capf. Blanche Mazur 

‘‘New” Units 

ka — Fort Richardson s 
1st Battalion. 60th Infan- 
try, and 4th Battalion. 23rd 
Infantry, and Fort Wain- 
wright s 4th Battalion, 9th 
Infantry, are the first units 
redesignated in the Army’s 
new regimental system. 
Missions are unchanged. 

The units respec- 
tively became the 4th. 5th 
and 6th Battalions. 327th 
Infantry Regiment, on Jan. 
6. The regiment is based at 
Fort Campbell. Ky.. where 
the 1st. 2nd and 3rd Battal- 
ions are stationed. 

Planners hope the 
regimental system im- 
proves combat readiness 
by keeping soldiers to- 
gether longer in one unit 

SCHOFIELD BARRACKS, Hawaii — Last Thanksgiving, 
25th Infantry Division soldiers and families had a lot to be 
thankful for — their lives. 

Hurricane Iwa ripped through Schofield Barracks 
at speeds of more than 50 knots on Nov. 23, leaving one 
person dead, 92 others injured and massive property 
damage. Iwa was the largest recorded hurricane to ever 
hit the Hawaiian Islands. 

Sp4 Darren Chastain, F Company, 25th Combat 
Aviation Battalion, was killed when he fell from a truck 
during cleanup operations. None of the 92 storm-related 
injuries was serious. 

Damage to the post was massive. No family quar- 
ters were destroyed, although 275 were damaged. Seven- 
teen warehouses were demolished and 32 others were 
marred by the high winds. Many of the facilities will have 
to be replaced. 

The winds ripped off the roof of the 25th Supply 
and Transportation Battalion’s billets and mess hall. Sol- 
diers still ate their Thanksgiving meal, feasting on turkey 
under the open sky amid puddles and debris. Eleven bar- 
racks sustained damage. 

The hurricane’s fury 
also severed all electrical 
and water services. The di- 
vision reacted quickly, liv- 
ing up to its nickname, 

“Tropic Lightning.’’ Sol- 
diers, families, and post 
engineering and housing 
personnel worked through 
the Thanksgiving weekend 
to clear the post of the 
hurricane’s devastation. 

— Sp5 Jay Field 

Ml ulc; iiciu r\ii^ii^ii 

gory of the 14th annual 
Philip A. Connelly Awards 
for excellence in Army 
food services. 

The U.S. Army Re- 
serve (USAR) winner is the 
261st Ordnance Company 
(Ammunition) (Direct Sup- 
port/General Support). 99th 
USAR Command, South 
Charleston, W.Va. 

Company B, 1st Bat- 
talion, 162nd Infantry, 41st 
Infantry Brigade, McMinn- 
ville, Ore., has the best 
Army National Guard field 

Connelly Awards 
honor Army food service 
professionalism. — Flo 

Korea Fest 

SEOUL, Korea — Donning traditional Korean costumes 
and Western cowboy wear, 30 members of the U.S. Army 
Garrison, Yongsan, participated in the 1982 Seoul Citi- 
zen’s Sports Festival opening ceremony and parade. 

The Eighth Army band marched with the group 
behind a banner that read, “Korean-American Friendship. 
Centennial of ROK (Republic of Korea)/U.S. relations.’’ 

The festival commemorated the anniversary of the 
World Olympic Committee’s selection of Seoul as the 
site of the 1988 Olympic games. — USAG Yongsan Public 
Affairs Office 

More Connelly 

FORT LEE. VA., — The 
Troop Support Agency 
here announced the Re- 
serve Component winners 
in the field kitchen cate- 



the patrzkJts 

H Story by SFC Norman J. Oliver 

Story by 

Photos by Maj. Clifford H. Bernath 

THE idea began in 1965 — with 13 
student drummers who wanted to 
march in parades. They asked their 
teacher, an Army Band musician, to 
help them. 

In 1776 Americans rallied 
’round a flag — with 13 stars — a 
small beginning for a nation that 
flourished. For a Colonial-style 
drum corps called the Patriots of 
Northern Virginia, 13 held the same 
promise of a flourishing future. 

And flourish it did. The Pa- 
triots grew like the idea of revolu- 
tion among the Colonists. Neighbor 

told neighbor. Brother told sister. 

Now, when MSgt. Sam 
Evans musters his group for a 
monthly parade, 500 young people 
ranging from first-graders to college 
students show up. Composed of 
nine corps, the Patriots form a pa- 
rade within a parade wherever they 

Their costumes and many of 
their instruments are reproductions 
of Colonial items. “We don’t play 
any modern music,” Evans said. 
The songs are those that accompa- 
nied Revolutionary soldiers to battle 

and welcomed home the survivors. 

The Colonial tradition runs 
deep in the Virginia communities 
bordering the nation’s capital. Peo- 
ple work, live and play in the back- 
yards of Thomas Jefferson and 
George Washington. Names of 
towns, streets and landmarks recall 
an era when pulling together in com- 
mon cause with family and friends 
gave birth to a Revolution and a 
new nation. 

The Patriots became a family 
affair for Evans and his wife, 
Nanette. Mrs. Evans’ brother, Sp6 

APRIL 1983 


Top, members of the Thundering Drums • and the Fife and Drum Corps, below, step 
out during the 50th annual Brunswick (Md.) Parade. 

Alan Granofsky, a trumpeter in the 
Army Band, helps. Other Army 
Band musicians lend their talents, 
and parents of Patriots pitch in. 

Sixteen-year-old Connie 
Beard joined 11 years ago. “Our 
next door neighbor was in it,” she 
said. Word of mouth is the main 
way Patriots recruit members. 

Connie’s 13-year-old brother, 
Ronnie, has been in for seven years 
and plays the bass drum. Her 11- 
year-old sister, Lya, is a flower girl. 
Their parents, Fran and Ron, ac- 
tively support the Patriots. 

A little more than 18 years 
ago, Evans was a new drummer in 
the Army Band. Then a specialist 
six, he was helping make ends meet 
by teaching music after work. He 

still teaches, but he spends the earn- 
ings on the Patriots. The costumes, 
instruments, banners and flags 
belong to the Evanses. 

The group’s first drums were 
castoffs from a school in Baltimore. 
“1 bought them from Charles 
‘Buck’ Soistman. He’s the man who 
made all of the drums for the Army 
Band,” Evans said. “He’s probably 
the most famous of all American 
drum makers. He built handmade 
military drums, and made rope-ten- 
sion drums like the ones used in Col- 
onial days. He didn’t make a lot of 
our drums, but he did make some." 
The drums are built smaller to fit 

The original 13 drummers 
debuted in the Halloween parade in 

\ienna, Va.. in 1965. That annual I 
c\eni, now a Patriot ’ tradition, al- 
ways marks new members' debuts. 
Because the group's first drums 
were painted green, the youngsters |) 
called themseKes the Green Devils. I 
That was just the ticket for a Hallo- j 
ween parade, but the name lasted . 
only a week. I 

"We wanted -omething more I 
of a Colonial nature.” .Mrs. Evans * 
said. “Green Devils just didn’t fit. 1 
We had a hard time choosing a i 
name because many high .chools 
around here had Colonial names al- 
ready. like Liberty Bells. Colonials. 
.Minutemen and Generals.” 

The Evanses figure they have 
invested about S40.000 in the Patri- 
ots. Besides uniforms, tricorn hats 
and instruments, they have two vans 
to carry the gear. 

“People hear that and say. 
‘How can an .Army sergeant afford 
that?’ ” Mrs. Evans said. "But they 
don’t realize it’s spread over 18 

The Evanses look on the Pa- 
triots as their hobby and spend at 
least several hours a day on it. If 
they aren’t rehearsing the different 
groups, they have maintenance to 
do. Flags, banners and uniforms are 
mostly homemade, which helps cut 
costs. Mrs. Evans and her mother 
have done much of the sewing. 
Mothers of Patriots have also 
helped with sewing. 

“Things have gotten so ex- 
pensive,” Evans said. “I don’t 
think we could stan it right now if 
we had to begin all over.” 

The Evanses must rely on 
help from parents of the Patriots 
and other .Army Band members. ; 
“We couldn’t handle the corps as it 1 
is now if we didn’t have help.” Mrs. | 
Evans said. “We have about 30 
parents who help us regularly.” I 

The .Army Band commander, i 
Col. Eugene .Allen, helps with ad- . 
vice. Sgt. Maj. James McGarity 
gives a hand with drum-major train- 
ing. The band’s chief arranger. Sgt. 
Maj. .Alex Smith, writes music for 
the Patriots. “It’s a very specialized 
thing,” said Evans. "We have a lot ; 
of young children. Most commercial 
arrangements are aimed at a higher 
level.” i 



The different Patriots corps 
practice once a week at various sites 
in Northern Virginia. 

“You don’t have to audition 
to get in,” said Granofsky, who is a 
former Patriot himself. “If you 
. can’t play an instrument, we can 
teach you to play one or you can 
carry a banner or a flag. When I 
j started out, I pulled a drum.” 

I Patriots pay nothing to join 

I but have to supply transportation to 
and from the parades. “Normally 
we just go by car and stay in the 
Northern Virginia area,” said Evans. 
For longer trips they hire buses. 

The practice sessions pay off 
and the parade brings it all together. 
Nearly an hour before the start, the 
Patriots assemble. Last minute ad- 
justments to uniforms are made. 
Drums and instruments are un- 
packed, flags are unfurled. 

Here they come. Miniature 
Colonists bear the banner proclaim- 
ing their name: Patriots of Northern 
Virginia. There’s the color guard 
right behind. “The Daughters of the 
American Revolution gave us our 
first American flag,” said Evans. 

Listen to that rumble. It 
makes the sidewalk shake. That’s 
the Thundering Drums, which grew 
from the original 13 players to to- 
day’s 125. That makes this unit, 
which started it all, one of the largest 
drum corps in the United States. 

But wait! There’s more. 
Members of the Flags and Banners 
unit are scattered throughout the 
Patriots’ parade line. Banners an- 
nounce each of the major groups. 
Flags of all 50 states pass by. 

The Junior and Senior Pom- 

pon units add color and flash. 

There’s the Colonial Colors. 
Patriots carry four large 12-by-20- 
foot replicas of Colonial flags. 

Drums are everywhere. 
There’s the Fife and Drum Corps, 
and over there, the Drum and Bugle 

The Regimental Band is led 
by more drummers. It’s modeled on 
old-style British military bands in 
which drums helped soldiers march. 
Any youngster who plays an instru- 
ment and wants to march can join 
this unit. “We could wind up with all 
kinds of things. We could have one 
tuba and 50 flutes,” Mrs. Evans said. 

Then it’s over. The parade 
breaks up. With the marching be- 
hind, logistics take over. Gear has to 
be stowed, parents found, and cars 
or buses located. 

The Evanses award buttons 
and medals for performing in a pa- 
rade. Patriots earn a pin-on button 
each time they march in a parade. 
When they win a first place, they 
earn a medal. The group prides 
itself on winning — veteran Patriots 
sport vests covered with medals. 

Good performance in pa- 
rades opens doors to trips and a 
chance to march in the limelight. 
The Patriots have appeared at the 
White House at Easter and marched 
down Pennsylvania Avenue during 
President Carter’s Inauguration. 
They have even played inside the 
Supreme Court for the justices. 

“We have thank-you letters 
from two presidents,” Evans said. 
“We also have a letter of commen- 
dation from the Canadian Parlia- 
ment. We were up there for their 

Warrior Day, which is their version 
of Memorial Day.” 

The Patriots have also ap- 
peared at the Orange Bowl, Cotton 
Bowl, Kentucky Derby, Indianapo- 
is 500, Winter Olympics at Lake 
Placid, N.Y., and 1982 World’s Fair 
at Knoxville, Tenn. They are the 
only private group that appeared at 
all three major bicentennial celebra- 
tions: Concord, Mass., Philadel- 
phia, and Yorktown, Va. 

The thrill of the parade moti- 
vates most of the Patriots. “Having 
everybody look at you” keeps 
15-year-old Ken Keiler in the group. 
He and his twin sister, Leslie, have 
been Patriots for nine years. 

“You learn to make friends 
and to work together,” said Debbie 
Gerald, a 16-year-old fife player. 

The Patriots don’t count 
trophies and rest on their laurels. 
There are still plenty of vests with 
open space for medals and buttons. 

Two goals still elude Evans: 
“I’ve always dreamed of marching 
in the Rose Bowl and the Macy’s 
Thanksgiving Day Parade.” □ 

Top, MSgt. Sam Evans oversees the packing for the return. 

• Left, a mother takes roll call for the trip back to Virginia. 

• Above, three banner carriers rest before leaving. 




MSgt. Bob Button 

i ... To man> a man in (he line to- 
day, fear is not so much of death 
itself, but fear of the terror and 
anguish and utter horror that pre- 
1 cedes death in battle. . . . 

— Ernie Pyle, 1945 

T o the 77th Infantry Division 
he was a buddy. Americans 
on all fronts during World 
War 11 called him The Little Guy, or 
simply — Ernie. 

His name was Ernest Taylor 
Pyle, the most famous combat cor- 
respondent in history — a civilian 
who saw more battle than a lot of 
combatants he wrote about. 

Ernie was a reluctant hero. 
Combat depressed and frightened 
him. His war began in 1940 under a 
rain of bombs during the London 
Blitz, and ended on April 18, 1945, 
with a single machine gun bullet on 
le Shima as he helped write the 
bloodiest chapter in 77th Division 

A makeshift sign marking 
the spot where Ernie died on le 
Shima was later replaced by a 
monument, and Ernie’s body was 
moved to the National Memorial 
Cemetery near Honolulu. But in one 
sense, Ernie is coming home, larger 
than life. 

Soldiers of the Liberty Patch 
Division are dedicating their new 
headquarters at Fort Totten, N.Y., 
in Ernie’s name this month. 

The center is huge — the 
largest Army Reserve center in the 
country. But the 1 10-pound Scripps- 
Howard reporter was not much on 
bigness. He wrote about the little 
guys, infantrymen, and left the big 
stories of World War 11 to others: 

“I’m a rabid one-man movement 
bent on tracking down and stamp- 
ing out everybody in the world who 
doesn’t fully appreciate (he com- 
mon front-line soldier.” 

His first ground combat 
came during the African campaign 
of 1942. He left the comfort and hot 
running water of London “in order 
that 1 can go along when there’s 
I some action,’’ he wrote his editor, 

I Lee Miller. 

I Ernie began to know the foot 

I soldier. He had come a long way 
I from pre-war days when he traveled 
I the country, writing about farmers, 
miners, clerks and factory workers, 
j Back then he told his boss, “If 
I there’s one thing in this world 1 hate 
‘ and detest, it is writing about the 
I Army.’’ 

In Tunisia years later, dodg- 
ing bullets and evading poisonous 
reptiles, Ernie’s stories echoed the 
thoughts of the combat-weary men 
around him. 

“It had been one of those days w hen 
I sat down on a rock . . . put my 
chin in my hand, and thought to 
myself, ‘What the hell am I doing 
here, anyway?’ ’’ 

He didn’t have to be there. 
He was fairly well known as far 
back as 1928 when he covered the 
budding field of aviation. Eleanor 
Roosevelt read his column. So did 
Amelia Earhart, the pioneer avia- 
tor, who said, “Not to know Ernie 
Pyle is to admit that you yourself 
are unknowm in aviation.’’ 

The prospect of war in the 
’30s so saddened Ernie that when 
Hitler’s troops invaded Holland, he 
told his editor, “The way 1 feel now . 
I’m only good for about another 
year of column writing anyhow ." 

After Pearl Harbor he grew 
even more depressed: “I’m never 
going to write anymore. 1 tried to 

MSGT. BOB BUTTON Is the editor ol Tha Spirit, the 
newspaper ol the 77lh Army Reserve Command. Fort 
Totten. Flushing. N.Y. He also has freelanced articles 
in TV Guide, Science Digest and Flying. 



join the .\a\y .Monday but wa“> toe 
old unless 1 knew a trade. 1 ma> ... | 
build up my weight and join the | 

But soon he was in London, 
a civilian at war. He cosered the 
fighting in North .Africa, then Sici- i 
ly, then Italy. Ernie was wounded at I 
.Anzio when German bombs splin- 1 
tered .Allied press headquarters, i 
Still, he wrote those caring little I 
stories about weary combat soldiers: 

“It is one lung, tired line of ant-like 
men. There is agon> in sour heart 
and sou almost feel ashamed to 
look at them. . . . Their world can 
never be known to sou." 

Pyle joined the insasion of 
Normandy, still with the infantry- 
men he loved. He mosed easils 
among them, armed ssiih his port- 
able typewriter and correspondent’s 
armband. By no\s he had become 
one of them: 

“Eggs were not plentiful enough in 
Normandy . . . but a good scrounger 
could dig up a few each day . . . 
from farmers’ wives. We hoped 
someday to buy some from a 
farmer’s daughter.’’ 

Ernie gave the folks back 
home an intimate look at heroics, 

humility and humor. He wrote 
about life in combat, and about 

“Then a soldier came and stood 
beside the officer and bent over, and 
he too spoke to his dead captain, 
not in a whisper but awfully tender- 
ly, .. . ‘I sure am sorry, sir.’ ’’ 

Ernie came home in 1944, i 
tired of war. He had won a Pulitzer 
Prize for journalism. Women all 
over America treasured his columns 
as letters from loved ones far away. 

He won honors from his home state 
of Indiana, the American Legion 
and a score of professional organi- 

Ernie Pyle bangs out a story for the folks 
back home. His vignettes and stories on 
ordinary soldiers made Pyle one of the 
best-known newsmen of World War II. 

His columns helped get com- 
bat pay and Combat Infantry 
badges for the infantry and Combat 
Medical badges for their medics. 
One column criticized the jeep’s 
handbrake and the Army redesigned 
that rugged wartime vehicle. He 
could rest on his laurels. 

But duty pulled at Ernie 
Pyle. “War scares hell out of me,” 
he told Don Whitehead of Associ- 
ated Press. “I know the longer we 
stay with this the smaller the 
chances are of getting out. But what 
the hell!” His columns were equally 

“I dread going back and I’d give 
anything if I didn’t have to go. I’ve 
been with it so long I feel a respon- 
sibility, a duty toward the soldiers, 
I’ve become their mouthpiece — the 
only one they have.” 

He covered the Iwo bat- 
tle from aboard a Navy carrier, 
vowing he’d never make another 
beachhead. He’d go in after the 
landing forces from now on. Then 
came Okinawa. 

Operation Iceberg began on 
Easter Sunday 1945, when Lt. Gen. 

Simon B. Buckner’s 10th Army hit 
Okinawa. Ernie went in with the 
Marines, swearing again that this 
would be his last invasion. The 
Americans met little resistance 
ashore. They were soon to meet the 
full force of Gen. Mitsuru Ushi- 
jima’s 32nd Army of 130,000 de- 

The Marines pursued the 
enemy north toward the west coast 
peninsula of Motobu, Just three 
miles from the little island of le. E.\- 
hausted and ill, Ernie returned to 
1 the command ship to write another 
column and to pen a letter to Jerry, 
his wife: 

I “You can’t know the relief I felt, 
for I had dreaded this one terribly. 
I Now it is behind me, and I will never 


; make another landing. . . . Outside 
I of an accident of some kind, 1 feel 
I now that at last I have a pretty good 
I chance of coming through this war 

When Maj. Gen. Andrew D. 
Bruce came aboard to control his 
77th Division’s landing at le Shima, 
The Little Guy asked to go along. 
He wanted to be with his beloved 
foot soldiers one more time. 

le Shima, just 10 miles 
square, is dominated by a 600-foot 
peak called the Pinnacle by Liberty 
Patch soldiers. Here, the 77th “was 
to meet the stiffest opposition in its , 
experience,” according to an offi- j 
cial history of the campaign. | 

The Japanese were dug into ! 
elaborate caves in the Pinnacle, j 
Though more than 10,000 prisoners 
were taken during the Okinawa ^ 
campaign, few would surrender on 
le Shima. 

Ernie landed on Red Beach 
2. He headed for the 305th Regi- 
ment, and watched as 307th Regi- 
ment soldiers attacked the Pinnacle. 1 
He talked with their wounded that j 
April night, 38 years ago. I 

At breakfast, Bruce mar- 
veled at Ernie’s mystical appeal to 
the troops: “As soon as 1 left him 
. . . he was surrounded by soldiers. 

I didn’t know he was going forward.” 

Ernie rode with Lt. Col. | 
Joseph Coolidge, commander of the | 
305th. Coolidge and .Maj. George 
Pratt, the division S-2, were going 
to the Pinnacle to set up a command 
post. It was 10 a.m. 

Near the battle-scarred vil- 
lage of le, at the base of the peak, a , 
single Nambu machine gun 'pat- 
tered the dust alongside their jeep. 
Ernie and Coolidge dived into a 
ditch. Pratt took cover nearby. 

Ernie raised his head. He 
shouted to Pratt. “.-\re you all i 

The Nambu chattered. Ernie 
took a bullet to the left temple, just 
below his helmet. He died instantly. 

The sniper who killed Ernie 
Pyle would be dead himself before 
sundown. Gen. Buckner would be 
felled by enemy artillery fire within 
a week. And when the smoke finally 
cleared over Okinawa. Gen. Ushi- 
jima. 120.000 of his troops and 
12,000 .Americans would be dead. 

The nation would still be 
mourning the death of President 
Roosevelt when Ernie’s friend. Sgt. 
Bill Mauldin, eulogized The Little 

“The only difference between 
Ernie's death and the death of anv 
other good guv is that the other guv 
is mourned by his companv. Ernie is 
mourned by the .Army." 

Ranking Japanese prisoners 
were assembled at le Shima’s small 
airstrip a few months later, enroute 
to surrender ceremonies in Tokyo 
Bay. Overlooking this scene was a 
crude wooden sign erected by the 
soldiers of the Liberty Patch Divi- 
sion in memory of a buddy. 

.At this spot 

the 77th Infantrv Division 
Lost a buddv. 

Ernie Pvie 
18 April 1945 

That marker is gone, but not 
forgotten. .A replica will pay silent 
homage and witness at the reserve 
center dedication on .April 23. 



CAROLYN TROTTER is a public Information specialist with the Los Angeles 
Branch, Office of the Army Chief of Public Affairs. 

Garner thought he didn’t get the medals earlier 
because of a breakdown in communications. He was in 
the hospital after being wounded for the second time on 
April 23, 1951. 

His nurse asked if he won a Purple Heart for his 
wounds. Garner said yes, according to what his first ser- 
geant had told him. The nurse then marked the chart to 
indicate had had received the Purple Heart and went 
about her duties. 

In November 1982, Garner appeared on ABC’s 
“Good Morning America.’’ During his interview with 
host David Hartman, the subject of the Korean conflict 
arose. Garner told Hartman about his stint in the Army, 
relating that he had been wounded twice in Korea, had 
won two Purple Hearts, but had never received the med- 
als. The Army heard about this interview and took steps 
to correct the error. 

Garner, a draftee from Oklahoma who served in 
the Army for 21 months, was recently drafted again. 
This time it was not Uncle Sam but Lorimar Produc- 
tions. He is scheduled to star in the feature film 
“Tank,’’ portraying a command sergeant major who 
owns his own tank. □ 


Carolyn Trotter 

“IT’S BETTER to receive a medal 
late than posthumously,’’ actor 
James Garner quipped as he was 
presented the Purple Heart with 
Oak Leaf Cluster for wounds re- 
ceived in the Korean War. 

Garner has always been 
known for his quick wit, his ability 
to dodge bullets and his uncanny 
good fortune, especially in two long- 
running television series, “Maver- 
ick’’ and “Rockford Files.” 

But more than 30 years ago, 
during the Korean War, real enemy 
bullets and shrapnel caught up with 
PFC Garner of Company A, 1st 
Battalion, 5th Regimental Combat 
Team, 24th Infantry Division, and 
he earned the Purple Heart twice. In 
January 1983, before a battery of 
television cameras, microphones 
and reporters, Maj. Gen. Llyle J. 

Barker Jr., the Army’s chief of public affairs, pinned 
the award on Garner during a ceremony in Los Angeles. 

According to Garner, the first time he was 
wounded, he suffered shrapnel wounds in the face and 
hands. He considers himself very fortunate to have re- 
ceived such minor wounds. 

When asked where he was wounded the second 
time. Garner replied in his Oklahoma drawl, “Oh God, 
why’d you do that?” He dropped his head a little and 
said, “Well, I was going south. We were fighting the 
North Koreans at the time.” 

He was hesitant, “As a matter of fact, it was in 
the backside.” In classic Garner fashion, he said, “I 
went into a foxhole headfirst, and I was a little late. In 
my case, getting wounded in the rear end, they had a lot 
of room for errors. I mean, how could they miss?” 

Garner said that in 1951 the medals were not so 
important to him and that he didn’t want a formal pre- 
sentation. But he said, “As we get older, we get more 
sentimental. It means a lot to me.” 

APRIL 1983 


Jim Frank 



SSgt. Terri Wiram 

I n 1881, it was just a log cabin. Today, it is the sec- 
ond largest of the Army’s eight medical centers. 
Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) at Fort Sam 
Houston, Texas, has come a long way since its humble 
beginning as a post dispensary. The present main hos- 
pital, named after Brig. Gen. Roger Brooke, was open- 
ed in 1938. 

During World War 11, three large barracks were 
converted for hospital use. All medical activities at Fort 
Sam were brought under the command of Brooke Army 

Medical Center in 1946. The center now consiNlN of 59 
buildings including three inpatient facilities: the main 
hospital. Beach Pavilion and Chambers Pasilion. 

On an average day B.-\MC treats more than 2.5(X) 
patients in 75 outpatient clinics, fills more than 4.1(X> 
prescriptions, conducts 45. (XX) laboratory tests. take*> 
1,5(X) X-rays and prepares 2.5(X) meals. 

But Brooke and the Army’s other medical cen- 
ters are more than hospitals. 

Besides caring for patients, medical centers pnv 



r 1 , m - 

[ — — j ’i 


SSgt. Teiri Wiram 

Opposite page, pa- 
tient care is an im- 
portant part of the 
job at Brooke Army 
Medical Center. • 
Left, BAMC’s main 
hospital buildings. 

• Below, students in 
the BAMC practical 
nurse course rescue 
a “victim” during a 
mass-casualty field 
training exercise. 
The exercise runs 
over two days. 

vide training in a number of medical specialties. Ac- 
tivities at the center include almost every phase of 
medical training and postgraduate medical education. 

Brooke has traditionally been the training 
ground for enlisted soldiers, currently training students 
in 16 medical MOSs (military occupational specialties). 

One of those MOSs is taught in the practical 
nurse course. The first 16 weeks of the 40-week course 
are spent in the classroom, said Maj. M.E. Cline, the 
former course director. The rest of the time is spent 
training in a hospital. 

“Most of the students are E-5s and E-6s on their 
second enlistment. I think they are pretty motivated,’’ 
she said. Motivation is important because the students 
take three to four exams each week, Cline said. 

After graduating, students may take examina- 
tions in almost any state to qualify as licensed practical 
nurses. “Our graduates have an excellent reputation,’’ 
Cline said. “We have not had any failures of Texas state 
boards here.’’ 

Brooke also has the Army’s only National Guard 
Physicians Assistant (NGPA) program. PAs are trained 
to assist doctors. 

Within certain limits, they diagnose and treat pa- 
tients, and prescribe some medications. Active Army 
PAs are trained at the Academy of Health Sciences, also 
located at Fort Sam Houston. 

“The doctor shortage was why the program was 
started back in 1972,’’ said Capt. R.A. Speedlin, NGPA 
program director. “At that time, the military was criti- 
cally short of physicians. The PAs took those slots 
where they didn’t have doctors.’’ 

The NGPA program is two years long. The first 
year is spent in classroom training at Sheppard Air 
Force Base, Texas. After completing this phase, stu- 
dents are appointed to warrant officer status. Then, stu- 
dents go to BAMC for hands-on training at the center’s 
hospital and clinics, Speedlin said. When they graduate 
from the second phase at Brooke, they are promoted to 
chief warrant officer. After finishing the program, PAs 
return to work in their units. 

“Three-fourths of all NGPAs work at battalion 
level in armor, artillery or combat engineer units,’’ said 

LeRoy Leonard 

CWO 2 Robert Harrison, PA education coordinator for 
the program. “They can also work as battalion medical 

The PAs learn about various types of medical 
treatment in specialized areas. 

“Here at Brooke, we spend one month in each 
clinic,’’ said WO 1 Robert Munoz, a NGPA student. “I 
sit in, observe the doctor at work and kind of learn what 
he’s doing. We alternate. He’ll see a patient, then I’ll see 
a patient. He’ll confirm what I’ve done or say, ‘No, 

APRIL 1983 


LeRoy Leonard 

‘‘Basically, we examine an> specimen from ihc 
body, looking for pre-cancerous changes,” said SI C 
Edwin Malloch. non-commis^ioned officer in charge of 
the course. 

“Students learn everything about cytologv.” he 
said. “They learn about receiving the specimens, log- 
ging them in, processing them prop>erly, reviewing the 
slides and making a diagnosis.” 

To qualify, students must have a minimum of 60 
hours’ college credit with at least 14 hours in sciencc-s. 
.Malloch noted. The course is open to Army and Air 
Force students — classes are limited to about 16 persons. 

There are about 30 specialists in the field now . he 
said. .Army hospitals having between 5.000 and ".OOG 
specimens each year qualify for a 
cytotechnologist. Hospitals with 
fewer specimens send them to 
B.A.MC for diagnosis. 

“Within 45 minutes to an 
hour, we can determine vvhether 
there is cancer or something going 
on,” said Lt. Col. Hansa Raval. of- 
ficer in charge of the course. “It is 
an efficient diagnostic aid. It saves 
the cost to the patient and the 
surgery as well.” 

“In coming years, it is going 
to be a very popular method of 
diagnosis because there is less 
trauma to the patient.” she said. 

Besides training enlisted 
soldiers, the center operates the sec- 
ond largest postgraduate medical 
education program in the Army. 
(Walter Reed AMC in Washington. 
D.C., has the largest.) BASIC pro- 
vides intern and residency education 
programs in 22 medical and five 
dental specialties. 

There are now 204 residents 
and fellows, and 46 interns in medi- 
Practical nurse course students at BAMC treat simulated casualties • and then carry cal specialty training, 
them through an obstacle course. Instructors watch and score the students. Brooke also serves as a re- 

that’s not it,’ and then we talk about it.” 

When his training is finished, Munoz will return 
to the Georgia National Guard as a physicians assistant 
in a battalion aid station. 

‘‘I think the program is great,” Munoz said. 
‘‘You go through the same schedule as an intern.” 

Although there are enough doctors overall in the 
Army, Speedlin said, there is still a shortage in certain 
specialties. ‘‘PAs are being trained to supplement the 
delivery of those health care services,” he said. 

Another class at BAMC is the 52-w'eck cytotech- 
nology course (92E MOS). It is part of a highly skilled, 
technical program, mainly for the early detection of 

gional medical center. It is pariiallv 
responsible for soldiers' health in a four-state area of 
Texas, Oklahoma. Arkansas and Louisiana. The region 
has community hospitals at Tort Hood. Texas. Fort Sill. 
Okla., and Fort Polk. La. Patients who need advanced 
medical care that isn’t available at these post hospitals 
are evacuated to Brooke. 

Coming to B.AMC in 1983. whether for training 
or advanced medical care, patients and trainees alike 
will find the sprawling center a far cry from the log 
cabin of 1881. They’ll see that one thing remains the 
same, however. 

In 1881 . the facility was big enough to handle the 
needs of the tiny frontier population. In 1983. B AMC 
meets the expanding needs of the modern Armv. 



story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram. 

I n a time when most doctors 
just don’t make house calls, 
there are some who do — by 

They are doctors from the 
Institute of Surgical Research (ISR) 
at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The 
institute is one of the most famous 
burn units in the United States and 
the only military burn unit in the 

The institute is composed of 
clinical and laboratory divisions. 
The clinical division operates the 
burn center and is responsible for 
patient care and clinical studies. The 
laboratory division does research 
and testing. 

The burn wards are in two 
wings on one floor of Brooke Army 
Medical Center’s main hospital. The 
institute is attached to Brooke for 
administrative and logistical sup- 
port. The laboratory buildings are 
about a mile away from the wards. 

All patients treated at the 
burn unit have life-threatening in- 
juries. Most patients have second 
and third degree burns over 35 per- 
cent of their bodies. 

The institute was established 
in 1947 and now cares for about 265 
burn patients each year. The ISR 
treats members of all military ser- 
vices and federal government em- 
ployees burned on the job. It also 
treats retirees, family members and 
special civilian emergency cases. 

“Over the last year, we’ve 
had almost 1,900 man-hours’ flying 
on the air evacuation mission,’’ said 
Maj. Roosevelt Stallings, a surgeon 
in the clinical division. 

“If a person is seriously 
burned,’’ he said, “the physician 
seeing the patient calls the doctors at 
the burn unit.’’ 

The doctors must get all the 
information about the patient’s 
burns and other injuries. This is 
vital because it helps the burn team 
plan what to take and tells the team 
what to expect. 

A burn team consists of a 
surgeon, nurse and clinical techni- 
cian. Members of burn teams have 
on-call schedules. “The nurses and 
clinical specialists have certain days 
that they are on-call, and so do the 

; APRIL 1983 


Richard Bernhardt 

Institute of Sur- 
gical Research 
(ISR) medics 
mobi(i 2 e * pre- 
ceding page 
lor burned 
crewmen ol the 
USS Belknap in 
1975 • and. left, 
for a group ol 
Marines burned 
in 1979. • Right. 
Sp5 Joseph 
Whitson con- 
ducts a test in 
the ISR lab divi- 

doctors,” Stallings said. “The same 
team may not go out every time. 
Whoever is on-call is part of the 
team that goes out. 

“Our equipment basically 
consists of a medication case and a 
wound-care case,” Stallings said. 
“We carry all the medications we 
would need here on the ward.” 

If the patient is within 200 
miles of the ISR, the team uses a 
helicopter from Fort Sam’s 507th 
Medical Company (Air Ambulance) 
to transport themselves and the vic- 
tim. For destinations farther away, 
the team uses an Air Force T-39 
Sabreliner jet from nearby Ran- 
dolph Air Force Base to get to the 
victim’s location. 

When it reaches the site, the 
team examines the patient and ap- 
plies its own dressing. The T-39, an 
executive-type plane, is too small to 
take the patient to ISR. So, a 
specially equipped Air Force C-9 
Nightingale jet transport from Scott 
Air Force Base, 111., is used for (he 
trip back to the burn center. 

“The Air Force is very coop- 

Above, Institute of Surgical Research 
technicians record and process speci- 
mens for testing in the laboratory divi- 
sion. • Right. Sp4 John Payne packs 
specimens in crushed ice for actual test- 
ing in the lab. 




erative,” he said. “Without them, 
we couldn’t do the job.’’ 

“If the call is within the 
state, we can respond almost imme- 
diately,’’ Stallings said. “We can 
leave here 15 minutes after we get 
the call. The part with the Air Force 
jet is dependent on whether they 
have an ‘urgent’ plane available. 
They have one ‘urgent’ aircraft for 
those specific purposes, but we 
aren’t the only people who use it.’’ 
Occasionally, ISR burn teams have 
to wait a couple of hours before the 
airplane comes available. 

“We have the basic stuff we 
take all the time, and we transport it 
from here to there and back,’’ Stall- 
ings said. “Things we might need, 
like ventilators and suction equip- 
ment, are available on the airplane.’’ 

Stallings noted that overseas 
flights have decreased for the ISR 
burn team. 

“I think if patients are stable 
enough, it is easier to transfer them 
here than for a team to go out. Most 
of our patients from Germany and 
Korea are transferred here by the 

physicians taking care of them.’’ 

Working as a burn doctor is 
a difficult but rewarding assign- 
ment, Stallings remarked. 

“You know that when you 
leave here it may be anywhere from 
two to 14 hours before you get 
back,’’ he said. “Then you’re still 
responsible for taking care of the 

“We don’t have a system 
where you can go home and sleep 
when you get back. That patient is 
your responsibility from the time 
you pick him up until he leaves the 
hospital. Once you get back, you 
still have to take care of him. 1 
asked for the assignment, so I’m not 
complaining,’’ Stallings emphasiz- 
ed. “You shouldn’t be here unless 
you really want to do it.’’ 

“Burn patients require criti- 
cal care nursing because of the ef- 
fects of burns on the entire body,’’ 
said Maj. Annette Aitcheson, chief 
nurse at the institute. “Most nurses 
here have requested the assign- 

Nurses assigned to the burn 
unit specialize in burn care and criti- 
cal care nursing, she said. Aitche- 
son, who has been assigned to the 
institute for more than a year and a 
half, also said it is a challenging 
place in which to work. 

“The hours are long in any 
critical care environment,’’ she said. 
“Since the majority of the people 
assigned here want to be here, that’s 
not negative at all.’’ 

The burn center’s laboratory 
staff regularly joins Stallings and 
other doctors for rounds of the 
ward. This practice led to an impor- 
tant breakthrough in treating burn 

“Defenses in burn patients 
fail,’’ said Dr. Arthur D. Mason, 
chief of the laboratory division. 
“For them, infection is the No. 1 
killer. At one time, about 60 percent 
of burn patients died as a result of 

The center’s lab scientists de- 
veloped a cream to keep bacteria 
from infecting wounds. Since the in- 
troduction of the cream, the sur- 
vival rate has increased 50 percent 
for patients who’ve been burned 

over 30 to 60 percent of their bodies. 
The cream, developed in the late 
1960s, is highly effective and widely 
used today. 

ISR researchers are also 
working in other areas of patient 
treatment. Better dressings for 
wounds, the nature of infection, 
and the screening of new antibiotics 
are some areas that ISR scientists 
are studying. 

One of the lab’s major con- 
cerns is the change in the metabolic 
rate of burn patients. The rate may 
climb to as high as two-and-a-half 
times the normal rate. This can 
cause a 35 to 40 percent weight loss 
in patients, not counting fluid losses 
from the wounds themselves. Mason 

The lab has developed a spe- 
cial metabolic chamber that has 
controlled temperature and humidi- 
ty. The only other chamber like it in 
the world is at the Rowett Research 
Institute in Aberdeen, Scotland, 
Mason added. Scientists test ani- 
mals in the chamber, hoping this 
will help the researchers find the 
best environmental conditions for 
human burn victims. 

“Basically, the chamber is a 
big box that animals can walk 
around in and have their rates of ox- 
ygen use measured,” Mason said. 
“We control the temperature and 
study its effects. 

“We try to learn more so 
that we can treat our patients 
better,” he said. “It’s an uncertain 
business at best.” 

The burn unit has also af- 
fected burn treatment in the United 
States in other ways. “This burn 
unit has served as the model for 
others,” Mason said. “Half of the 
burn units in the United States are 
headed by people who got their first 
experience here.” 

“The positive thing for me is 
seeing patients get well and go 
home,” Stallings said. “Being able 
to talk to families and decrease 
some of their anxiety about their 
loved ones’ injuries. Being able to 
do something special. Being a burn 
doctor, able to do something that 
someone else can’t do. Those 
things, to me, are rewarding.” □ 

APRIL 1983 


Sp4 Tim Dewar 

Compiled by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

Robinson: Walking on Water 

Walking on water 
may seem like a miracle to 
some people. After “walk- 
ing” through the Panama 
Canal and across the En- 
glish Channel, it’s become 
somewhat ordinary for 
one Presidio of San Fran- 
cisco staff sergeant. 

Walter Robinson, 
Company D, 864th Engi- 
neer Battalion, started 
walking on water with the 
aid of his patented water 
shoes in 1974. 

“I got interested in 
this while stationed in 
Panama,” Robinson said. 
‘‘Sometimes the water 

was so calm that it looked 
like you could walk across 

The water shoe, re- 
sembling a small kayak or 
surfboard, is about eight 
feet long and 22 inches 
across. “They are de- 
signed,” he said, “so that 
anyone can use them. The 
hardest thing is learning 
about the wind and water 

During one of his 
walks, Robinson was at- 
tacked by a shark. “He 
took a healthy bite out of 
one of my shoes,” he said. 

In 1978, Robinson 
became the first person to 
walk on the English Chan- 
nel. Before he finished, he 
was arrested and spent 
the night in jail. “I got off 
course and into a sensitive 
area, and they arrested 
me,” he said. 

“I practice mostly 
in the bay, but am getting 
ready to walk the Bermuda 
Triangle. After that I'd like 
to walk the Amazon and 
Mississippi rivers.” — Sp4 
Tim Dewar 

His memories of 
street life as a 7-year-old 
have left a lasting impres- 
sion on a Camp Hum- 
phreys, South Korea, sol- 

Sp5 Jin Baek, a 
34-year-old administrative 
clerk, donates $200 month- 
ly to a local Korean orphan- 
age, similar to the one 
where he spent his earlier 

Baek lost both par- 
ents in the Korean War 
and lived in the Seoul 
Peace Orphanage until he 
was 18. 

“I was always hun- 
gry," he said. “We had one 
bowl of rice and one bowl 
of soup a day.” 

After leaving the or- I 
phanage. Baek worked his I 
way through night school 
and earned a chemical en- 
gineering degree. 

In 1968. while serv- 
ing with the ROK (Repub- 
lic of Korea) Tiger Divi- I 
Sion, Baek had a change of I 
fortune. An American sup- 
ply sergeant, now de- 
ceased, adopted Baek. 

"His life situation 
and mine were the same. " 
Baek said. “He had no par- 
ents or family and had 
also been raised in an or- 

"When I first met 
him. he spoke to me and I 
couldn’t understand him. 

So I just smiled and nod- 
ded my head." 

Leaving his home- 
land for the United States 
was a big decision for 

"Everything hit me 
at the same time — the 
people, the cars, the build- i 
ings. It was like Fantasy 
Island,’ " he said. 

Baek joined the i 
U S. Army in 1978 in Col- ' 
orado Springs, Colo. 

"I'm the luckiest 
one who grew up in my or- 
phanage," he said. "Be- 
fore, I always had to live 
with the rules and not 
think about what I wanted 
to do. Now, I’m free to 
make my own plans and 
do what I want." — SSgt. 
Barry Collins 

Jim Locklear 
claims that by the end of 
this decade he will have 
made nearly $10 million. 

Locklear, an Army 
retiree living in Pirmasens, 
West Germany, is an in- 
ventor. He has invented a 
device used in Army field 
stoves which, he claims, 
“allows the stove to heat 



Locklear: Inventor 

Rick Brewer 

five rooms, whereas you 
could only heat one be- 

He is also the mas- 
termind behind a passive 
solar heating system. “I 
guarantee buyers that if it 
costs them anything to 
heat their homes with it in 
use, I’ll pay their heating 
bills,” he said. 

Locklear’s most 
prized invention is a 
planter that allows a plant 
to monitor its own water 
supply. “All you have to do 
is pour water into a funnel 
and the plant takes water 
when it needs it. 

“It’s ideal for some- 
one going on vacation or 
who travels a lot,” he said. 

In addition to in- 
venting, Locklear man- 
ages a commissary ware- 
house. He spends much of 
his free time donating his 
mechanical know-how to 
the Army Community Ser- 
vice repair shop. 

“Give a little, take a 
little,” he said. “I like to 
help anyone when I can.” 
— Rick Brewer 

Ronald Reagan: Trucker Sp4 Kein Stevens 

As he walks into 
the motor pool, no band 
plays “Hail to the Chief.” 
No color guard escorts 
him. No high-ranking of- 
ficial steps up to greet 
him. But Ronald Reagan is 
not offended. He simply 
takes his truck and drives 

Sp4 Ronald Reagan 
is assigned to the 4th Bat- 
talion, 54th Infantry (Mech- 
anized), 194th Armored 
Brigade, Fort Knox, Ky. 

“I get a lot of kid- 
ding when folks hear my 
name,” he said. “Someone 
might ask me for a pay 
raise or a new weapons 

The Tennessee na- 
tive is not related to the 
president. He says it’s just 
a coincidence that they 
have the same name. 

“Ronald is a family 
name,” Reagan said. “I 
was named after my great- 
grandfather. If I’m related 
to the president, it would 
have to be very distant.” 

Reagan, 19, joined 
the Army two years ago as 
a truck driver. “I love it,” 
he said. “My father has 
been a truck driver for 22 
years. I guess I’m follow- 
ing in his footsteps.” 

Reagan says he 
wouldn’t have the presi- 
dent’s job. “It’s rough and 
I’m no politician. I’m just a 
regular person. That’s all I 
want to be.” — Sp5 
Melanie Hughes 

APRIL 1983 




WHEN shopping for a car, a home, 
even groceries, we all like to get the 
most for our money. This should 
also apply when selecting a bank. 
However, most people don’t know 
there are differences among banks 
and the services they offer. 

For soldiers this is impor- 
tant. Moving is a fact of life in the 
Army. A soldier can go from Fort 
Carson, Colo., to Camp Casey, 
South Korea, to Fort Lee, Va., in 
little more than a year’s time. This 
could involve changing banks with 
each move. 

Instead of shopping for the 
best deal, many people open ac- 
counts at the first bank they happen 
upon after their move. While conve- 
nient location is a major considera- 
tion, it should not be the deciding 

Before choosing a bank, you 
should consider several things; 
What types of checking accounts are 
offered? Are service charges levied 
on all accounts? How much interest 
is charged on bank credit cards? 
How much interest is paid on sav- 
ings accounts? These and other op- 
tions should be checked before de- 
positing any money in a new ac- 

One easy way to narrow the 
selection process is to look for a 
full-service financial institution — a 
bank, credit union or savings and 
loan association. For example, a 
full-service bank offers checking 

SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 

and savings accounts, 
loans of all types, travelers’ 
checks, money orders and cash- 
iers’ checks. They may also rent 
safety deposit boxes and offer bank 
credit cards such as VISA or 
MasterCard. But the main advan- 
tage is that a full-service bank can 
meet all your needs under one roof. 

Banks today offer a myriad 
of checking accounts. Some are 
free, others pay interest, and still 
others charge by the month or by 
the number of checks you write. 
Check out each bank’s options be- 
fore making your decision. 

Most banks offer a normal 
checking account. This is the type 
most people use today. Banks charge 
either a monthly fee or by the num- 
ber of checks written. Some still of- 
fer free checking as long as you 
maintain a minimum balance in 
your account. 

Some of the newer types of 
checking accounts are the NOW ac- 
count, “Checking Plus" or “Ready 
Reserve" checking, and the bank’s 
debit card. 

A NOW account, or negoti- 
able order of withdrawal, is a check- 
ing account that earns interest. Be- 
fore selecting a NOW account, 
though, make sure you'll be able to 
maintain the minimum balance re- 
quired for free checking. If your ac- 
count falls below this figure, the 
bank will levy service charges that 
may far outweigh any interest you 

may base earned \viih 

your account. 

Checking Plus, also called 
Ready Reserve, provides automatic 
overdraft protection. If you have 
this service, the bank will coser your 
checks even if your account has in- 
sufficient funds. Of course, you will 
have to pay for this service. 

Checking Plus is based on a 
loan agreement you make when you 
open your account. You agree, in 
advance, to repay the bank for its 
money plus a service charge. Some 
banks may charge your \ lS.-\ or 
MasterCard with any Checking Plus 
funds they deposit to your checking 

.An occasional oserdraft or 
spur-of-the-moment purchase can 
make the Checking Plus attraciise. 
But, if you rely on oserdraft protec- 
tion to cover your eseryday ex- 
penses or to keep your checking ac- 
count in line. Checking Plus could 
be a noose slowly tightening around 
your neck as it becomes harder and 
harder to pay back the mone\ bor- 
rowed. It takes careful planning and 
self-control to make this type of ac- 
count work for you. 

.Another type of checking op- 
tion is the bank debit card. The 
debit card looks like a \ IS A or 
MasterCard, but it differs from 
them in main wavs. 



First of all, debit cards are 
not credit cards. There is no credit 
or easy payment plan. When you 
use the card, the bank automatically 
withdraws funds from your check- 
ing or savings account and transfers 
them to the merchant’s account. You 
specify which account you want 
charged when you apply for the 
debit card. 

Debit cards eliminate the 
need to carry a checkbook around 
for the most part. One problem with 
the debit card is that it’s hard to 
keep track of your daily balance be- 
cause all charges are deducted elec- 

Besides these special ac- 
counts, some banks offer free check- 
ing if you keep a minimum balance 
in a regular savings account. 

There are probably as many 
different types of savings accounts 
as there are checking accounts. Sav- 
ings accounts vary with the interest 
they earn, the amount required to 
open the account, minimum time re- 
quired for funds to remain on de- 
posit, and the method of compound- 
ing interest. 

For example, a regular sav- 
ings account can be opened for as 
little as one dollar, with the interest 
rate about 5.25 percent. This in- 
terest can be compounded daily and 

paid quarterly. A regular savings ac- 
count could be just the thing if you 
need quick access to your savings, 
or if you do not have a large amount 
to invest. 

Investment certificates, also 
called certificates of deposit, usually 
require a minimum of $500 to 
$1,000. They pay about 7.75 percent 
interest on your deposit, which can 
be compounded quarterly. How- 
ever, a bank may require you to 
leave your money on deposit for up 
to eight years. 

Some of the newer types of 
savings accounts are the insured 
money market certificate and the 
Super-NOW accounts. The funds 
deposited with the insured money 
market fund are protected by the 
FDIC (Federal Depositors Insur- 
ance Corp.). The FDIC insures ac- 
counts up to $100,000. 

These accounts usually re- 
quire a minimum initial deposit of 
about $2,500. The rate of interest 
varies weekly or monthly, depend- 
ing upon the market conditions. 
Some banks offer free checking, 
overdraft protection and a mini- 
mum guaranteed interest rate with 
these new accounts. 

The newest entry into the 
savings field is the Super-NOW ac- 
count, which is to savings what the 

NOW account has been to checking. 

A miminum of $2,500 is re- 
quired to open the new account. 
There is no limit to the interest rate 
the banks can pay on this account. 
What they pay is dictated by the 
market. Although the Super-NOW 
accounts offer greater interest and 
check writing, they have their limi- 
tations. The balance cannot fall 
below a certain amount. And there 
may be a minimum number of 
checks you can write each month or 
a minimum amount of each check. 
You should carefully review each 
bank’s requirements on these ac- 
counts before deciding. 

A full-service bank will fill 
most of your financial needs, but it 
may be necessary to use two banks. 
This is especially true for soldiers. 

One bank serves as your per- 
manent bank to receive your month- 
ly direct-deposit check. This way, 
wherever you are stationed, you’ll 
always have your paycheck de- 
posited and have access to it. This 
permanent account can be used to 
pay most of your bills, such as rent 
or mortgage payments, car pay- 
ments, bank credit cards and charge 

You also open an account at 
a local bank and keep it fed by writ- 
ing a check or having your perma- 
nent bank automatically transfer 
funds. The local checking account 
allows you to pay for local expenses 
like groceries. This gives you ready 
access to your money and helps you 
establish a local base for credit. 

Banks today offer a rainbow 
of different savings and checking 
account options. Bank credit cards, 
safety deposit boxes, loans, trav- 
elers’ checks, money orders and 
cashiers’ checks — they all have 
their place and use. 

Many banks offer combina- 
tions or packages that include check- 
ing and savings accounts, with spe- 
cial discounts on travelers’ check 
fees, money orders and safety de- 
posit box rentals. 

Careful planning and a little 
time spent with a banker can help 
you get the most for your banking 
dollar. It’s just like shopping for a 
new car: We all look for the best 
deal in town. □ 

Once upon a time, banks offered only no-interest checking and low-interest savings ac- 
counts. It’s a jungle out there today, with wise shoppers hunting for high interest. 

APRIL 1983 



Story by Faith Faircloth 
Illustration by Tony Zidek 

IF you’re like me, there’s always too 
much month left at the end of the 
money. I had what I thought was a 
pretty good system for dealing with 
this condition. 

\\ hile my friends were home 
playing their video games, 1 was out 
on the highway becoming an auto- 
matic bank teller (ABT) machine 
freak. I wasn’t making deposits or 
transferring funds to savings. (Sav- 
ings?!) 1 was getting cash advances 
on my credit card. 

My system was simple 
enough. On payday 1 would sit 
down and add up all the bills that 
had come since last payday. If my 
total bills were more than my total 
paycheck, 1 would figure out how 
much I was short and hit the road in 
search of the nearest ABT machine. 
1 was even getting cash advances on 
my credit cards to make monthly 
credit card payments. 

This worked for quite a 
while. Then one evening something 
terrible happened. I had driven to 
the nearest ABT machine, inserted 
my credit card, punched in my se- 
cret code and waited for the crisp 
$20 bills to come out. The machine 
spit my card back at me. There was 
also a not-so-nice message flashing 
on its little computer screen. 1 had 
exceeded my limit. 

The man standing behind me 
pretended not to notice the commo- 
tion the blasted machine was mak- 
ing or my agonizing embarrassment 
as 1 crept back to my car. 

1 didn’t sleep very well that 
night. There must be other people in 
my situation, 1 thought. What 
would they do? 

The next morning 1 called 
Army Community Service (ACS) 
and made an appointment with 
Ruth Siegel, consumer affairs coor- 
dinator for the Department of the 
Army. Since I was too embarrassed 
to discuss my own dilemma with 
her, 1 asked what other people do in 

a situation like this. She talked 
about how post .ACS offices help 
soldiers and families. 

“Unfortunately, most people 
are embarrassed and just think 
things are going to work themselves 
out,’’ she said. “We don’t usually 
see them until their commander 
sends them to us. If they realize 
they’re headed for trouble and come 
to us on their ow n, it’s strictly confi- 
dential. It’s just like going to a 

She began by saying people 
should control their money and not 
let their money control them. “The 
best way to do this is to set up a bud- 
get,’’ she said. 

1 cringed. 

“Budgeting is not that pain- 
ful,’’ she said. “All of us, no matter 
what economic level we’re at, need 
to budget our money. 

“First, find your available 
monthly income,’’ she said. “Start 
with your base pay, add your hous- 
ing allowance and any variable hous- 
ing allowance, separate rations, over- 
seas or hazardous-duty pay and 
clothing allowance. 

“Then look at your allot- 
ments,’’ she said. “That’s a deduc- 
tion. Subtract the allotments and any 
taxes, and you come up with your 
take-home pay. Add the spouse’s in- 
come, moonlighting pay or other in- 
come, less any deductions. This tells 
us the total we have to work with. 

“Now decide how to spend 
this money,’’ she said. “I think sav- 
ings should come first, ’t'ou can al- 
ways find 15 or 20 places for your 
money to go which may seem im- 
portant, but it’s important to pay 
yourself first. People should have a 
cushion in case things go wrong. 
You should get to the point where 
you have two months’ salary in the 
bank for emergencies.” 

If 1 had two months’ salary 
in the bank, I w ouldn’t be having an 
emergency, 1 thought. 

“Then we ha\e your living 
expenses,” she continued. Things 
like rent or mortgage, water, elec- 
tricity, gas, groceries, eating out. 
entertainment, transportation, per- 
sonal care, clothing, child care, 
laundry and telephone bills I think 
the telephone bill — the long-dis- 
tance calls — is one way mones dis- 
appears without us realizing it." 

“Tell me about it," 1 said. 
“My phone bill was S120 last 

“Housing is probabls the 
biggest item in the budget.” ^he 
said. “The charts call for 25 percent 
of your income for housing, but we 





There was always ^ 
too much month left ati 
the end of the money,, 
but I had a system. I’d 
subtract my bills from 
my paycheck, see how 
short I’d be, and then 
search for the nearestj 
electronic banking 
machine ... 


the supermarket, you’re staggered 
by the designer packaging and dif- 
ferent sizes,” Siegel said. ‘‘You 
don’t really know if something is 
better because it costs more. 

‘‘You have to compare 
price,” she said. ‘‘How long does it 
take to cook ‘quick’ grits that cost 
42 cents a pound as opposed to ‘in- 
stant’ grits that cost $1.42 a pound? 
Are a few minutes’ cooking time 
worth $1? This is what we want you 
to look at. 

‘‘It’s like TV dinners. How 
much are you paying for the chicken 
in a TV dinner? Compare this with 
the price of chicken in the meat de- 
partment,” she said. ‘‘Use the unit 
pricing where it’s available. Com- 
pare the cost per pound instead of 
the prices on the packages. You’ll 
find the economy size is not always 
the cheapest. Sometimes the large 
can of tuna costs more per pound 
than the small can.” 

She said it’s important to 
keep your lifestyle in mind, to have 
goals and things that are important 
to you. 

‘‘If you set up a budget and 
don’t include these things, it’s never 
going to work,” Siegel said. ‘‘It’s 
sort of like a diet. If you don’t leave 
in something you really want to 
eat, it’s not going to work.” 

At first, you’re 
going to have to 
estimate some 
areas, she 
said. As 

patterns develop, you can see 
whether the budget is working. 
Maybe you don’t need to spend so 
much for food. Maybe you’d rather 
do other things with the money. 

‘‘Then, there are other ex- 
penses,” she said. ‘‘Some people give 
to the church. Some people have ex- 
penses for education or sports. Some 
things depend on your lifestyle. For 
instance, a new car payment might 
wreck your budget. You may have to 
think about buying a used car or fix- 
ing up the old one.” 

For once, 1 was ahead of her; 
1 knew I couldn’t afford a new car. 

Then she had a worksheet for 
bills paid once a year, twice a year 
and every three months. Your bud- 
get may say ‘‘insurance,” but you 
don’t put money aside in a different 
account for it. You may need a cal- 
endar to plan so you’ll have the 
money to pay car insurance and 
other big bills. 

1 couldn’t stand it any longer. 
‘‘What about credit cards?” 1 asked. 

‘‘When we get someone who’s 
really in over his head, a counselor 
will figure out how much money is 
available to pay creditors. Usually 
we write a letter to the creditors tell- 
ing them the client is in a debt liqui- 
dation program and has signed an 
agreement to pay all his bills. Then 
we try to arrive at a lower payment 
the client can afford and the credi- 
tor will accept.” 

Most creditors are reason- 
able, she said. They know they can’t 
get money from someone who 
doesn’t have it. 

She hadn’t met my ABT. 

‘‘The next step is to make cli- 
ents cut up their credit cards,” she 
said. ‘‘There’s no more charg- 
ing. Clients sign an agreement to 
to pay their bills, and if they don’t 
stick to it, they’re dismissed from 
the program.” Creditors and com- 
manders are then notified. 

‘‘So it’s quite serious,” 
Siegel said, ‘‘and people take it seri- 
ously. 1 think a lot of people need 
help. 1 think it’s good when they ad- 
mit it and come to us for help.” 

I saw where she was coming 
from — and knew where I needed to 
be going. 

Budget, here 1 come! □ 


know it’s probably closer to 30 per- 
,cent. Food runs a close second at 
about 20 percent.” 

‘‘I don’t spend that much for 
food,” I said. 

‘‘Did you include eating out 
and eating at work?” she asked. ‘‘If 
I you spend a dollar a day in the vend- 
ing machines, that’s $5 a week or 
$20 a month. And what about the 
kids’ lunches for school, do you 
make sandwiches?” 

Let’s see, that’s $20 a month 
plus 85 cents a day for five days 
times three ... ‘‘I think I need 
more money for food,” I said. 

‘‘Don’t be discouraged,” she 
said. ‘‘You don’t have to change 
your lifestyle, but maybe you have 
to make more intelligent choices. 
Times have changed. In our grand- 
mother’s day, you bought a product 
without a label, just so much flour 
or so many pickles. 

‘‘Now when you walk into 

TWO MEN in their early 20s stood 
on a sidewalk in a small German 
town. Glancing at the faces of 
passers-by, they caught the eye of 

Assuming from their youth 
and closely cropped hair that the 
two were American soldiers, the 
passer-by, also an American, said, 
“How ya doin?” 

“How’s it going?’’ one of 
the pair answered absently, nodding 
and turning his head to glance back 
down the street. Suddenly his eyes 
widened and he quickly turned back 
to the passer-by. 

“Are you an American?’’ he 
asked hopefully. The pair sighed 
with relief as the passer-by said that 
he was. 

“Say, can ya tell us where the 
bus stop is?’’ asked one. 

“Gee, I’m afraid not,’’ the 
passer-by said. “I’m new here my- 
self.’’ He looked up and down the 
street, craning his neck as though he 
hoped he would spot it himself. 
Suddenly he smiled and said, “Hey, 
I think 1 can ask someone.’’ 

The passer-by bit his lower lip 
and closed his eyes tightly, searching 
his memory for the right words. 
“Bus stop, bus stop,’’ he thought. 
“Ah, Haltestelle. That’s it. Bus- 

Looking around for a likely 
candidate, he mouthed the words as 
he mentally ran through the sen- 
tences he would need. He focused 
on a middle-aged man, hoping that 
the laugh lines around the man’s 
eyes and his age were signs of amia- 
bility and patience. The American 
stepped toward him and said, “Ent- 
schuldigen Sie, bitte.’’ 

As the man turned, the 
American hesitated a moment and 
then said, “Wo ist der Bushaltes- 
telle?” He spoke quickly, hoping to 
get the words out before he forgot 

Cocking his head slightly and 
knitting his brow the man stared 
quizzically at the American. 

“Ohmigod!” thought the 
American. “It didn’t work. He 
didn’t understand me.’’ 

Suddenly the man smiled. It 
took a moment for him to overcome 
the American’s pronunciation and 



use of the article “der” instead of 
“die,” but he had understood. For 
the American the easy part was 
over. The hard part was trying to 
understand the directions. 

As the German rattled on in 
his native tongue, panic began to 
overtake the American. His mind 
raced as he latched onto key words 
to translate while trying to listen for 
other words he understood. 

“Erste Strasse, Strasse, 
Strasse . . . that’s street, first 
street,” thought the American. 
“Rechts, rechts, ein hundert Meters 
. . . that’s a hundred meters on the 
right. No, it’s right, then a hundred 
meters. The first street on the right, 
then go a hundred meters. That’s it! 
I think.” 

The American thanked the 
German, turned back to the soldiers 
and gave them what he hoped was 
the directions to the bus stop. As he 
went on his way, he began to feel 

“That wasn’t so bad,” he 
thought, forgetting the terror that 
had begun to come over him as the 
German spoke. He had finally 
forced himself to do what he had 
been avoiding all day — to use Ger- 

He had come into town feel- 
ing confident he could get by in Ger- 
man. But taking in the sights of the 
town’s autumn market festival, he 
began to realize that people all 
around him were speaking German 
and he didn’t understand anything. 
The more he thought about it, the 
more trying to speak German scared 

Stopping to buy snacks from 
roadside vendors, he worked out a 
system to avoid understanding what 
the vendors said when they asked 
for money. He handed over a fairly 
large bill. Whatever change was of- 
fered went into his right pants 
pocket. That worked out all right, 
though he was running out of fold- 
ing money and starting to list to the 

That was behind him now. 
His confidence was renewed. The 
German hadn’t laughed when he 
asked directions. He had under- 
stood enough of what was said to 
get the directions. 

Headstart really works, he 
thought. All I need is practice. 

Headstart is a training pro- 
gram that introduces soldiers to the 
language and culture of the country 
to which they are assigned. 

Before leaving for either Ger- 
many or Korea, soldiers can get 
Headstart self-study materials from 
education centers in the United 
States. Some post education centers 
offer group-study classes like those 
given in Europe. 

U.S. Army, Europe (USA- 
REUR) offers Headstart instruction 
in Belgian, Italian, Greek, Norwe- 
gian, Turkish, Spanish and Dutch, 
as well as German. In fact, everyone 
in USAREUR is required to take 40 
hours of language and culture in- 

“It’s the only mandatory ed- 
ucation program USAREUR has,” 
said William Canelos, a USAREUR 
education officer. “As mandatory 
programs go, 1 think we do pretty 
well. About 94 percent of the people 
have the opportunity to attend.” 

Soldiers in grade E-6 and be- 
low take Headstart, which empha- 
sizes culture and customs. All others 
take Gateway. 

“Gateway doesn’t stress 
grammar,” Canelos said. “Gram- 
mar is not totally ignored. You do 
have to deal with it. Grammar is 
taught as necessary to get through 
the dialog.” Gateway students don’t 
get instruction on the culture either. 

“That’s not to say a question won’t 
be discussed if it comes up,” Cane- 
los said. “Gateway emphasizes get- 
ting out and using the language.” 

Headstart teaches not only 
language, but basic survival skills as 
well. Students learn customs, cour- 
tesies, the basics of renting an apart- 
ment, how to read a train schedule, 
what to expect when dining out and 
other differences between American 
and German culture. Toward the 
end of the course, the teacher takes 
the class on a field trip. 

“Forty hours isn’t much 
time, but we do accomplish a lot,” 
Canelos said. “On the trip we try to 
include eating and travel situations 
to get soldiers to use their basic 

Instructors play a key role in 
getting students to see the sights, en- 
joy the restaurants and meet the 

“It’s up to us to keep them 
interested,” said Doris Gill, a Head- 
start instructor for the 2nd Armored 
Division (Forward). Her success 
often shows when students return to 
class for their second week of half- 
day classes. 

“After the first weekend, 
they come back on Monday saying, 
T’ve tried this, I’ve tried that,’ ” 
Gill said. “When they find out how 
easy it is, their enthusiasm builds.” 

“It’s a lot of fun,” said SSgt. 
Clifton Taylor, returning to Gill’s 
class after the mid-course weekend. 

Doris Gill answers a question during a 2nd Armored Division (Forward) Headstart 
class. In Germany, Headstart students learn about the culture as well as the language. 

APRIL 1983 


Deanne and PFC Mark Peterson found that Headstart works when they went into a Ger- 
man restaurant and ordered a meal, just four days after arriving in country. 

Taylor, who had been in Germany 
for just over a month, had tried 
some of his newly learned German 
at a nearby town’s autumn festival. 
He only regretted not starting Head- 
start sooner. “You should get it as 
soon as you arrive,” he said. 

Family members can enroll 
in Headstart classes whenever space 
IS available. 

Michelle Myers, one of two 
family members in Gill’s class, 
enrolled to learn to speak with Ger- 
man friends. “I’ve got a few Ger- 
man friends who speak English, but 
it’s easier to speak German, and it’s 
their country,” she said. 

What makes Headstart such 
a good deal for family members like 
Myers is the price: It’s free. “Col- 
lege German costs, like, $150 a 
course,” Myers said. “A lot of peo- 
ple can’t afford that. Some people 
don’t even know they can get into 

Not all family members can 
get into Headstart group classes, 
though. Those who can’t get into a 
class can study on their own using a 
Headstart handbook from the edu- 
cation center. 

Deanne Peterson took Head- 
start in the United States with her 
husband, PFC Mark Peterson of the 
2nd Armored Division (Forward). 
Although they had time for only 
half the course before leaving for 
Germany, they decided to try their 

German by dining out on their 
fourth day in country. 

When they arrived at the res- 
taurant, Mark opened the door for 
Deanne and waited for her to enter. 
She balked. 

“You’re supposed to go in 
first,” Deanne reminded him. 
“That’s the custom here.” 

As they walked into the din- 
ing room, they remembered another 
German custom. Unlike .American 
restaurants, those in Germany have 
large tables that seat si.\ or more. 
Customers are expected to share 
tables and find their own seats. Be- 
ing in a strange place and having to 
approach strangers and ask in a 
strange language if seats are taken is 
a good way to get the butterllies 
churning in your stomach. Mark 
and Deanne avoided this hurdle by 
arriving early and taking seats at an 
unoccupied table. 

When the waitress arrived, 
Mark asked — in German — for 
menus. The waitress asked if he 
wanted a German or English menu. 
Here was another chance to avoid a 
hurdle: The Petersons could take an 
English menu and order by pointing 
to items. Mark asked for German 
menus, though. .After all, this was 
supposed to be a test of how well 
they could get by in German. The 
couple had hopes of seeing a lot of 
Germany on this tour. They had to 
practice the language sooner or 

later, and this was as good a time as 
an\ to Sian. 

“I know vs hat I want.” said 
Deanne. looking down the menu. “I 
want to try Schnii/cl (veal cutlet).” 
She sfxmed what she was looking 
for. but there was a slight problem. 
“I don’t know what Zigeuner 
Schnit/el is." she --aid. 

Mark pulled out a phrase 
book he had brought along just in 
case. Unfortunately, the word 
wasn’t listed. They decided it was a 
style of cooking, and Deanne de- 
cided to take a chance on it. 

.Mark chose Rindflei-ch. 
German for “beef.” In this restau- 
rant it was sersed in something 
called Meerretiichsosse. Mark knew 
“Sosse” means sauce. But what 
kind? The phrase book didn’t help 
with that one cither. He. too. de- 
cided to go for it. 

Shortly, the waitress re- 
turned and said something the 
Petersons didn’t understand. Mark 
looked blankly at her for a moment, 
then to Deanne. Deanne. without 
hesitating began to order. Mark 
followed suit. 

”1 thought. ‘\\ hat’s she say- 
ing?’ ” Deanne said. “>ou just 
have to use common sense, though. 
Obviously she was asking us what 
we wanted to order. My problem is 
that 1 get so excited that I forget 
everything l’\e learned.” 

She had done well enough. 
The waitress brought the beef, green 
salad and boiled potatoes Mark had 
asked for. The beef was covered 
with a horseradish sauce. She 
followed with Deanne’s Schnit/cl. 
salad and french fries. Zigeuner 
("gypsy”) Schnit/el. it turned out. 
is veal cooked in a tomato sauce. 

They had taken a chance and 
were pleased. Lingering over robust 
German coffee after eating, they 
talked of more excursions. Trying 
the language and foixl had whetted 
their appetites. 

“1 think it would really be 
neat to carry on a conversation 
when the waitress can talk as fast as 
she wants and I can understand and 
answer just as fast.” said Deanne. 

That’s a lofty goal, but the 
Petersons had taken the first steps 
Headstart and practice. 



nnn ESTLED between two green, corrugated-steel 
U hangars on the Fort Sill, Okla., airfield are two 
I mobile homes. Alongside the mobile homes, a 
I long, low shed roof covers six shiny single-en- 
j\ gine airplanes. 

LJ i—J You expect to see airplanes at an Army airfield, 
so at first you think nothing of the scene. And then you 
notice that the six craft don’t seem to belong. They 
don’t have the regular U.S. Army markings, nor do they 
sport the standard Army aircraft paint job. They’re 
civilian aircraft, you see, but they do belong. The planes 
are owned by Fort Sill’s Redleg Flying Club. 

The club is one of 32 flying clubs Armywide. It 
has about 100 members, including officers, enlisted and 
Army civilians, who fly the club’s planes mostly for the 
sheer joy of it. 

1 That joy doesn’t come cheaply, though. Getting 
a private pilot’s license takes about six months and costs 
about $1,500. 

“We try to make sure that all new members un- 
derstand how expensive it can be,’’ said Col. Paul A. 

Story by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

Slater, club president. Cost depends on how long it 
takes a person to qualify. If a student interrupts training 
because of TDY or field training, then the time needed 
to get a license increases. A long break in flight school 
will mean spending extra hours doing takeoffs and land- 
ings to get the touch back. Slater explained. “It’s like 
playing golf. If you haven’t played for a couple of 
months, you’d probably want to play a few rounds be- 
fore entering a tournament.’’ 

“The cost covers a lot of things, though,’’ Slater 
said. It includes the club initiation fee of $25 and $15 
monthly dues, as well as instructor fees, ground school 
fees, cost of operating the plane and all the things a pilot 
has to buy. Things like plotters, charts, logbooks and 
manuals add up. 

Even after a student gets a pilot’s license, flying’s 
not a cheap hobby to pursue. A chart in the club’s office 
in the mobile homes lists hourly rental fees. They ranged 
last year from $19 for a small Piper Cub to $50 for a fast 
low-wing Arrow. 

Learning to fly at an Army flying club is cheaper 

Photos by SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 

APRIL 1983 


Army Flying Clubs* 

Fort McClellan, Ala. 

Redstone Arsenal, Ala. 

Fort Richardson, Alaska 
Fort Wainwright, Alaska 
Fort Huachuca, Ariz, 

Fort Ord, Calif. 

Sharpe Army Depot, Calif. 

Fort Banning, Ga. 

Fort Gordon, Ga. 

Rock Island Arsenal, III. 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 

Fort Riley, Kan. 

Fort Knox, Ky. 

Fort Polk, La. 

Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 
Edgewood Arsenal, Md. 

Fort Meade, Md. 

Fort Bragg, N.C. 

USACRREL, Hanover, N.H. 

Fort Monmouth, N.J. 

White Sands Missile Range, N.M. 
USMA, West Point, N.Y. 

Watervliet Arsenal, N.Y. 

Fort Sill, Okla. 

Carlisle Barracks, Pa. 

Fort Jackson, S.C. 

Fort Bliss, Texas 

Fort Sam Houston, Texas 

Fort Eustis, Va, 

Fort Lee, Va. 

Fort Lewis, Wash. 

Yongsan, South Korea 
’The Adjutant General's Office insures the 
above clubs as Category 6 activities. The 
clubs meet certain insurability standards and 
criteria and, generally, are on installations 
with an Active Army aviation element. 

than going to a commercial firm, 

Slater said. The clubs charge just 
enough to cover expenses and 
overhead and have qualified 
instructor-pilots who charge less for 
their services. 

“The lifeblood of a flying 
club is the teaching program,” 

Slater said. With the turnover of 
people, at any given time about 60 
percent of the club members are 

Byron Shody has been the 
club’s chief instructor since 1971, when he put together 
a Federal Aviation Administration-approved program. 
The club’s program has expanded over the years. Now 
members can also earn commercial and instrument 
ratings through the club. 

“We think our run-of-the-mill pilots are better 
than the average pilot,” club president Slater continued. 
“That’s because of safety consciousness. Because we’re 

in the Army, our rules are a lot more strict than 

For example, if you haven’t flown ihe mosf 
sophisticated aircraft you’re qualified to fly in 60 
days, you have to take a check ride to keep that rating 

The members of the Redleg Flying Club pride 
themselves on their safety record. Last year the\ marked 

from top, 
Byron Shody 
watches a dry 
run by SSgt. 
Alvin Williams 
and Maj. Don 
Droerfler. • 
Arnold Locke 
plies his trade. 
• Shody and 
Col. Paul 
Slater check a 



their fifth straight year without an accident — that’s 
more than 16,000 flying hours. In addition, Slater and 
'Shody credit the club’s longtime mechanic, Arnold 
‘Locke, with getting the club through more than 1 1 years 
•without a mechanical failure. 

Not all Army flying clubs have been so lucky. In 
'the past two fiscal years, the Army has paid $175,386 
for five liability claims against flying clubs. One claim 

alone was $100,000 for a mid-air collision. Aircraft 
damage claims cost another $131,042. Those losses in- 
cluded fire, theft, windstorm damage, vandalism, me- 
chanical failures and pilot error. 

The claims are paid by the insurance division of 
The Adjutant General Center, which insures activities 
like flying and parachute clubs. 

Because of the past claims and potential risks, 
some people would like to see the Army do away with 
flying clubs, according to Bill Begel of TAG. Begel has 
the job of overseeing the flying clubs. 

The Army benefits from the clubs, though, ac- 
cording to Slater. Redleg Club members sometimes use 
the club’s planes for TDY travel. When he and two 
others recently went to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., they 
flew in a club plane. The cost was about $500 less than 
commercial airfares. 

“As a division chief, saving that kind of money 
is important to me,’’ said Slater, who is also chief of the 
tactics and combined arms division at the field artillery 
school at Fort Sill. “As a taxpayer, it’s even more im- 
portant to me.’’ 

“We saved a lot of time on the trip, too,” added 
Maj. Don Droerfler, the club custodian. “The time in 
the air between here and Leavenworth is about the same 
as the time you spend on the ground at the Dallas and 
Kansas City airports.” 

Several Army aviators have moved from flying 
helicopters to piloting airplanes because of the club, 
Droerfler said. Once they earned their commercial 
ratings at the club, they were able to make the career 
transition into the Army’s fixed-wing aircraft right at 
the Fort Sill airfield. 

“That’s a lot cheaper than going TDY to Fort 
Rucker, (Ala.),” Droerfler said. 

Some Army aviators also got their start in flying 


“We’ve had members who learned to fly in the 
club and became so enthralled they applied for flight 
school,” Slater said. “There have been at least nine re- 
cently. Not one of them washed out.” 

“Granted, the club is primarily for the morale 
and welfare of the troops, but the Army gets other bene- 
fits as well,” Slater said. 

Despite the rising cost of fuel and maintenance, 
only two Army clubs have closed in recent years. It 
looks as though flying clubs are here to stay. A lot of 
people think it’s great to hop into a plane and fly to a 
distant city for dinner or an afternoon’s shopping, and 
enjoy the countryside from a different view. 

And to a lot of people on the ground, the sound 
of a small plane buzzing overhead is a siren call that 
seems to say, “Come fly with me.” □ 


APRIL 1983 


“CONFIDENCE comes with winning. Winners don’t 
worry as much. . . . We compete against ourselves and 
let the coach worry about the other teams,” said SFC 
John Kailer, a top Army pistol shooter. 

That’s how Kailer handles pressure during 
shooting matches. The method works: He and, 19 others 
on the U.S. team shot their way to first place during the 
1982 Counseil Internationale du Sport Militaire (CISM) 
pistol and rifle championships in Peking. 

The victory was the Americans’ second straight 
win and their eighth in 10 years. The team scored 9,123 
out of a possible 10,000 points to edge Finland (9,075) 
and Norway (9,054). U.S. shooters were paced by Capt. 
iBoyd Goldsby of Martin Army Hospital, Fort Benning, 

jrhis article is based on information provided by the U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit, 
Fort Benning, Ga. All photos by Al Chang. 

Ga., who won two 300-meter events to become 1982 
overall individual CISM rifle champ. 

Other Army members on the squad, all from the 
Army Marksmanship Unit, Fort Benning, were Col. 
Stanley Parmentier; Lt. Col. Tones Wigger Jr.; Capts. 
James Meredith and Richard Hawkins; MSgts. Bonnie 
Harmon, Waymond Alvis and Erich Buljung; Kailer; 
SSgts. Rojelio Arrendondo and Ronald Sumner; and 
civilians William Krilling and Frederick Keifer. 

Soldiers from other locations were Maj. Sharon 
Best, Camp Casey, South Korea; Sp5 Linda Libasci, 
Arizona Army National Guard; and Army Reservist 
Sp5 Ruby Fox of Parker, Ariz. Also on the team were 
Air Force Col. Gail Liberty, Navy Lt. Cmdr. Webster 
Wright, Marine Gunnery Sgt. Allen Heckart and 
Marine SSgt. Dennis Ghiselli. □ 

APRIL 1983 

Opposite page, U.S. sharpshooters visit the Great Wall of China during a break in competition. • Top 
left, Sp5 Ruby Fox gets help from a Chinese interpreter. • Right, the 300-meter rifle matches com- 
mence. • The U.S. team shows off the first-place trophy — a matched set of silver dueling pistols. 


story and Photos by Robert Bernardo 

The coveted black beret of the rangers can’t be won or bought. 

It must be earned. 

San Jose (Calif.) State University ROTC cadets advance up a trail while a Huey helicopter gives air cover. • Opposite page, cadet ran{‘ 
commander Cheryl Hamlin blends into the bushes, but keeps a watchful eye. j,. 



WO Huey helicopters approach the landing zone. 
Vhile one flies cover, the other lands and unloads some 
adets. Then, the helicopters switch places and more 
adets jump off and spread out. When the choppers 
;ave, the cadets start moving up a hill on a patrol they 
/on’t soon forget. 

Shots are fired from a nearby ridge. The cadets 
ike cover while returning fire with a machine gun. 
hey rapidly leapfrog their way to the top of the hill 
'ith help from several smoke screens. As they set up to 
epel the ambush, more shots come from behind. 

“Let’s get the hell out of here!’’ the patrol leader 
ells over the rifle blasts. 

The patrol scrambles down the other side of the 
ill and regroups in a small wooded area. With everyone 
ccounted for, they quickly secure an area for a heli- 
opter pickup. 

The choppers are called in. The cadets board 
lem, only to be taken to another area of possible am- 

This weekend of ambushes, reconnaissance pa- 
ols and raids is called “The Ranger Challenge.’’ It’s the 
nal phase of six-weeks’ training that San Jose (Calif.) 
tate University ROTC cadets endure to become rangers. 

The cadet rangers at San Jose State wear their 
lack berets with pride. 

“There are plenty of cadets who haven’t taken 
inger training. That doesn’t make them any better or 
'orse than 1 am. It only makes them different. You can 
nly compare yourself to your ability,’’ said Dale 
pencer, cadet ranger and third-year ROTC student. 

“The ranger training has provided me with the 
jndamental military skills I think all officers should 
taster,’’ Spencer said. 

The ranger training cycle is conducted during the 
ill and spring semesters. Many cadets think the pro- 
ram will prepare them for advanced camp at Fort 
ewis. Wash., which they must attend after their third 
ear in ROTC. 

“The ranger training teaches a lot about leader- 
lip, taking initiative and thinking under pressure,’’ 
lid John Karp, a second-year cadet ranger. 

DBERT BERNARDO is a free lance photojournalist. A January 1963 graduate of 
in Jose (Calif.) State University, he prepared this article vi/hile a student. 


The San Jose State program, run by Capt. John 
Fowler, is a complex, voluntary training cycle that pro- 
vides mental and physical challenges. 

“Most people don’t like to be the leader, espe- 
cially someone who doesn’t have much confidence. 
What’s really important is not so much the patrolling 
and weapons, but the leadership,’’ said 2nd Lt. Edward 
Chapman, who spent three years as a ranger before 
completing his ROTC studies in June 1982. 

Potential rangers must pass four tests to qualify. 
The first test is a two-hour written and hands-on exami- 
nation on the first five weeks of the cycle. The first two- 
week period consists of physical training (PT) from 5 to 
5:30 a.m., followed by classroom instruction from 5:30 
to 7. The early morning hours avoid conflicts with the 
cadets’ studies and extra-curricular activities. 

In class, cadets learn basic military skills includ- 
ing patrolling, call-for-fire, radio and telephone proced- 
ures, map-reading, hand and arm signals, movement 
techniques, individual squad tactics, operation orders 
and troop-leading procedures. 

“They expect you to know operating procedures 
and tactics. Not just know them in your brain, but apply 
them in the bush,’’ Karp said. 

After the second week, cadets go on a weekend 
“Leaders’ Trek’’ at Fort Ord, Calif., where they prac- 
tice patrol operations, ambushes and raids. Cadet rangers 
direct the trainees. 

“When you’re a ranger, you’re expected to know 
and relay information to the trainees,’’ Karp said. 

During the next three weeks, the trainees practice 
patrolling at local parks. 

In the last week, after the written test, trainees go 
before an oral evaluation board where they’re asked 
what they’ve learned and why they want to become 
rangers-. They must also pass a PT test consisting of 
push-ups, sit-ups and a two-mile run, receiving at least 
60 points in each event and a minimum total of 230 

After passing the written exam, oral evaluation 
and PT test, the trainees have one final test on their 
mental and physical limits: The Ranger Challenge. 

“The challenge is an excellent test. It’s one of the 
things everyone looks forward to. We do things that 
even the Reserve units around here don’t do,’’ said John 
Romero, a second-year cadet ranger. 

The Ranger Challenge is a two-and-a-half-day, 
airmobile operation conducted at Fort Ord and sup- 
ported by elements of the 7th Infantry Division there. 
During the challenge, a combat situation is created from 
the time the helicopters pick up the ranger candidates at 
the San Jose airport. 

Each trainee is evaluated on patrol leadership, 
performance of required individual tasks and all other 
skills learned throughout the six-week cycle. Trainees 
must show they can handle the stress and physical exer- 
tion involved in combat situations. 

When cadets display competence in all areas, 
they are awarded the coveted black beret of the San Jose 
State ROTC rangers. □ 







Wade LaDue 



IT really doesn’t make much differ- 
ence how it all began. Some say the 
Scots, some the Dutch, some the an- 
cient Egyptians (Talk about sand 
traps!) and some the Greeks. 

At any rate, about 15 million 
Americans spend varying amounts 
of time playing the exhilarating, 
frustrating, maddening, scenic game 
known as golf. 

Why would an even-tem- 
pered, contented person try some- 
thing that tests every known emo- 
tion in the soul? Who knows? One 
great shot after 110 stray attempts 
seems to bring people back. 

A bit of history may give 
some insight into what the game is 
about. During the year 1457 in Scot- 
land, the Parliament of King James 
II decreed that “golfe be utterly 
cryed downe.” (It interfered 

\ with the national defense, 
specifically the prac- 
tice of arch- 
ery.) The 
game was 
also labeled 
an “unprof- 
itable sportis” during the reign of 
King James IV in 1491. (The good 
king did manage to play a few 
rounds with his “golfe clubbis and 

And Mary, Queen of Scots, 
is credited as the first Nancy Lopez. 
She was apparently so devoted that 
she was observed playing the game a 
couple of days after the murder of 
her husband. Now you may be get- 
ting the picture. 

The Dutch played their game 
of “kolven” or “kolf” on ice. This 
form of insanity was also observed 
being played near what is now .M- 
bany, N.Y., in the 17th century. 
However, golf, as an organized 
game in the form it’s known today 
in the United States, is generally ac- 
cepted to have begun in the year 

WADE LADUE. retired lieutenant colonel, was as- 
signed as the editor In chief ol SOLDIERS magazine 
from August 1981 to October 1982. He Is now assis- 
tant director ol public relations and publications lor 
the Veterans ol Foreign Wars. 

1888 at St. .Andrews Golf Club in 
Yonkers, N.Y. 

The object of the game has ' 
essentially remained unchanged for I 
hundreds of years although the 1 
courses have changed, the clubs • 
have changed and the bails now t 
come in different colors. , 

• Play. The player is sup- 
posed to smoothly, not viciously, 
strike the small white, orange or 
lime colored ball on a somewhat 
straight line toward a target, usually 
identified by a flag, in the fewest 
strokes possible. On arriving at the 
“green. ’’ the player will notice the 
flag pole is stuck in a hole, 4 : 
inches wide. The ball is supposed to 
wind up there. The player then re- 
cords the number of strokes taken 
plus any penalty strokes for sins too 
numerous to mention. Simple, isn’t 

• Courses. .Most have 18 
holes while others are nine-hole lay- 
outs. You will find both varieties on 
.Army posts around the world. Each 
hole differs in length and design. 
Lengths may vary from 100 to 600 
yards. Since many course designers 
must have had unhappy childhoods, 
they have added such things as 
ponds, trees, sand traps and holes 
and fairw ays that bend in the middle 
(called “dog legs”), just to make the 
player as unhappy as they are. 

• Clubs. In the early days the 
clubs were made entirely of wood. 
Today, the irons are not made of 
iron and the woods may be com- 
pletely devoid of wood. In military 
language, you are authorized no 
more than 14 clubs in your bag dur- 
ing play. Typically these might in- 
clude a driver. 3- and 5-woods, irons 
numbered two through nine, a 
pitching wedge, a sand wedge and a 
putter. The face of each club has a 
certain angle of loft. For example, a J 
standard driver may have a loft of 
about 10 degrees, while a 9-iron will 
have about 47 degrees. 

Some years ago. each club 
had a name. The “spoon" is now 
the 3-wood and the “mashie” is the 
5-iron. These names have generally 
faded from the U.S. golfing scene. 
Most .\rmy recreation or golf 
facilities have clubs for rent for 
either left- or right-handed players. 




j • Learning to play. Pro in- 

I structors almost unanimously rec- 
I ommend against running out and 
j buying new golf shoes, a brand new 
t set of expensive clubs and a costly 
bag. Check around for rentals, used 
or second-hand sets of clubs and 
check with someone in a pro shop 
on the length, flex and weight that’s 
right for you. As a beginner, con- 
sider tennis shoes over golf shoes. In 
the ball market, look for Surlyn- 
covered varieties. They are less like- 
ly to suffer from the results of your 
first attempts. The bottom line is, 
don’t invest a lot of money in equip- 
ment until you’re sure you like the 

Most of us need lessons right 
from the start, and most of us need 
occasional lessons throughout our 
golfing “careers,” professionals in- 
cluded. Individual or group lessons 
are generally available at reasonable 
prices from teaching pros at military 
golf courses around the world. Indi- 
vidual lessons at military courses, 
for example, may cost about $5 for 
a half hour while the group variety 
may run $3, or even free. 

The important thing is to 
learn the basics of the golf swing 
and fundamentals of the game. Of 
course, like most other forms of 
athletics, practice is critical to de- 
velop and maintain swing timing, 
tempo and technique. 

A word about golfing rules 
and etiquette. With this game come 
a set of rules governing social and 
psychological behavior. 

• Don’t pull childish pranks, 
such as substituting a real golf ball 
with one that flies into a million 
pieces on contact. 

• Slow play is frowned upon. 

Don’t take 15 practice swings before 
the real one. 

• Allow faster players to play 
through your group. 

• Take no more than a few 
minutes to look for a lost ball. 

• The low scorer on the pre- 
ceding hole tees off first on the suc- 
ceeding hole. 

• Keep cries of jubilation or 
frustration down to normal conver- 
sational levels (and content). 

• Repair ball marks on the 
greens if local rules say so. 

• Don’t make noise while 
someone else is hitting. 

There are many more rules 
governing play and standards of be- 
havior. It’s a good idea to obtain 
and carry a copy of the rules of golf, 
usually obtainable from local pro- 
fessional shops and stores. 

Rates for playing a round 
vary, as do annual membership fees. 
Rates on military courses may be 
based on your pay grade and may 
range from $2 to $8, depending on 
weekday or weekend play. Check 
with local course managers on both 
daily greens fees and yearly rates. 

Golf isn’t a game reserved 
just for senior non-commissioned 
officers and officers. Many of the 
Army’s best golfers have come from 
the ranks. Some have even made it 
into the Professional Golfers’ Asso- 

Golf demands a lot of pa- 
tience and practice. It introduces 
you to a new vocabulary and to new 
people, some of whom will be met in 
the most out-of-the-way places. 
You’ll also become reacquainted 
with some climatic extremes. It’s a 
game that can last you a lifetime. 
“Golfe” anyone? □ 


GOLF is tough enough. But when 
you have to tee up in front of thou- 
sands of spectators, TV cameras, 
and adjust to weather variables and 
physical and psychological quirks to 
make a living, whew! 

Each week for about nine 
months out of the year, more than 
270 touring professionals of the 
Professional Golfers’ Association 
(PGA) go for the green in more 
ways than one. In fact, some of the 
players have come from the green 
. . . Army green, that is. 

Chi Chi Rodriguez, Lou Gra- 
ham, Wally Armstrong and Mark 
Hayes are in the fraternity of former 
Army members. They played in last 
year’s Kemper Open, held just out- 
side of Washington, D.C. 

The Kemper, a $400,000 
event on the tour, moved four years 
ago to the Congressional Country 
Club, in Bethesda, Md. Before then 
it was played in Charlotte, N.C. 
Craig Stadler won the 1982 event for 
the second year in a row, collecting 
the top prize of $73,000. 

Life on the tour sounds 
glamorous, but it’s a tough exis- 
tence for most of the pros. For ex- 
ample, Armstrong and Hayes were 
two among many who didn’t make 
the cut after 36 holes. Rodriguez 
wound up winning $860 and Gra- 
ham $760, hardly enough to cover 
the expenses of air transportation, 
lodging and meals. 

SOLDIERS interviewed Arm- 
strong and Rodriguez during the 
Kemper. Wally Armstrong was an 
air defense artillery lieutenant as- 
signed to Fort Bliss, Texas, in 
1968-69. He came from an All- 
American golfing background at the 
University of Florida. Hardly sur- 
prising, he was named to the All- 
Army golf team. 

“I had no intention of turn- 
ing professional,” said Armstrong, 
“but after receiving encouragement 
from Army personnel stationed at 
Bliss and other residents in neigh- 
boring El Paso,” he decided to join 


Almost anyone can learn to golf. You can play the sport for a lifetime, which could be a 
good thing. That might even be enough time to master the game. 


FORE!; What you shout m self-de- 
fense after hitting the ball. That way, 
if someone downrange gets hit, it's 
because HE wasn’t paying attention. 
Likewise, if you hear the warning, 

WOODS: We're talking golf clubs, not 
trees. These days, woods may be 
made of metal. See how confusing 
this game is? Mainly used for driving 
or making long shots from the fair- 
way. Improper selection and use can 
send your ball into the woods. We’re 
talking trees, not golf clubs. 

IRONS: Another misnomer. Usually 
identified by numbers 1 through 9 
and wedge. The higher the number, 
the shorter the shot. Take one with 
you while hunting for lost balls in the 
swamps or high grass to fend off rep- 
resentatives from the wild kingdom. 

TEES: These come in designer colors 
and are usually 2 or 3 inches long. 
Tees are commonly used to elevate 
the ball for your first shot on each 
hole. Other uses include repairing 
ball marks on greens, teeth cleaning 
and scraping mud out of your golf 

FAIRWAY: Where your ball would 
have landed on your first shot had 
you not hooked it into the trees on 
the right. On most courses, fairways 

have relatively short grass and lead to 
the green The fairway is where your 
ball should stay on succeeding shots 
enroute to the green Many golf balls 
seem to have an almost human fear of 
this area. 

ROUGH: Comes in many forms — tall 
grass, bushes and rubber plants 
Mysteriously attracts golf balls and 
sometimes eats them. Roughs border 
most fairways. 

BALL; What you hope your club 
strikes. Has a mind of its own. Loves 
water and long walks in the woods. 
We re talking trees, not clubs. 

PAR: A score assigned to each hole 
at least two strokes lower than you 
can hope to get. For example, a par 3 
hole will take you five strokes. Par 4 
holes will take you six. and par 5 
holes will take seven and a picnic 

BOGIE: Enemy fighter planes, radar 
blips and a kind of tank wheel. Also, 
scoring one stroke over par on a given 
hole. Double bogie: scoring two 
strokes over par. 

BIRDIE: What another player may 
hear if you don’t yell "Fore!" It’s also 
scoring one stroke under par on a 
given hole. 

EAGLE: A cousin to the birdie, it’s 
two strokes under par. 

ACE: A hole in one. 

FOURSOME: Usually the largest 
group of golfers allowed to play to- 
gether during a round. Outwardly, 
foursomes seem to be four congenial 
persons who root for one another. In- 
wardly, not printable. 

GREEN; Wfiere tne ncie is Greens 
are cowered w in closely cut. weu- 
manicured grass except m me line 
between ycur ball and me hole 
Greens lOO*' l 'C yOur yarfl would it 
you weren ! cut playmg gol' instead 
Holes are usually m tne most -dithcu:; 
places to approach and puf 

PUTTER: A humble club .'e.ciution 
ized m the last 20 years w^en scien- 
tists discovered mat holes and gc f 
balls naturally repel each other To- 
day. putters come m many designs, 
shapes and materials Aii are care- 
fully engineered for weight ana oai- 
ance to reduce the distance that tne 
ball veers from the hole 

DIVOT; A displaced chunk of sod. 
usually caused when one tries to 
plow with an iron Divots are OK as 
long as the shot was hit properly You 
may have problems if your divot fiies 
farther than your bail Always 'epiace 
divots whence they came 

GRIP; Positioning of your hands on 
the club Most common are the mter 
locking or overlapping methods The 
baseball bat-wood ax grip is a distant 
third, usually used when swmgmg 
club shafts against woods Were 
talking trees, not golf clubs 

SHAFT; Something you get when you 
play this game. Also, it’s the part of 
the club from the grip to the dub 
head which wraps most easily around 
tree trunks 

19th HOLE: A place to compose your 
thoughts and contemplate your 
future in golf. After a bad round, it s 
the hole you wished you d played 
first. After a really bad round, it may 
be the only hole worth playing 

GOOD LUCK: You II need H 

the pro tour in 1970. 

After two attempts, he re- 
ceived his tournament qualifying 
card, obtained by attending the 
PGA qualifying school and faring 
well in a 72-hole tournament. Thus 
far he has won about $365,000 in of- 
ficial earnings. He is also closely 
identified with the tour’s Bible study 
group, made up of players who de- 
vote considerable time to Christian 
youth activities. 

The colorful Rodriguez was 
stationed at Ft. Sill, Okla., from 
1955 to 1957 as a gunner on a 
105mm howitzer. Naturally, he was 

also the post’s golf champion. 

“Every young man should 
serve in the Army so a good NCO 
can make a man out of him,” Rod- 
riguez said. “1 volunteered to fight 
in Korea but was too young. 1 lost a 
lot of friends there. There is no 
greater way of dying than for one’s 
country. 1 still play a lot of exhibi- 
tions for the troops.’’ 

Rodriguez, who came from a 
background of poverty, closely 
identifies with youth. ,-\ foundation 
bearing his name helps troubled and 
abused youngsters by providing 
them with both an academic and a 

sports foundation. He joined the 
professional tour in 1960 and has 
long been a favorite of spectator^ 
who line the fair\\a\> to catch some 
of his constant banter and other 
high jinks. 

No doubt there’ll be other 
future PG.\ players who will have 
worn the .-\rmv green. Rodrigue/. 
Hayes, .Armstrong and Graham 
have left them a message — carved 
with their experiences: It ain’t easy 
earning green on the green. Hut if 
you have marched with the green, 
you’ve made a step in the right di- 



Record for Taegu Wallbanger? 

TAEGU, South Korea — When Johan L. Jansen emerged 
Tom Camp Henry’s racquetball court moments before 
Tiidnight Jan. 28, about two dozen well-wishers were on 
land to greet him after he finished 161 hours of contin- 
uous racquetball. Jansen had begun his attempt nearly a 
Week earlier and had played 401 consecutive games with- 
out sleep. 

Jansen, a 41-year-old master sergeant with the 
19th Support Command, left the court quietly, took a 
owel and wiped his face. Then he began the painful pro- 
cess of pulling his glove off his swollen, blistered hand. 

“I’ve been into exercise all my life. But some peo- 
)le aren’t into exercise, they even think it hurts,” he said. 

Hours earlier he had been seeing double on the 
;ourt, and even had become hallucinatory. “There’s a 
strange effect at night,” Jansen said earlier during one of 
lis five-minute breaks. “The walls of the court, at the top, 
seem to disappear into the clouds. See how the lights 
ire? They make the ceiling look like it’s round at the top, 
)ut it’s not. It’s really strange.” Besides publicizing the 

Army’s over-40 physical fit- 
ness program, Jansen’s 
ordeal raised an estimated 
$700 in pledges for the 
Taegu Chapter of the 
Amerasian Society. Jan- 
sen also hopes to have set 
a record, but much paper- 
work remains before, and 
if, the attempt goes into 
the books. 

Jansen won 237 of 
the 401 games he played. 
He even won regularly dur- 
ing his final 12 hours of 
play. And he had help. 

Among the players 
who kept the attempt alive 
were Douglas Smith, who 
played 22 V 2 hours, and 
Lisa Stanley and Soon Yae 
Marley, who each played 
about eight hours. SFC E. 
Smith, who scheduled 
games, Lon Kelly, Sgt. 
Chuck Marley and his wife 
kept Jansen supplied with 
the little solid food he ate, 
fruit, juices and the ever- 
present coffee and chicken 
soup. — Sp5 Joe Ferrare 


Rucker Jumpers Win 

FORT RUCKER, Ala. — Four members of the Fort Rucker 
Sport Parachute Club who are also full-time college stu- 
dents won the four-way relative event in the National Col- 
legiate Parachuting League’s 1982 Championship in Ma- 
rana, Ariz. 

The team members were Army Sp5 Steve Austin, 
Air Force Amn. Laurie Mauk, Dan Balsiger and Linda 

Service academies have dominated this champion- 
ship event in recent years, but the Rucker squad out- 
scored 19 other teams including the Air Force Academy 
and the Military Academy. In relative work, the team 
jumps together from an aircraft at 9,500 feet and has 35 
seconds to score points on a set of maneuvers. 

This was the first opportunity the post club had to 
take part in the collegiate competition since few of its 
members are full-time college students. 

Austin, an air traffic controller, attends Enterprise 
State Junior College full-time at nights. Mauk is assigned 
to the Air Force Institute of Technology at Auburn Uni- 
versity. Students Dickey and Balsiger have fathers con- 
nected with the military. Balsiger also placed third in the 
masters class. — Sr. Amn. Patricia A. Knight 


BALTIMORE — The Postal 
service has unveiled this 
’0-cent commemorative 
stamp of baseball immor- 
tal Babe Ruth. The stamp, 
o be issued this summer, 
s part of the American 
pports Series. Ruth, who 
lit 714 home runs in 22 
najor league seasons, 
/vas born in Baltimore. 

Maj, Kirk Knight 



Sp4 Sandra Nozzi 

‘‘If I were in combat, I’d sure want him 
fighting on my side and not theirs. . . 

LIKE a videotape that cannot be erased, the 
unwanted memory occasionally comes back 
to play inside his head as he sleeps. 

Vietnam, 1967. Wounded. Coming to 
after a long time, sprawled on the grass. As 
he opens his eyes, the first thing he sees are 
bodies burning. A North Vietnamese soldier 
is using a flame thrower to incinerate the 
dead. He looks up into the soldier’s face and 
knows he is next. 

With a quick motion, he pulls the pin 
on the grenade in his hand, so at least they 
will die together. Stalemate. They stare at 
one another for a long moment. The enemy 
soldier turns and walks into the jungle, not 
looking back. The wounded American slow- 
ly replaces the grenade pin, the fires crack- 
ling around him, the heat rippling the air. 

He doesn’t need to wear his Medal of 
Honor, his eight Purple Hearts or the other 
medals and decorations for valor that weigh 
down his uniform. Maj. Robert L. Howard 
carries the real “decorations” of war across 
his body. 

Wounded fourteen times in the jungles 
of Vietnam, the 26-year veteran feels he is 
alive for a reason. 

“A lot of guys I served with in Viet- 
nam made it possible for me to be here be- 
cause they gave their lives for me,” Howard 
explained from his Spartan office at Camp 
Mackall, a subpost of Fort Bragg, N.C., 
“So I feel that for as long as I’m able, 1 have 
an obligation to train young soldiers to sur- 
vive in combat.” 

Since the end of the war, Howard has 
spent a lot of time doing just that: teaching 
soldiers combat and survival skills in ranger, 
airborne and Special Forces schools. 

SPECIALIST FOUR SANDRA NOZZI Is an inlormalion speclallsl at 
the Public Affairs Office, Letlerman Army Medical Center, Presidio 
ol San Francisco, Calif. 



From April 

1981 until September 

1 982 the Green Beret was an ^ 

instructor and committee chief ' 
for the basic skills portion of the 
Special Forces Qualification 
Course with the U.S. Army John F. 
Kennedy Special Warfare Center and 
School, Fort Bragg, N.C. 

“The training hasn’t changed 
much since 1 went through in ’66,” 
Howard in his soft-spoken Alabama draw 
“We’ve got the same high standards. But 
the ’60s we had a real motivation to lean 
because we knew we were going to be fight 
ing very soon.” 

And fight he did, serving five tours i 
Vietnam for a total of 54 months betweei 
1964 and 1971. During that time How arc 
(then a sergeant) and his men went on more 
than 380 combat patrols, earning most of 
the American and Vietnamese decorations 
for valor. 

“Our mission was to gain intelli- 
gence about the enemy,” he continued. 

“We went out on reconnaissance mis- 
missions into enemy territory for a 
week to a month at a time. 

“We believed in what we 
were doing, and we were loyal to 
each other and Special Forces,” 

Howard said, his craggy features 
breaking into a smile. “You might 
not know a guy’s name, but if he 
was in our operational detachment, 
he was special.” 

Howard’s extraordinary de- 
votion to his men earned him a repu- 
tation as a courageous soldier during 
some of the most bitter fighting of the 
Vietnam War. 

“When things really got bad. I’d 
try to think about my men. Thinking 
about what 1 could do to help them kept 

Center, Maj. Robert Howard shows how to throw an “attacker,” Sgt. Kevan 
Gross. • Top, as an enlisted man in Vietnam, Howard carries a prisoner in- 
to camp after a 17-day patrol in 1966 • and waits it out in the jungle with 
Sp5 (now MSgt.) Paul Poole behind enemy lines in 1967. 


Throughout the four- 
mile rucksack march, 
Maj. Robert Howard, 
right, runs alongside 
his students, setting 
the pace and giving 

me from giving up or getting scared,” he 

Vietnam, five days after Christmas 
1968. Pit. Sgt. Howard and his men are try- 
ing to find and rescue a missing American 
soldier in enemy-controlled territory. As 
they jump off the helicopters and begin to 
move out, they are attacked by an estimated 
two-company force. 

Although wounded in the initial at- 
tack and unable to walk, Howard crawls 
through a hail of fire to rescue his seriously 
wounded platoon leader, dragging him back 
to cover. He organizes the platoon’s 
defenses and crawls from position to posi- 
tion to give first aid and to direct fire. 

After three and a half hours of fierce 
fighting, rescue helicopters are able to land. 
Although wounded in the foot, leg, stomach 
and buttock, Howard stays on the bullet- 
swept landing zone until all of his men are 
aboard safely. 

For his part in this battle, Howard 
was awarded the Medal of Honor. Three 
Silver Stars, three Bronze Stars, two Viet- 
nam Crosses of Gallantry, and numerous 
Purple Hearts were awarded to the men in 
his platoon. 

A year later, Howard received a di- 
rect commission to first lieutenant. In the 
years to follow, he continued his military 
and civilian education, earning a master’s 
degree in public administration from Central 
Michigan University in 1980. 

“Major Howard is the finest, most 
professional soldier I’ve ever met,” said SFC 

Jimmie Foster, who served in \ ietnam with 
Howard in 1968 and is now the operations 
sergeant at Camp Mackall. "Three words 
that describe him are honesiv, sinceriiv and 

Maybe he’s "a little crazy” too. ac- 
cording to several of FJoward’s students in 
training at Camp Mackall. 

"I don’t think he's human." remarked 
a student who demanded anonymity. "He’ll ! 
run five miles with one group, come back, 
and five minutes later he’ll go on a four-mile 
rucksack march with the other group." The 
student rolled his eyes as he waited to begin 
the grueling daily rucksack march. “But if I 
were in combat. I’d sure want him fighting 
on my side and not theirs.” 

Howard explained his behavior as 
leading by example. "We’re not putting you 
through anything we haven’t done ourselves.” 
he told his men. 

"The cadre usually carries 10 to 15 
pounds more than students." he continued. 
"Then we can say. ‘We’re carrying more 
than you are, young man.’ ’’ .As the 
muscular six-footer hoisted his 60-pound 
rucksack onto his back, he barked. "We 
can’t do it for you, but we’ll do it with you." 

Under Howard’s influence, ethical as 
well as physical conditioning is a part of 
Phase 1 Special Forces training. 

“Profanity is an insult to a man’s in- 
tegrity and intelligence," he said during anil 
introductory briefing. “I appreciate and 
honor you for who you are." Howard paus- 
ed and gave his men an icy look that left no 
room for doubt. “There will be no profanity 
at Camp Mackall." 

In addition, honor code v iolations arei 
one of the few non-negotiable grounds for 

.At 42. Howard is still able to 
“smoke" soldiers half his age who come to 
Camp Mackall for the most physical phase 
of Special Forces training. Set. he insists! 
that he is just a regular soldier doing his job! 
— and not a military superman. [ 

“I stay in Special Forces because! 
we’re a people-oriented organization." he! 
said. “We fight when we have to. but there’s 
another side to what we do. We’re capable 
of helping people, and we perform tasks that 
are important to our country. I want to teach i 
these men that there must also be morality in 

EDITOR'S .\OTE: .Maj. Robert L. Howard \ 
is now chief of the Qualificatiotvi Divbion at 
theU.S. .Army John E. Kennedy SfHXial War- 
fare Center and School. Port Hragg. .\.C. 



Compiled by Faith Faircloth 

Information for Families 

“Latch-Key” Kids — Family life 
today has changed a lot since 
the days of “Father Knows 
Best” and “Leave It To 
Beaver.” Today, when Wally 
and Beav come home 
from school they proba- 
bly find an empty 
house. Mom and Dad 
will be at work for sev- 
eral more hours. Even 
young children often must 
learn to take care of them- 

What do they do if 
there is a fire? How do they fix 
supper when their parents have 
to work late? What do they do 
when a stranger comes to the 
door and wants in? Concerned 
parents want their children to 
know the answers to such ques- 

The Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica has published a booklet to 
help parents teach their children 
the skills needed while they are 
alone. “Prepared for Today” is a 
guidebook for parents to discuss 
possible situations with their 
children, and teach them how to 

The book includes sec- 
tions on how to call for help in an 
emergency, how to prepare a 
meal, what to do when the lights 
go out or a water pipe breaks, 
how to care for younger children, 
and where there are dangerous 
areas such as storm sewers and 
garbage dumps. 

The book also lists “prob- 
lems” to be solved. For example: 
“There is an older boy who hangs 
around Jason’s school. He tries 
to give red and white pills to the 
children. What would you do if 
you were Jason?” 

After completing the book, 
a child can get a free “Prepared 
for Today” iron-on decal award 
from the Scouts. The book (BSA 
publication No. 3941) is available 

for 40 cents from local Boy Scout 
councils or by writing Supply Ser- 
vice, Boy Scouts of America Head- 
quarters, 1325 Walnut Hill Lane, 
Irving, Texas 75062. — HSC Mer- 

Legal Assistance for Families — 

Most family members are aware 
that the Army has lawyers work- 
ing in the local Staff Judge Advo- 
cate’s office. What many family 
members may not realize is that 
legal assistance is available not 
just for soldiers, but tor spouses 
and children as well. 

Legal assistance lawyers 
can meet and talk with you about 
problems you may have now or 
ones you anticipate for the 
^ _\\future. Office counseling 
includes negotiating 
with others in your be- 
half, writing letters on 
your behalf, and perform- 
ing all professional 
functions short of ap- 
pearing as your attor- 
ney in court. 

With more fami- 
ies in the Army commu- 
nity, the Judge Advocate 
General’s Corps has in- 
creased the emphasis on 
providing legal assistance 
to family members. 

Active duty sol- 
diers, members of their 
families, and overseas De- 
partment of Army civilians 
and their family members are 
all eligible for help from the 
nearest Army legal assistance of- 
fice. — News for Army Families 

Birth Control Choices — The 

Food and Drug Administration 
has a pamphlet called “Contra- 
ception: Comparing the Cptions.” 
It’s yours free by writing to: Con- 
sumer Information Center, Dept. 
546L, Pueblo, Colo. 81009. The 
booklet includes a fold-out chart 
listing the major methods of con- 
traception, their effectiveness, 
advantages and disadvantages, 
side effects, other health factors 
to consider, and long-term ef- 
fects on the ability to have chil- 
dren. — News for Consumers 

i APRIL 1983 


event, the captain wrote that the sky 
looked “as it does in the fall of heavy 
snowflakes.” He wasn’t talking 
about a white Christmas or even 
about snow. He was describing a 
hot Tuesday in August 1864. To be 
specific, Aug. 9. A hot day, indeed. 

Capt. Morris Schaff, officer 
in charge of Union ordnance stores 
at City Point, Va., started off to get 
a cool drink. He found it in a pail of 
claret punch in one of the officers’ 
tents dotting the grounds of Appo- 
mattox Manor, Gen. Ulysses S. 
Grant’s headquarters. 

One thing led to another, and 
Schaff was drawn into a card game. 
Maybe he should have been working 
at his office on the manor bluff, 
about 150 yards from the wharf on 
the James River. But it was lunch 
time and the punch was inviting. 

.Meanwhile, another individ- 
ual was also busy, but not at cards. 
He was John Ma.xwell, who, accord- 
ing to his own report, had left Rich- 
mond two weeks before “to operate 
with what was known as the ‘horo- 
logical’ torpedo against the vessels 
of Federal forces navigating the | 
James River.” | 

Maxwell was a Confederate ! 
Secret Service agent and up to no ' 
good — at least for the Union forces, j 
Records don’t tell us whether Max- : 
well was a soldier, although Schaff, | 
in his account of that Aug. 9, iden- i 
tified him as a captain. I 

A civilian agent, R. K. Dil- [ 
lard, was with Maxwell. Dillard | 
“was well acquainted with the river, j 

GORDON C. BENNETT is a writing suparvisor at ttia | 
U.S. Army Quartermaster School, Fort Lee, Va. A Irse- | 
lance mystery writer and retired Army major, Bennett | 
is an amateur Civil War historian whose special inter. : 
est is the fighting around Petersburg. Va. i 

and would go anywhere I led, no |i 
matter what the danger might be.” 
Maxwell said. |^ 

Together, .Maxwell and Dil- I; 
lard traveled the river’s bank. On ^ 
Aug. 2, they heard that “an im- ^ 
mense supply of stores was being ^ 
landed at City Point.” j; 

History doesn’t disclose what j- 
luck the two had enjoyed up to that 
second day of August, but Maxwell 
was in a go-for-broke mood. He and * 
Dillard started out for City Point in- 
tending, as Maxwell put it. “to in- jis 
troduce our machine upon one of 
the vessels. . . .” It was to be quite j 
an introduction. '|w 

The two infiltrators reached 
City Point before daybreak on ^ 
Aug. 9 after crawling past Yankee U 
pickets. The sight greeting .Maxwell mu 
and Dillard was almost terrifying. ’ j 
Grant had taken the sleepy i 

little hamlet of City Point and con- 
verted it into the logistical backbone 
of his “Armies Before Richmond.” 
There were wharves, warehouses, 
prisoner stockades, ordnance stores, 
hospitals, replacement camps and 
rail lines. All the hurried comings 
and goings kept the supply base 
grumbling and grinding. War sup- 
plies were on their way to fighting 
men outside Petersburg, 10 miles 
'Southwest of City Point. 

City Point symbolized the 
Northern effort against the Confed- 
eracy. There was more port traffic 
iat City Point than any other South- 
ern port — in peace or war. It was 
now normal for 75 to 100 craft of all 
types to be tied up at docks or to be 
in deeper water waiting their dock 
ispace. The ships caught Maxwell’s 

Maxwell had a box contain- 


ing 12 pounds of gunpowder. Also 
in the box was Maxwell’s own in- 
vention, “a small machine . . . 
which was arranged by means of a 
lever to explode a cap, at a time in- 
dicated by a dial.” In other words, 
he had a time bomb. 

Telling Dillard to stay in 
place. Maxwell went forward with 
his bomb. He went but upon the 
wharf, sat down and waited. When 
the master of a nearby ammunition 
craft left his vessel. Maxwell saw his 
opportunity and approached the 
ship. At the edge of the wharf he 
was hailed by a sentry — a German 
who couldn’t speak a word of 
English! Maxwell answered in a 
broad Scottish dialect, all the while 
edging toward the vessel. 

It was a standoff — two men 
unable to communicate with each 
other, one brandishing a weapon, 
the other holding a seemingly harm- 
less box. Inside the box, seconds 
ticked away. The last tick, the really 
last tick, would be the signal for 
eternity to begin. 

Maxwell kept his head. As he 
recorded it, “Just then a Negro ap- 
peared at the side of the ship. I gave 
him the box and told him the cap- 
tain said put it down below. The 
man took it without question and 
carried it down while I went off a lit- 
tle distance.” 

Meanwhile, back at Appo- 
mattox Manor, Schaff was still 
playing cards. “I can’t be certain 
how the game would have come 
out,” he recalled, “but I had just 
captured two tens with a queen . . . 
when the explosion took place and a 
12-pound solid shot crashed across 
the bed. ... Of course there was a 
sudden stampede.” 

Outside, “as there was some- 
thing falling or shells bursting at 
every instant, I looked up to see 
what was coming next.” It was then 
that Schaff noted the sky and liken- 
ed what he saw to a “fall of heavy 
snow flakes.” The Union officer 
continued, “Just then a shell burst 

Gen. Ulysses Grant and his staff watch 
the Union Army cross to the south 
bank of the James River in Virginia in 
June 1864. Two months later, one bold 
secret agent would disrupt Grant’s 
massive supply operations at City 
Point, on the river. 

immediately over us. In an instant 
we were all running for dear life.” 
Schaff described the after- 
math of those 30 seconds of horror 
when the ammunition ship explod- 
ed. He recounted, “There lay before 
me a staggering scene, a mass of 
overthrown buildings, their timbers 
tangled into almost impenetrable 
heaps. In the water were wrecked 
and sunken barges. ...” The blast 
destroyed 400 feet of warehouses, 
180 feet of wharves and millions of 
dollars in property. 

“The explosion sent . . . cav- 
alry saddles flying in every direction 
like so many big-winged bats,” 
Schaff remembered. “One of them 
struck and killed the lemonade man, 
the only authorized vendor of pop- 
syrups and lemonade at the depot.” 
The disaster struck Schaff 
close to home: “Among the flower 
beds . . . one of my clerks fell with a 
large piece of his skull torn off. . . . 
It was the most singular wound I 
ever saw, in this, that the substance 
of the brain apparently was not 
touched, but stood in place, a firm, 
white convoluted mass.” 

Schaff wrote: “The total 
number killed will never be known.” 
Grant reported 43 dead and 126 
wounded on Aug. 1 1 , but these fig- 
ures are made suspect by first-hand 
accounts reporting greater totals. 
One news story asserted that “not 
less than 170 dead bodies were 
found, and from the fragments 
strewn around it is supposed that at 
least 200 perished.” 

Schaff reinforced this view. 
He stated that the explosion was re- 
sponsible for “killing over two hun- 
dred, wounding many, and fearfully 
maiming others, besides destroying 
over $2,000,000 of property.” 

The blast must have been 
massive. Schaff reported seeing “a 
musket standing upright in the road, 
buried to the second band, almost a 
half mile from the wharf” and sur- 
mised it belonged to the sentry 
whom Maxwell had approached. 

Near Drewry’s Bluff, more 
than 10 miles away. Confederate 
Capt. Charles M. Blackford wrote 
to his wife: “A few moments ago 
there was a mighty explosion down 
the river in the direction of the 



Howleii House t'ollov^cd by a 
mighty volume of smoke, which 
rose straight to the clouds. We are 
all on tiptoe to know what it was.” 
Another observer, R.B. Pres- 
cott, a Union medic, later wrote to 
Schaff: “In my mind’s eye 1 have 
often seen that dreadful spectacle — 
that immense cone-shaped mass of 
flame and smoke rising seemingly 
hundreds of feet into the air, and 

though playing leap-frog, while 
headless bodies, arms, legs, and i 
heads of the unfortunate crew flew I 
in fragments about in the smoke.” 
He disclosed that he was “terribly 
shocked by the explosion, but . . . 
not injured permanently.” 

Ironically, Dillard, who was i 
farther from the blast than Max- ’ 
well, “was rendered deaf by the ex- i 
plosion, and never recovered from 

The City Point waterfront some time after the explosion. 

filled with timbers, saddles, military 
stores of all kinds, and bodies of 
men and horses. It was a sight never 
to be forgotten.” 

(Prescott, incidentally, “had 
the honor of capturing the official 
Confederate report of this transac- 
tion in Richmond and forwarding it 
to Washington with account of how 
it came into my possession.”) 

At Appomattox Manor, 
Grant was unscathed, though around 
him one individual was killed and 
several others wounded. As one 
staff officer put it, “The general 
was surrounded by splinters and 
various kinds of ammunition, but 
fortunately was not touched by any 
of the missiles.” 

In his official report^ Maj. 
Gen. Rufus Ingalls, Grant’s quar- 
termaster, said, “The lieutenant 
general himself seems proof against 
the accidents of flood and field.” 
But what of John Maxwell? 
For him, the event had a touch of 
the bizarre. He wrote: “The scene, 
though terrific, was in some respects 
ludicrous. The air was filled with all 
sorts of munitions of war. Army 
saddles careered through the air as 

its effects.” The civilian agent must i 
not have lived long after the explo- | 
sion. In his official report. Maxwell i 
wrote that Dillard had died. ; 

Maxwell had one regret i 
about the whole affair and express- 
ed it this way; ”... A party of 
ladies was killed. Of course, we 
never intended anything of the kind, 
not being aware of their presence.” 

Maxwell’s report was among 
the documents that tleeing Confed- 
erate officials failed to destroy or 
remove when they evacuated Rich- 
mond. This was fortunate for his- 
torians and unfortunate for Max- 
well. He became a fugitive. 

The report was sent to Maj. 
Gen. Henry \V. Hallcck. On June 3, 
1865, Halleck wrote to Secretary of 
War Edwin M. Stanton: “I have 
just received the original official re- 
port of John Maxwell of the rebel 
secret service of the blowing up of 
the ordnance stores at City Point 
last year. It appears . . . the explo- 
sion was caused by a . . .John Max- 
well and R.K. Dillard. . . . I’ve 
ordered the arrest of these persons if 
they can be found.” 

There’s a postscript to this 


9ory: Some y«»r> later, Horace 
Porter, of Gram’s wanime staff 
became a Wteie House secretary to 
the general- tumed-presHferu. .A Vir- 
ginian called on Porter to complain 
of some trouble he was hasing se- 
curing a patent lor an insention. To | 
prove his sanding, ibe visiior de-tl 
dared he had designed the ”infeTTial| 
machine” responsible lor the Cityo^ 
Point explosion. 

Porter’ V recoilccticm is tama- 
li/ing. He didn’t gise the \ irgiman's 
name so it is unknown whether he 
was Maxwell or an impostor. There li 
are some discrepancies between Max- 1 
well’s report and the Virginian' brag| 
which tend to support the impostor 
theory. For one thing, the \'irgmjan 
said he carried the bomb aboard 
the ammunition vessel. Maxwell’s 
report states the agent tricked a 
laborer into taking it aboard. 

Another curious point; De- 
spite his eminence and the date of 
his recollection (189'). Porter ap- 
peared unaware of .Maxwell’s re- 
port, because he concluded. “,\t 
last, after many years, the mystery 
of the explosion was revealed.” 

In any case. Porter congratu- 
lated the insentor and sent him on 
his way. He wrote. “I told him that 
his efforts, from his standpoint, had 
been eminently successful.” 

Successful, yes. but neces- 
sary? Schaff didn’t think so. In bis 
account, he addressed this poini; 
“In view of (the explosion’s) slight 
effect toward breaking or weaken- 
Grant’s hold on the alreads 



doomed Confederacy, it was noth- 
ing more than butchery, unjustified 
by the usages of civilized war. and 
severely repugnant to humanity.” 
Schaff. by the way. indulged 

in one of those “usages of cisili/ed j 
war.” The Union captain, with a 
candor made possible by the passage 
of three and a half decades, closed I 
out his account by confessing; “It is 
needless to say. finally, that when I '. 
came to settle my accounts with the « 
Ordnance Department for the j 
millions of dollars’ worth of stores 1 ‘ 
had received, what 1 could tiot find 
when I turned the depot over to my 
successor. I loaded on the barge or 
put in the storehouse, and let tlic ex- 
plosion balance the books.” 




Compiled by Steve Hara 

Capital Punishment 

'HIS skeleton puzzle features all 50 U.S. state capitals. You must identify them and 
)lace them in the grid so they’ll all fit reading across from the left or down. Only the 
;tates are listed below, but they appear according to the letter-count and alphabetical 
»rder of their capitals. For example: Maine’s seven-letter capital is Augusta. The four 
(lack squares are not used. 

5 Letters 

7 Letters 

8 Letters 



North Dakota 





New Hampshire 

South Carolina 



6 Letters 



New York 










9 Letters 


North Carolina 



New Mexico 


South Dakota 

New Jersey 





APRIL 1983 

10 Letters 

11 Letlers 





West Virginia 


12 Letters 







Rhode Island 


13 Letters 


—Adapted from a concept by SSgt. James D. Pierce 

‘‘Waddya mean $1.25 overtime charges?” 


For answers see page 56 


• If you or a family member were hurt or 
injured tonight and emergency first aid treat- 
ment were needed, what would you do? 

Could you quickly locate a well-equipped 
first aid kit and apply the proper treatment? 
Would you have to hunt up bandages, gauze and 
scissors and guess at what you should do? 

If you fall into the latter category, as 
millions of people do, consider these words from 
the American Medical Association: 

"When an emergency strikes, competent 

first aid treatment during the first few minutes 
can not only mean the difference between life 
and death in some situations, but it can also save 
needless visits to the doctor's office and avoid 
unnecessary expenses as well." 

Having the proper supplies, and knowing 
what to do are two steps in preparing yourself 
and your family for a medical emergency. 

Know the best route to the nearest hospital 
or medical center, and the ordinary items you 
can use in an emergency. For example: 

—Diapers, sanitary napkins and towels can 
be used as compresses to control heavy bleeding, 
as bandages or as splint padding. 

—Diaper pins can secure bandages or slings. 

—Magazines, newspapers, umbrellas and 
pillows can be used as splints for broken bones. 

—A table leaf or an old door can serve as a 
stretcher for head, neck and back injuries. 

In a crisis, certain life-saving procedures 
take priority over anything else. If a victim is 
not breathing or is unresponsive, treatment given 
to other injuries will not help. 

According to Walter Reed Army Medical 
Center's (WRAMC) emergency technicians, re- 
storation of breathing is the most important 
thing you can do for an accident victim. If the 
oxygen supply is not restored within four to six 
minutes, the victim will die. (Permanent damage 
to the brain begins after about two minutes of 
oxygen deprivation). 

Learning how to assist an accident victim 
can be as simple as "ABC" (airway, breathing and 
circulation) if you or family member undergoes 
basic life-support, or "ABC" training. Many 
local Red Cross chapters offer classes in cardio- 
pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 

The classes also teach you how to act 
quickly to prevent someone from choking. While 
the instruction in the abdominal thrust maneuver 
has replaced teaching the famous Heimlich Ma- 
neuver in some CPR training, the principle of 
both is the same - forcing the reserve air up and 
out of the lungs quickly and sharply to dislodge 
the obstruction. 

(Extracted from an article by Patricia 
Kukoski, WRAMC.) 



(More What’s New on Pages 2, 56) 


I HEMTT Tests 

• The Heavy Expanded Mobility 
Tactical Truck (HEMTT) M-985 
cargo vehicle runs over an Aber- 
deen Proving Ground, Md., test 
course after a heavy rainfall. Dur- 
'f ing this test, part of initial produc- 
tion item testing, the truck hauled 
i a 30,000-pound trailer and carried 
11 tons in the cargo area. 

The HEMTT has a heavy duty 
crane mounted on the rear which 
can lift 14,500 pounds. The crane 
is designed primarily for supporting 
■ rocket pods for the Multiple 
■ Launch Rocket System. 

The truck can also be con- 
' figured as a fuel tanker, though it 
. is primarily an ammo hauler. 

I HEMTTs are fully transportable by 
air. They will be fielded after 
further testing. 

Army Eyes Battlefield Repairs 

• The Army is looking for original ways to salvage damaged 
tanks and vehicles to keep them in battle. To this end, the Army 
Materiel Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
Md., has formed a task force to write pilot technical manuals on 
battlefield damage assessment and repairs. 

The manuals will detail procedures that could be used in 
emergency or battle conditions. The emphasis is on fixing tanks on 
location rather than moving them to a maintenance area. The aim is 
to fix the tank and return it to action in the same battle in which it 
was damaged, or at least the next battle. Turnaround time for 
suggested jury-rigs should be two to six hours. 

Some of the improvisations outlined in the manuals will include 
by-passing switches, repairing broken radio antennas, and short- 
tracking methods. Few of the repairs are expected to be permanent. 
The tank will have to be properly refurbished after the battle. As 
one official put it, a commander in a crucial engagement would 
probably prefer to have a damaged tank that can be rigged to move 
and shoot than have no tank at all. 

The group is expected to finish drafting the pilot manuals this 
September. Anyone having experienced-based suggestions for a "fix" 
on any of the Army's combat vehicles may call AUTOVON 283- 

• Tours for military personnel 
assigned to Fairbanks and Fort 
Wainwright, Alaska, have been 
changed from 30 to 36 months for 
those with dependents and from 18 
to 24 months for those on "all 
others" tours. 

Also, a large number of sol- 
diers have been reporting to the 
172nd Infantry Brigade in Alaska 
with non-command sponsored fam- 
ily members. Many soldiers have 
had a difficult time finding ade- 
quate, affordable housing. Many 
families have been forced to live in 
substandard housing or return home 
at the sponsor's expense. 

• "Go for it! Use your 
Library!" is this year's theme for 
National Library Week, April 17- 
23. Most of the Army's 548 librar- 
ies will feature special observances 
during that week. 



(More What s New on Pages 2. 54] 


Ground Launched Cruise Test 

• The Ground Launched Cruise Missile's Transporter Erector 
Launcher runs over a washboard course at Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
Md., during road shock and vibration testing. Testers called the 
system very durable. 

Child Abuse Prevention Month 

• April is the Army's Child Abuse Prevention Month. The 
campaign stresses local education and information. Child abuse is a 
major problem in the United States, affecting some 2 million 
youngsters annually. The Army had 304 known cases in 1981 — the 
tip of the iceberg, officials warned, because many go unreported. 

AER Fund Drive Open 

• The 1983 Army Emergency Relief (AER) fund-raising campaign 
started March 1 and will end July 1. AER provided more than $15.7 
million to active and retired Army people last year. 

To kick off the drive, Gen. E.C. Meyer, Army chief of staff, 
wrote: "Army Emergency Relief is our organization and exists 
solely to help the Army take care of its own. It allows us to 
maintain this tradition and show our commitment to the well-being 
of our soldiers and their families..,. Last year's fund campaign 
produced record results and ,,, I ask each of you to continue to 
demonstrate that Army people do take care of their own," 

Summer Intel School 

• The 36th annual 5th Army Area Intelligence School opens June 
12 at Fort McCoy, Wis,, and will operate in two-week cycles until 
Aug, 5, The school is in its 17th year. 

The school provides intelligence training for Reserve Compo- 
nent personnel. Courses offered this year are: Tactical Intelligence 
Staff Officer; Intelligence Analyst; Interrogator; Counter- 
intelligence Officer/Technician/Agent; and S-2 Combat Operations 
and Security Manager, 

Questions should be directed to 5th Army at AUTOVON 471- 
5516/4907 or commercial (512) 221-5516/4907, The courses are 
accredited by the Intelligence School at Fort Huachuca, Ariz,, and 
closely parallel instruction given there. 

Stereo Service 

• Exchange customers who 
bought Marantz stereo equipment 

I overseas should note that North 
I American Phillips now handles war- 
j ranty and other after-sales service 
I on Marantz equipment bought over- 
seas. For U.S. service information 
on those items, write to North 
American Phillips Consumer 
Electronics Corp., Consumer Af- 
fairs Dept., P.O. Box 444, Jeffer- 
son City, Tenn. 37760, or call 
collect (615) 475-3801. Phillips' 
customer service personnel can 
provide such assistance as free 
packaging materials or the location 
of the nearest service center. 

Honda Converters 

• Honda owners can get a free 

booklet with tips on modifying the 
cars to run on leaded fuel in coun- 
tries where unleaded is not avail- 
able. Write to: American Honda 

Motor Co., Inc., 100 W. Alondra 

j Blvd., ATTN: Consumer Affairs 

! Dept., Gardena, Calif. 90247. 

Answers to The Lighter Side (page S3) 

A A I O A 



A I B II O A ■ 



N S B 0 % 



T H D L N M B 





Y A I I I O S 






S N i O i M » 


NX CL k|0 N N B 



f O B K u 






;The Army Reserve was created by Congress in 1908 as a 
jmedical corps. In the first year, 364 persons joined up. 
iToday, the Army Reserve has more than 440,000 citizen- 
'"soldiers who work and train in hundreds of career fields. 
More than a third of the Total Army’s support strength is 
in the Reserve. This month, the Army Reserve marks its 
Diamond Anniversary, 75 years alongside the Active Army 
and the Army National Guard. The size of the force and 
jobs may have changed over the years. But some things, 
,such as dedication, patriotism and service have stayed 
ihe course. Happy birthday! 




John O. Marsh Jr. 

Secretary of the Army 


MAY 1983 VOLUME 38, NO. 5 

Gen. E.C. Meyer Maj. Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. Col. John E. Taylor 

Chief of Staff Chief of Public Affairs Chief, Command Information 











Teen-Age Brides 

Making life work with a little help from friends 

Stand in the Door: GO! 

The ultimate thrill— the first jump 

European Rx for Sick Vehicles 

The main thing about Mainz 

Green Hell 

It’s a jungle out there 

Spirit of the Bayonet 

The shiver of cold steel 

Zoot Suits and Parachutes 

The story of America’s unheralded WASPs 

All in Good Pun 

Forget everything teacher said about English 

Don’t Call Us Brigade ’75 

We’re 2nd Armored (Forward), and don’t you forget it 

3rd Infantry Division 

Marnemen never gave in 

Al Bumbry 

In war, you learn what’s really important in life 

Anatomy of a Paycheck 

Where does it all go? Read your LES 

PAGE 22 

PAGE 28 



What’s New 










Sports Stop 


Lighter Side 

PAGE 32 

Credits: All cover photography by SSgt. Gary L. Kleffer. 

■ditor in Chief, LI. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor. Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor, Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor, Maj. 
leith P. Schneider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Assistant Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SEC Norman Oliver, SSgt. Victoria 
louze, SSgt. Terri Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer; Executive Secretary, Sharon Stewart; and Secretary, Dolores King. 

iOLDIERS (ISSN 9903-8440) is published monthly under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timely, factual information on policies, plans, operations and 
Bchnical developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Army civilian 
mployees. It also conveys views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in achieving information ob- 
BCtives of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is authorized to: Editor, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314. 
■ Phone: AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial (202) 274-6671. ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for cartoons, "by permission” and copyright items), material may be 
sprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. ■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military distribution: From the Army Adjutant 
ieneral Publications Center, 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21220, in accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by commanders. ■ Individual paid subscrip- 
ions ($31 annually to stateside and APO addresses and $38.75 to foreign addresses) are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department of the Army, Dec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number; UA 23.A1S6. ■ 
■Jecond class postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and at additional mailing offices. ■ POSTMASTER: Send address changes to SOLDIERS. Cameron Station. Alexandria, Va. 22314. 

Drill Sergeants 

• CONUS-based NCOs selected 
for drill sergeant duty no longer 
receive permanent assignments un- 
til they have successfully com- 
pleted drill sergeant training. 

After schooling, the new drill 
sergeants return to their original 
assignments and await PCS orders 
either to an Army training center 
or to the retraining brigade at Fort 
Riley, Kan. In the past, soldiers 
received PCS orders and the gain- 
ing command would send them to 
school as soon as possible. If a 
soldier failed, however, the com- 
mand was faced with keeping an 
unqualified drill sergeant or paying 
for an unexpected PCS move. 

Drill sergeant school consists 
of three weeks' orientation and 
eight weeks' special training. 







Drunken Driving Crackdown 

• The Department of the Army's Law Enforcement Office is 
moving on two fronts to dry up the incidence of drunken driving on 
Army installations. 

Major Army commands will be receiving two National Highway 
Traffic Safety Administration pamphlets, "Improved Sobriety Test- 
ing" and "Guide for Detecting Drunk Drivers at Night." 

The two pamphlets will help MPs test drivers to determine if 
they are intoxicated, and discuss visual clues they can use to 
discriminate drunken drivers from sober ones. These pamphlets will 
help standardize screening, improve the detection of alcohol- 
affected drivers and minimize mistakes during the screening. 

The second part of the crackdown includes changes to Army 
Regulation 190-5. Among the changes are: 

—Procedures for reprimand letters to drunken drivers. 

— Improved procedures for swift temporary suspension of on- 
post driving privileges after apprehension on DWI charges either on 
or off the installation. 

— A provision for an automatic one-year suspension of on-post 
driving privileges for refusal to take a blood-alcohol test. 

—Counseling and rehabilitative services for DWI offenders. 

—Encouragement of commanders to take administrative action 
against offenders whether DWI incidents occur on or off post. 

• The Department of Defense 
has released its 1983 edition of i 
"Soviet Military Power," which in- 
cludes Soviet advances since mid- | ^ 
1981 in strategic and theater ' 
military forces, and L'.S. and allied . 
strength comparisons in Europe and | 
Asia. Copies are available for 1 » 
$6.50 from: Superintendent of Doc- • 
uments. Dept. 36-BB, Washington. 1 • 
D.C. 20402. Orders should include i 
payment and should reference i > 
stock number 008-000-00389-1. j 

I ' 

• Americans made more than ' 

480 million visits to lakeside recre- * 
ation areas last year. , 

Maintained by the Army 
Corps of Engineers, the recreation | 
areas offer boating, fishing and 
camping. The Corps manages 4 42 ■ 

lakes and reservoirs around the 
country. Most are less than 50 ' 

miles from highly populated cities. 



Compiled by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

' (More What’s New on Pages 54-56) 

DODSays Thanks 

• The Defense Department 
honored more than 2,000 employers 
and supervisors in the last six 
months of 1982 for supporting the 
military training needs of their 
employees who serve in the Nation- 
al Guard or Army Reserve, accord- 
ing to the National Committee for 
Employer Support of the Guard and 

Though federal law requires 
employers to grant time off from 
work for Guard and Reserve train- 
ing, many employers enact special 
personnel policies that actually en- 
courage workers to stay in military 

NCESGR runs the awards 
program. Questions concerning 
employer nominations for an award 
may be called in to a toll-free 
hotline at (800) 336-4590, or by 
writing to: NCESGR, 1735 N. Lynn 
St., Arlington, Va. 22209. The 
continuing program has no deadline 
for nominations. 

Newcomers Can’t Be Secretaries 

• MOS 71C (secretary) is no longer available to initial enlistees, 
according to MILPERCEN officials. 

Only in-service people may apply if they meet the following 
prerequisites: have a clerical score of 100 or higher; be in grades E- 
4 through E-6; be able to type at least 35 net words per minute as 
determined by the standard Army typing test; obtain a score of 11 or 
higher on the Test of Adult Basic Education, Form D, available 
through education centers; have 11 months of service remaining 
after completing the 12-week school; and be eligible for a secret 
clearance. Qualified soldiers may apply on a DA Form 4187 or 
choose the school as a re-enlistment option. 

Disclaim Check Bouncers 

• When a former dependent passes a bad check at the exchange, 
the military sponsor has check cashing privileges suspended, must 
make the check good and pay the bad check fee. 

Sometimes former dependents have retained an ID card that's 
no longer authorized. Sometimes the check bouncer may be a 
former spouse who is entitled to the ID card to make purchases for a 
minor child. 

In either case, this doesn't have to happen. The sponsor can 
file a Disclaimer of Responsibility. The sponsor's Social Security 
number will be coded in the PX computer so no exchange will cash 
the former dependent's check. The disclaimed person can still use 
the exchange if authorized, but check-cashing privileges on the 
sponsor's SSN will be stopped. 

Drone Flight 

• The Lockheed Aquila remotely piloted ve- 
hicle zips skyward in the early daylight after 
launch from its truck-mounted catapult rail, far 
left, at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. After a successful 
flight, the Aquila flies into the vertical ribbon 
barrier of the retrieval system, left. The Aquila 
has been undergoing tests for the Army as a 
forward reconnaissance and target designation 
vehicle. The pilotless aircraft is seen by 
planners as playing an important role in the 

The Aquila carries a television camera and 
night-vision device. It is designed to penetrate 
the forward line of troops to find targets, 
provide information for the adjustment of artil- 
lery fire, and use a laser to mark targets for 
incoming fire. 


I read your November issue in 
which there was on article telling how 
the 1st Cavalry Division was the first 
Allied unit to enter Tokyo. 

Come on now, you know better 
than that. The I Ith Airborne Division 
was first in Tokyo. How do I know? I 
was in the I I th. 

I remember seeing pictures for 
West Coast newspapers showing the 
1st Cav walking down the gangplank, 
landing in Tokyo. But on the dock was 
a band playing a welcome for them. A 
close look at the helmet liners the 
band was wearing showed the I Ith 
Airborne Division insignia. 

So let's get the record straight. 

Lt. Col. Robert E. Currier (Ret.) 

Las Cruces, N.M. 

The record is straight, although 
the hairs of truth may look like split 
ends. Several official and unofficial 
histories claim the 1st Cavalry Divi- 
sion to be the first to enter Tokyo 
officially, on Sept. 8, 1945. The honor 
of being the first U.S. ground combat 
forces to occupy Japan usually goes to 
the 11th Airborne Division, which 
landed in force at Atsugi airfield some 
weeks earlier. (And this claim dis- 
tinguishes the paratroopers from the 
Air Force personnel who landed sever- 
al days before to prepare the airfield, 
and a mysterious Navy pilot who is 
said to have touched down even earlier 
to pull a practical joke which failed.) 
Did men of the 11th enter Tokyo prior 
to Sept. 8? They may have. The 1st 
Cav sent a patrol into the city three 
days before the official "first" en- 
trance. Then, too, a geography lesson: 
The 1st Cavalry Division landed in 
Y okohama, not Tokyo. 


The wear of military awards is an 
important aspect of a soldier's uniform 
and must be done exactly right. The 
guidance available to soldiers is 

lirnited in my view. I noticed the 
January 1983 issue of AIRMAN 
magazine (Air Force counterpart to 
SOLDIERS) devoted the back page to o 
color layout of all ribbons in the order 
that they must be worn. 

If it is not already in your plans, I 
would strongly recommend you devote 
an issue to a short article on wearing 
of ribbons along with a full color page 
of the ribbons in order of wear. Since 
badges are such a part of the soldier's 
uniform, they should also be described. 

Col. Eugene L. Manner 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Thanks for the tip. The article 
was planned earlier and will appear in 
a future issue. 


I am currently stationed near Fort 
Dix, N.J. However, I have received 
orders for U.S. Army, Europe. 

I am requesting information on how 
to modify an '83 Chevy Blazer and an 
'81 Audi 4000 for operation on leaded 
fuel. Also, I know transformers are 
available to change 220-volt current to 
I 10 volts. But is there a device that 
will also change the cycles from 50 
hertz to 60 hertz? Will it hurt 
appliances to operate on 50 hertz? I 
am especially concerned about a 
microwave oven. 

I appreciate your time and assist- 
ance and hope you can at least point 
me in the right direction on these 

Copt. Richard E. Kerr Jr. 

Langhorne, Pa. 

Removing your catalytic con- 
verter will allow you to use leaded fuel 
in USAREUR. According to informa- 
tion from the Military’ Traffic Manage- 
ment Command, you should go to your 
local servicing transportation office, 
which will assist you in getting the 
necessary federal waiver to have your 
converter removed before you ship 

your vehicles. Also, be ad\ised that i 
you can only ship one vehicle a: 
government expease. \fTMC recom- 
mends that you shop around for tht i 
best price from commercial shippe'S 
for your other vehicle. 

As for your appliances, we know< 
of no device which will con\'ert c>*cle9 
from 50 to 60 hertz. Appliances which 
require 60 hertz to run properly, such 
as record players, can be modified In 
the PX once you get to L'SAREVR. 
One source, who has just returned 
from Europe, says that using trans- 
formers can cause your appliances to 
wear out faster. He recommends 
taking new appliances only, or buytn^ 
new ones there. Using microwavt 
ovens is no problem. In fact, 
microwaves are a big-selling item 
there. One more tip: If y-ou ha\'erft 
heard from y'our sponsor yet. yrxAi 
better get in touch with y'our new unit. 

I've been reading your mogozine fot 
eight months. IVe enjoyed reodinr 
your articles about Army life. TbereS 
only one thing that IVe disliked dtxxr 
your magazine. What about the K 
bravo? Here in Germany, we are collei 
"gun bunnies." I really don't see mud 
about the 8-inch M-II0A2 self 
propelled howitzer. I would oppreciolj 
in the future for your mogazine t 
show at least a small article atKK>f fhi 
M-l I0A2 howitzer. 

PFC Angel L. Lucas 

APO New York 

We'll try to adjust our fire on > 
story that will gi\e y'ou "bunnielW 
something to hop at! H 


"Has Your Seot Belt Hugged Yc^| 
Today" (December 1982) was one 
many good stories I hove reod in yo(^| 
magazine. While I was stationed 
Germany in July 1981, I was driving 
new van I had just bcKtght. It was 



night I will never forget near 
Schwaebisch Gmuend. I was going 
about 80 mph when I lost control of my 
I van and rolled it four times. The only 
thing that saved my life was my seat 
belt. I walked away from the van 
unhurt. To this day, when I get in my 
car, I put on seat belts. 

I thank God for being alive today. 

Pvt. James Eric Ireland 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 


Thank you for your article on 
human relations in the February issue. 
I think discrimination is the most 
[difficult problem faced by the 
military, or for that matter, in the 
world. You would think that some of 
us so-called "human beings" could 
(realize the simple fact that just 
because a person is different by race, 
sex or religious beliefs doesn't make 
him or her inferior. Remember: We 
are all created equal. 

I Sp4 Clarence E. Davis, Jr. 

j APO New York 


ii| I found your January 1983 issue of 
[jllSOLDIERS magazine very inaccurate 
[||on what a day in the life of the Army 
|‘ lis like. The writers and editors of this 
nissue seemed to forget that the Army 
t lis not an inanimate machine, but a 
|i [group of people who work for a com- 
[mon interest. Instead of focusing on 
. this aspect, the article focused on the 
teold and hard "facts" of the Army. It 
is very obvious that the writers and 
1 [editors had a crash course both in 
([political propaganda and at the Army 
recruiting school as this issue looked 
more like a recruiting brochure than 
Ian official Army magazine, 
fc In the past I had found your 
i magazine to be informative and hu- 
ojmorous with your articles and car- 
I jtoons. However, after reading the 
ijlJanuary 1983 issue, I have lost all faith 
islin the reporting abilities of the 

individuals who conceived, wrote and 
edited this issue. 

If in the future you dedicate an 
entire issue to try to factual ize Army 
life, it would be my suggestion to you 
to pick a company, platoon, or 
individual and show both the military 
and civilian populace what the trials, 
tribulations and rewards of Army life 
truthfully are like. 

Pvt. 2 Marvin G. Vallance 
New Orleans, La. 


Thanks for your article on page 24 
of the February 1983 issue, entitled 
"1st Sgt. Frank Little." In my opinion, 
the story conveys to today's soldiers 
that a strong determination is the key 
to survival. I'd like to congratulate 1st 
Sgt. Frank Little (Ret.) for his efforts 
and endurance during his military 
tenure, and wish him and his family 

Sp4 Eddie L. Lewis 
APO New York 


Headquarters, Department of the 
Army, tells field leaders to wash and 
wear BDUs, yet your January 1983 
cover communicates that starch is in 
(along with rusty mags). 

Please help, not hinder. 

Col. Carroll Z. Dickson 
APO New York 

As a final wrinkle on the January 
cover (see Feedback, April 1983), we'll 
repeat that the uniform is not a BDU 
... the soldier is a member of the 
Special Forces Gabriel Team and is 
wearing a camouflaged jungle uniform. 
We hope this helps. 


The article on the dedication of the 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial appearing 
in your March issue was outstanding. 

The exceptional photos were worth 
a thousand words, and the short and 

to-the-point text needed to say no 
more. Hats off to Staff Sergeants 
Victoria Mouze and Terri Wiram for 
their empathetic coverage of what 
must have been a very emotional 

Pamela Roberts 
Columbus, Ohio 


The article in your November issue, 
"Thompson - Longest Held POW," was 
commendable. But it should never 
have had that title. 

Was Col. Floyd Thompson the 
longest held POW? Consider that 
there were 2,400 or so Americans 
listed as missing in action. Of these, 
many were known to be captured, yet 
never accounted for. There are about 
1,000 reports by refugees saying they 
saw Americans being held in Vietnam 
long after the POWs were repatriated. 
As recently as two years ago, there 
was a report of a group of men who 
seemed to be Americans being held 
there. The reports had some things in 
common: The POWs were in poor 

condition, mistreated and heavily 

Let's not forget those unfortunate 
Americans whom the enemy kept. 

Sp5 Warren Johnson 
Logan, Utah 

Thompson is the POW longest held 
before repatriation. Your distinction 
is correct. However, until 

confirmation of existence of additional 
POWs, we stand by our story. We 
hope, of course, that we're wrong. 

SOLDIERS is for soldiers and DA civilians. We invite 
readers’ views. Stay under 150 words— a postcard will 
do— and include your name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name If you desire and may condense 
views because ol space. We can't publish or answer 
every one but we'll use representative views. Send 
your letter to; Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, 
Alexandria, Va. 22314. 


Story and Photos by Sheila Samples 

A n advice columnist once told a woman that getting 
through marriage is like picking your way through 
a minefield. It’s risky, she observed, no matter 
how you go about it, or how much age and experience 
you have. 

If an older, more experienced woman can step 
off in the wrong direction and destroy a marriage, what 
are the chances of a 15- to 17-year-old making it — 

especially far from home and family for the first time, 
with little money, fewer friends and perhaps a baby on 
the way? 

If that young woman is also a brand new .\rmy 
wife and her husband is so new to the Army that he’s 
barely scuffed his boots, a casual onlooker’s quick, 

SHEILA SAMPLES Is a «»r1tsr«dltor astignsd lo Ihs pubic atlslre ottlcs. FMd Ar- 
tillery Canter tnd School, Fort Sill. OUa. 

knee-jerk response may be “slim to none.” 

Gone are the days when Uncle Sam could boast 
that if a soldier needed a wife, she’d be listed in the sup- 
ply system. These days, the Army is computerized, 
mobile, younger and — married. 

Fifty-two percent of the 790,000 soldiers on ac- 
tive duty are married and have more than one million 
family members. 

According to a 1982 survey, there are probably 
about 25,000 Army wives — including those in uniform 
— who are age 19 or younger. All but a few hundred are 
married to enlisted men. Teen-age wives comprise slightly 
more than 9 percent of all Army wives. 

Any post with a main mission of training a tran- 
sient population is bound to have a variety of soldier 
and family needs problems. Fort Sill, Okla., is such a 
place. Each year, thousands of young soldiers flock to 
Fort Sill for basic and advanced individual training. 
And, each year, there’s a new influx of bewildered, 
often frightened, teen-age wives. 

When you find a 15- to 17-year-old Army wife at 
Fort Sill, you can probably use her as a model for her 
kind everywhere. She arrives on the scene with little to 
buoy her but the high hopes she brought to her mar- 
riage. She probably has no friends or family, and can- 
not immediately relate to the standard of living that’s 
thrust upon her. 

She and other young women like her are sud- 
idenly not only wives, but each must juggle chores of 
housekeeper, cook, budget analyst, nurse and laun- 
idress. Many are also mothers. Before too many paydays 
.come and go, they learn the true meaning of “laughing 
all the way to the bank.’’ 

One such wife, 17-year -old Sheila Norris, admit- 
ted she probably had the jump on her counterparts 
because she’s an Army brat. She knew a little of what to 
expect in a “military” marriage: She was born at Fort 
Campbell, Ky. 

“Of course,” she said, “it was different when 
my dad was paying the bills. I really get blue when our 
money has to go for things we need rather than for some 
of the things we’d like to have.” 

Sheila noted, aside from money, her biggest 
problem was feeling neglected. Her husband, Walter, 
was assigned to B Battery, 6th Training Battalion, 33rd 

MAY 1983 

Left, Edwina Ziehr, who was a teenage 
bride, with children (from right) Jere- 
miah, 4, Donald, 3, and Michaela, 2. 

• Right, 16-year-old Chris Brazloitz with 
9-month-old daughter, Suzanne. Her 
husband was a private in advanced 
individual training at Fort Sill, Okla., 
at the time of the photo. 

Field Artillery. He “works all the time,” she said. 

“When Walter comes home, he doesn’t under- 
stand that I’ve been working too, even if it’s just keep- 
ing house. I guess it seems silly,” she said, laughing in 
spite of herself, “because the house is so little. ...” 

According to Sheila, however, there’s always a 
way to work through a problem. “When I cook a good 
meal, he goes right to sleep after dinner. So, when I’m 
depressed, I just give him hot dogs. Then, he stays 
awake. Sometimes,” she said candidly, “we have hot 
dogs a lot.” 

The Norrises, like many of their peers, couldn’t 
afford luxuries like a washer and dryer. Nor did they 
have a television. “We don’t know how to get credit,” 
Sheila said. “So I guess I’m stuck with having to wash 
fatigues and stuff by hand. Sometimes, I feel like we’d 
both be better off if I’d stayed at home — but I know I 
wouldn’t leave, even if I had the chance.” 

It takes commanders with vision as well as em- 
pathy, and a caring, cooperative civilian community to 
meet and solve the problems facing younger military 
families. Fort Sill has been blessed in both these areas. 

The Armed Services YMCA and the post’s 
Quality of Life Office offer immediate support and help 
to soldiers and their families. The Lawton-Fort Sill 
community has a vast network of servicing agencies that 
can help persons who are experiencing financial, legal, 
marital and emotional problems. 

ASY director Mike Stambough pointed out that 
his agency has outgrown the old coffee-and-doughnut 

“The bulk of what we offer is geared specifically 
toward the lower-ranking enlisted wife,” Stambough 
said. “Her problems range from the inability to balance 
an unruly checkbook to a terrifying sense of loneliness. 

“Isolation is far and away their biggest prob- 
lem,” Stambough continued. “I think most of their 
other problems stem from feeling completely cut off 
from a living, breathing world. For some, especially 
younger ones, it’s like living in a vacuum. 

“They’ve been told by too many people that they 
can’t handle marriage,” he said. “They don’t want to 

18 -year-old 
Cindy Thorn- 
ton spent 
some lonely 
and terrified 
times while 
her husband 
was on tem- 
porary duty 
in Hawaii 
for several 
months. She 
only had her 
toddler son, 
Tony, until 
she found 
the local 
Armed Serv- 
ices YMCA. 

90 ? 

admit they need help. They’re fiercely proud. Some 
don’t want to burden you with their problems. This at- 
titude is like a brick wall, and sometimes it’s pretty hard 
to break through.” 

The really positive thing about the Army’s 
younger wives, though, according to Stambough, is that 
once they get involved, they’re resilient, enthusiastic 
and creative. 

“For example,” he explained, “we don’t map 
out specific programs. Our activities are a result of their 
suggestions. Any young wife with a particular skill such 
as dancing, piano or art is encouraged to give a class of 
her own. 

“Not long ago, one young wife gave a fashion 
show that was a smashing success. Afterward,” Stam- 
bough recalled, “she said she was on cloud nine because 
it was the first thing she’d ever started and completed. 

“Once they see something through and get a 
positive response, they’re on their way,” he said. 
“Then, they just automatically get involved. They think 
of more and more things to do. The feeling of isolation 
is gone because they’re so busy planning their next ac- 

The best way for a young military wife to get 
help is simply to know it’s there. ASY is a worldwide 
support organization. Its activities include the Family 
Resource Center, which is an information and referral 
service for professionals who work with military 
families. The center, based in Springfield, Va., can be 
reached toll-free at 1-800-336-4592. It has information 
on topics ranging from wife abuse, alcoholism and 
Army Emergency Relief to tips for brides and help with 
aging family members. 

“Being away from from family and friends for 
the first time can cause a great deal of anguish for a 
teen-age wife. She has a lot to adjust to all at once,” 
Stambough said. “Married life is frightening enough, 
but suddenly here she is in a strange town. Her new hus- 
band disappears to the field, which is more like thin air 
to her. 

“Or else, he’s up so early and in so late that she 
doesn’t get much attention,” Stambough said. “Maybe 
he’s called back to the post in the middle of the night. 
The older, more experienced wife thinks nothing of it, 
but it can be a traumatic experience for a young girl, 
especially if her days and nights are spent staring out the 
window, waiting for her husband to come home.” 

Julie Weston, from Springfield, Mo., is one 
young 17-year-old who admitted having trouble ad- 
justing to the Army. She and her husband, Timmie, 
were married in early 1982 after he had finished basic 
training. She says Timmie’s “in that Battery B thing out 
there. . . . 

“My problem wasn’t finding a place to live. We 
have a cute little apartment,” she said. “I’m pretty 
good at budgeting and, when Timmie got promoted to 
E-2, we even started putting money back each month. I 
just couldn’t handle all the new changes.” 


Julie says at first she was terrified of Lawton and 
of Fort Sill. The people who lived next to them fought 
every night. She was afraid to get out and meet people. 

“I quit school. It just seemed I was incompatible 
with everything here,” she said. “I stayed angry, 
frightened or hurt all the time.” 

But Julie found the ASY, enrolled in high school 
GED classes and confides happily that “most of what 
was bothering me is solved.” 

She still feels the Army is sometimes cold and 
unfeeling. She’s frightened when Timmie is out in the 

“Nobody I know at home has a job where he has 
to fte there at five in the morning!” she said. “Especially 
if the job lasts until way into the night. But we’re work- 
ing it out. I’m making friends, staying busy at the Y, 
and Timmie’s friends on post are great to me.” 

“We’re here to take the pressure off,” Stam- 
bough said. “We give them ‘space’ to move around. 
One of our mainstays is Thursday Mom’s Day Out, 
which offers free babysitting for those who need to get 
away from their children for even a few hours. They can 
go back home and go to bed if they want to, go to a 
movie — whatever. It’s their time.” 

Young wives flock to ASY classes, where they 
learn everything from ceramics to cooking, from danc- 
ing to martial arts. The ASY recently started a clothing 
exchange where wives swap both children’s and adult 

During the summer, there’s a day camp for 
youngsters, and classes for young wives, such as English 
as a Second Language, and GED prep. The building is 
open all year to Fort Sill units for parties, meetings and 
dinners. Groups such as Parents Anonymous, Narcotics 
Anonymous and Enlisted Wives in Action meet there. 

“We’ve just begun,” Stambough said firmly. 
“Flelping individual families over the bumps of military 
life is the quickest, smartest way to ensure smooth sail- 
ing for the entire Army.” 

The Army doesn’t have a servicewide policy or 
set of programs to specifically help teen-age wives cope 
with military life, but that’s not because it doesn’t care. 
Army programs are usually intended for all wives and 
families, regardless of age. 

“You don’t stop needing a helping hand just 
because you turn 20, and you might not know how to 
budget whether you’re 16 or 36,” said Betty K. Hart, 
director of the Army’s Family Liaison Office. 

Issues affecting Army families, especially 
younger ones, were studied last October in a symposium 
in Washington, D.C., titled “The Army and the Family: 
Partners in Progress.” The lack of a central policy 
doesn’t preclude posts such as Fort Sill from designing 
programs of their own, tailored to meet their specific 

According to reports from symposium respresen- 
tatives. Fort Sill’s Outreach Program and director Jo 
Johnson took the three-day event by storm. Johnson 

works in the post’s Quality of Life Office. 

“What interested so many people,” s.he s, id, “i;. 
how we’ve branched off from the original con. i (ii of 
Outreach. We’re setting up neighborhood Ci nter , all 
over town — pockets of cooperation where you . wi .^ , 
do the work themselves. 

“Since I’ve been back,” Johnson said happi.j 
“I’ve had more than 20 calls from people who were at 
the symposium. They’re all clamoring for information 
on how to start the same program at their 

“Fort Sill’s Outreach program is an outstanding 
example of an installation recognizing that you can’t 
stereotype Army families,” Hart said. “There are many 
kinds of families, with different needs — one of those 
kinds in Fort Sill’s case is teen-age.” 

Outreach began in 1979 when then-post com- 
mander Lt. Gen. Jack N. Merritt said, “Get in touch 
with miliary dependents, especially lower enlisted, and 
let them know that we care about them and their prob- 
lems. Let them know there’s help. . . .” 

Johnson immediately contacted young military 
wives in the community. It was a big job because 75 per- 
cent of Fort Sill’s military families live off-post. With 
just a handful of teen-age helpers, she knocked on 
doors. She offered young, often frightened and 
bewildered wives an alternative to isolation, knowledge 
of the military system, an escape from being perpetually 
closed up with children — a way to expand their 

Johnson’s offer of support resounded like a Pied 
Piper’s refrain. The wives began to follow. 

“Outreach is a new concept in community 
assistance,” Johnson said. “Too many young enlisted 
families don’t use post facilities because they can’t get 
to them. Outreach means taking these services into 

parents, E-4 
Michael and 
Regina Men- 
dez, are part 
of the local 


MAY 1983 


neighborhoods, getting young wives acquainted with the 
Army and with each other. 

“It means forming neighborhood councils with 
central, easy-to-walk-to meeting places where these 
young women can bring their children, pool their 
resources and support each other.” 

The first neighborhood council is alive and well 
at Lawton’s Northside Baptist Church, which Johnson 
said co-sponsors the council. The church donated three 
rooms for the women to use as a day-care center, for 
meetings and arts and crafts projects. 

“The church just opened its arms to us,” 
Johnson said. “It’s exciting to see the snowball effect. 
Some young soldiers and their wives have started atten- 
ding church regularly, and have made many friends 
throughout the neighborhood.” 

Johnson had earmarked 27 similar neighborhood 
councils, but the young wives started knocking on 
doors, telling their counterparts in other neighborhoods 
about what’s happening. 

“We’re making headway,” she said, “but there 
are still hundreds — even thousands — who aren’t being 
reached. It’s not just Fort Sill. It’s the same around any 
military installation, worldwide.” 

According to Johnson, there are many 15- to 
17-year-old wives in the area. For these women, merely 
coping with day-to-day problems can be overwhelming. 

“I’ve seen teen-age wives who feel so isolated, 
so alone that they simply stay in bed all day,” she 
said. “They lose interest in keeping even a small apart- 
ment or house. Because there are so many things 
they can’t do, they don’t have the energy to get up 
and do the things they can do. Why bother? It’ll 
all be there tomorrow.” 

But once they get out, make friends 
and have something to look forward to, even 
if it’s just meeting at the church for a cup 
of coffee, to stuff a pillow or sew a 
seam, they begin to take an interest in 
themselves, in their husbands and chil- 
dren, Johnson noted. 

Everybody wins. 

Developing leadership skills 
is something Johnson is trying to do 
through her Outreach Program. In 
addition to working and playing 
together, Johnson observes that 
professional people from the com- 
munity come to the church to dis- 
cuss issues of interest to military 

Young wives begin to learn 
about consumer affairs, their rights 
as tenants, and what local colleges 
and area technical schools have to 
offer. They’re also urged to check 
out the city’s adult education pro- 
gram and the post’s education 


They tour the post exchange, commissary, 
museums and have “shopping days” when the>- car- 
pool to the post. They plan at least one evening activity 
a month where husbands are included. 

According to Johnson, too many young soldiers 
turn their backs on rewarding careers after just one term 
because their wives and children are unhappy. 

“This is tragic,” she said, “especially- when 
something can be done about it. I think Outreach and 
the neighborhood councils arc answers to a lot of prob- 
lems within the young military family. I’ve seen mar- 
riages turn around and attitudes about the Army com- 
pletely change — simply because these young people arc 
reaching out and helping each other. Help isn’t a hand- 
out. They take it and pass it on. They’re making life 
work.” □ 

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article was adapted by the 
author from a three-part series originally published in 
Fort Sill’s post newspaper. Cannoneer. The series won 
special achievement awards in the most recent Army 
Keith L. Ware and Defense Department Thomas Jeffer- 
son journalism contests. 

Mendie, the 16-year- 
old wife of Sp4 Ronie 
Winningham. enjoys a 
moment of recreation 
at Fort Sill. Okla. 



was a teen-age wife. 

To anyone not in the select, 
rather bewildering group, the state- 
ment, “I was a teen-age werewolf’ 
probably makes a lot more sense. 

Parents, friends — even stran- 
I gers — ask teen-age wives: “How can 

! you ruin your life by getting married 
so young? . . . Just look at the fun, the 
I opportunities, the life you’re miss- 
ing. . .You’re not old enough to cope 
i with the problems of a husband and 
family or the responsibilities of being 
i mother and housekeeper.” 

It goes on and on, but none of 
it makes any sense to that 15- to 
17-year-old girl who’s setting sail on 
the mainstream of life, with the 
whole journey going against the tide. 
It’s upstream all the way. She’s a 
wife\ and she’s concerned with the 
fun and life, husband and family, the 
responsibilities she’ll be missing if she 
f, doesn’t jump in and get on with it. 

; I set out to delve into prob- 

j lems married teen-agers face, but I 
i knew the answer to any question I 
asked — long before I asked it. 

I know the teen-age wife is 
having problems that would stump a 
team of marriage counselors and 
even tempt Dr. Benjamin Spock to 
give up politics and get back into the 
baby business. I also know that it’ll 
be years before she’s likely to look 
back and say, “Boy! Did I ever have 
problems back then.” 

I knew what all her answers 
would be because, 30 years ago, I was 
a teen-age wife. 

I know what it’s like to be 
15-and-married, 16-and-pregnant. I 

know what it’s like to be married to a 
soldier and be 2,000 miles from 

Back then, that soldier was a 
Private “E-Nothing.” 

If he kept his nose clean, his 
combat boots spit-shined and his 
fatigues starched stiff enough to 
stand alone; if he field-stripped his 
cigarette butts, kept his hair cropped 
so closely that even his ears stood at 
attention; if he was in the right place 
at the right time — he might make pri- 
vate first class before his hitch was 
up. Then, there was me. 

Uncle Sam viewed me with a 
rather jaundiced eye, and I returned 
the favor. Since I bore no stock num- 
ber, and was not found in the supply 
system; since I could neither be 
painted nor run up the flagpole — 
Uncle was in a bit of a quandary 
about what to do with me. 

But before a regulation could 
be drafted, the woods were full of the 
likes of me. Suddenly Uncle couldn’t 
see the forest for the trees. So he gave 
up. He even gave up gracefully be- 
cause, by that time, it had dawned on 
both of us that, for either of us to be 
happy, we had to help each other. 

He started helping me whether 
I wanted it or not. I literally became a 
“pick-a-number” dependent. Every- 
where I went, from the doctor’s of- 
fice to the commissary, the PX, the 
library, I automatically reached for a 
number and took my place in line. 

Back then, E-Nothings and 
their teen-age wives didn’t go many 
places. My $110 and his $78 reached a 
little farther than the landlord and 

the checkout counter at the commis- 

Once a month on payday, we 
ate out. The rest of the month, we 
were lucky to eat. 

We walked six blocks to the 
USO to watch television. We ate 
from one plate, laughed at the snow 
that sifted in when we forgot to stuff 
rags in the corners — and got CARE 
packages from home. 

So did other E-Nothings and 
their teen-age wives. 

When Sam did something to 
provoke me, he brought me to my 
knees on Saturday morning by put- 
ting on a parade just for me. 

Back then, there was nothing 
that would make me stand taller nor 
make me feel smaller than the brisk, 
sunshiny, dazzling splendor of a 
parade. Because, back then, the hub 
of that parade was a certain spit- 
shined, starched E-Nothing. 

We didn’t have money. We 
didn’t have a telephone. We didn’t 
have a washer, dryer, home or fur- 

All we had was each other. 

I guess that’s why, back then, 
we didn’t have any problems. 

Samples’ husband, Royce, enlisted in 
the Army in 1952 and served two 
years. The Sampleses have lived in 
the Fort Sill, Okla., area since 1968. 
Today, he is a post safety officer and 
she is a writer-editor with the post 
public affairs office. 

Family Life Communication Line 

The Army Community Service Division under the 
Adjutant General’s office operates a 24-hour-a-day 
free Family Life Communication Line telephone 
service for Army family members. It provides 
information and referral to help family members 
find local programs to meet their needs and help 
them solve their problems. The trained Com- 
I munication Line staff can also provide informa- 
! tion on Army policies and programs affecting 
Army famiiies. 

To reach the toll-free Family Life Communi- 
1 cation Line telephone: 

In the U.S. (except Virginia) 

1 - 800 - 336-5467 

In Virginia 

1 - 800 - 572-5439 

In Alaska, Hawaii, the Virgin Islands and 
Puerto Rico 

1 - 800 - 336-5480 

During normal working hours — Monday 
through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern time 
—the staff answers calls and provides help. After 
hours, messages and questions are automatically 
recorded and answered the next workday. 


MAY 1983 

“If 1 could come up with a down 
payment, I’d buy that house to- 
day.” Sound familiar? Well, if 
you’re a veteran, you can buy that 
house with no down payment. 
That’s right, no money down. 

Since the end of World 
War II, more than 11 million 
veterans have bought homes with 
the aid of VA loans. The Veterans 
Administration booklet, “Home 
Buying Veteran,” explains the 
program and can answer most 
questions you may have. It ex- 
plains eligibility and includes 
checklists on how to choose a 
neighborhood, what to look for in 
a house, costs of home owner- 
ship, and settlement (closing) 

The home loan program is 
designed to encourage lenders to 
make bigger loans than they 
ordinarily would, since the 
federal government is guarantee- 
ing part of the loan. Each eligible 
veteran has a loan guarantee en- 
titlement. This entitlement has 
increased over the years from 
$2,000 to the current maximum of 
$27,500. This guarantee is what 
makes it possible to buy a home 
without having to make a large 
down payment. The interest rate 

is set by law and is often lower 
than the rate for conventional 
mortgages. You can pay off all or 
part of the loan without a prepay- 
ment penalty. And your loan can 
be assumed by a non-veteran if 
you later sell the house. 

In addition to the standard 
25- or 30-year mortgage, the VA 
also guarantees Growing Equity 
Mortgages. A GEM is a long-term 
mortgage and the interest rate re- 
mains the same. Starting in the 
second year, the monthly pay- 
ments increase by three to five 
percent a year with all of the 
increase going to reduce the prin- 
cipal. This way, you can com- 
pletely pay off the mortgage in 12 
to 15 years and save up to 50 per- 
cent of the total interest of 
25-and 30-year notes. GEMs are a 
new kind of financing that may 
not be available everywhere, so 
check with your local VA office 
for more information. 

Even if you are not a vet- 
eran, “Home Buying Veteran” 
has valuable advice. For exam- 
ple, here are some tips on what a 
sales contract should contain: 

• a clause providing that 
any cash deposit you make will 
be refunded to you without pen- 

alty if you cannot obtain a loan 
within a specific period of time, 
and at a specific interest rate. 

• a provision stating who 
will be responsible for the prop- 
erty in the event of fire or other 
disaster between the date of the 
contract and the time of settle- 

• a requirement that the 
seller convey the property to you 
on or before a specified date. The 
contract should set forth your 
right to withdraw and get your 
deposit back if the property is not 
transferred on time. 

• a list specifying exactly 
which appliances, fixtures, and 
shrubbery will be included in the 
sale. Otherwise.* you may find 
that the beautiful rose bushes 
and chandeliers you liked aren't 
there when you move in. 

Some other things to re- 
member about VA loans: 

• The government is guar- 
anteeing your loan. It cannot 
guarantee the house itself. If you 
are buying an older house, have it 
inspected by someone who under- 
stands construction. 

• When you apply for the 
loan, be sure the lender gives you 
an estimate of the closing costs. 

• The government cannot 
act as your attorney. It’s up to 
you to protect your interests. 
Make sure you understand every- 
thing you sign. If you have any 
questions, it is well worth the 
money to talk with a lawyer. 

For a free copy of "Home 
Buying Veteran." send your name 
and address to the Consumer In- 
formation Center. Department 
572K. Pueblo. Colo. 81009 At the 
same time, you will receive the 
free “Consumer Information 
Catalog." which lists more than 
200 other free or moderately 
priced government publications 
of consumer interest. 

— Consumer Information Center 






Capt. Tom Williams 

YOU’RE crammed into the plane so 
tight it’s elbow to elbow and knee to 
knee. It doesn ’t help that you have a 
29-pound parachute on your back, a 
weapons carrier strapped to your leg 
and a reserve chute snapped on just 
below your chest. 

Each time the plane banks, 
the row of jumpers leans, then 
struggles to sit upright again. Your 
chin strap digs into your skin, but 
better a bit tight so your helmet 
doesn’t wobble. 

The butterflies start in the pit 
of your stomach and you wonder if 
it shows. You look out the corners 
of your eyes to see if the others 
notice. They don’t. They’re too 
busy looking out the corners of their 
eyes. The side door of the plane is 
opened and the sound from the en- 
gines is now deafening. "What am I 
doing here?’’ you mumble. 

Outboard Personnel Stand Up! 

YOU can barely hear the jump- 
master’s command. As you stand, 
feeling returns to your legs — trem- 
bling knees and all. And all the 
training you and the others have 
gone through comes down to this. 

The thought of jumping 
from a perfectly sound aircraft is 
not new. In fact, Leonardo da Vinci 
proposed the idea of a parachute in 
1495: “If a man have a tent roof of 
calked lines 12 braccia broad and 12 
braccia high he will be able to let 
himself fall from any height without 
danger to himself.” And some 300 
years later, Ben Franklin envisioned 
10,000 or more fusiliers dropping in 

SSgt. Gary L Kieffer 


MAY 1983 


SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 

on the enemy for “infinite mischief.” 

But the Army didn’t get 
serious about the entire affair until 
1939. Russian airborne infantry- 
men, in the first use of parachutists 
in a war, attacked Finland. About 
the same time, German para- 
troopers landed in Holland. These 
operations shed a new light on war- 
fare, and renewed American interest 
in using airborne soldiers. 

In June 1940, 1st Lt. William 
Ryder and 47 volunteers from the 
29th Infantry Regiment at Fort Ben- 
ning, Ga., were the first soldiers to 
receive airborne training in the 
Parachute Test Platoon. 

Since the Army didn’t have 
any manuals covering this type of 
training, the Infantry Board pre- 

pared an eight-week schedule for the 
men. In addition to learning the 
basics of jumping from the plane 
and landing on the ground, the 
group trained in hand-to-hand com- 
bat, tumbling, and squad and pla- 
toon tactics. 

Today, airborne training is 
still conducted at Fort Benning. 
Although the training has been re- 
duced to three weeks, the basics of 
that first class are still taught — to 
include the PT. 

The association of the push- 
up and the paratrooper began with 
Ryder’s test platoon. After complet- 
ing a practice landing, the men were 
required to stand at attention and 
receive a critique on their per- 
formance. Once this was completed. 

the jumpers had to do 10 push-ups 
in hopes that the next time they 
would land correctly. 

This mild form of punish- 
ment is still practiced today. For 
every mistake a soldier makes, he 
can be sure one of the Black Hat in- 
structors will reward him with the 
opportunity to take a close look at, 
and then push away the red clay of 
Georgia — maybe 10 times, maybe 
more. But there are positive benefits 
too. Push-ups exercise and build the 
muscles jumpers will use when they 
are performing a parachute jump. 
Thus, a tradition was bom. 

The members of that first 
platoon started each training day 
with calisthenics and a three-mile 
run. Everywhere they went they 
double-timed. This served two pur- 
poses: They arrived at the training 
site earlier, and it was more PT. 

Today, aspiring paratroopers 
start off their training with warm-up 
exercises and end with a five-mile 
run. They, too, double-time every- 
where they go. And thus, traditions 
are carried on. 

Hook Up! 

YOU know the jumpmaster yelled, 
you 5GW his mouth move. Guess 
that’s why they also taught you 
hand and arm signals. The waiting is 
the hard part. No, you decide, 
jumping is the hard part. Waiting is 
just agony. Can you do it? Are you 
really going to jump from this 

“Initially, this type of train- 
ing requires a high degree of motiva- 
tion,” said MSgt. Sven E. Swanson, 
chief instructor for Ground Week 
Branch, Airborne School. “The 
soldier must have a desire, and be 
physically and mentally capable of 
undergoing the training. He has to 
be able to withstand the long hours 
and the constant physical stress. A 
soldier, an airborne soldier, has to 
be able to say to himself, ‘This is 
tough, but so am I.’ ” 

Check Static Line! 

YOU give a tug or two on the static 
line connected to the overhead 
cable. When you jump out of the 
plane, the static line will pull your 
main parachute out. That being the 
case, you give it one more pull just 
to make sure. 



Left, soldiers in their second week of training prepare for morning inspection • 
shadowed by the 250-foot free fail towers. • Above, from the bottom: An instructor 
introduces aimost-paratroopers to the Great Kahuna tower, nicknamed for its size. 
• Soidiers exit from the 34-foot mock door tower • and reach the end of the line. 

MAY 1983 


SSgt. Gary L. Kieffer 


The mission of airborne 
training is to qualify volunteers as 
military parachutists. In a nutshell, 
paratroopers learn to make a safe 
exit from a military aircraft, to con- 
trol the parachute enroute to the 
ground, and what to do once the 
ground rises up to meet them. 

This year, almost 23,000 vol- 
unteers will take that training. 
Those completing jump school will 
join the more than 600,000 others 
who have earned their wings. Most 
will go on to assignments with air- 
borne, ranger or Special Forces 
units. Some of the students, how- 
ever, aren’t soldiers. Because the 
Fort Benning school is the only one 
that offers airborne training, it also 
trains ROTC cadets, sailors, air- 
men, Marines and allies. 

“Going airborne was some- 
thing I’ve wanted to do since 1964,’’ 
said PFC James “Pops” Kirk. “I’m 
prior service. I joined and went to 
Vietnam in the ’60s, did my time 
and got out. But I still wanted to be 
an airborne infantryman. Once I 
finish here, I’ll be going to ranger 
school, then to the 75th Ranger Bat- 
talion. So I’m 42. I can still keep up 
with these kids — that’s part of being 
airborne. You know you can do it.” 
Check Equipment! 
EVERYTHING is in place, you’ve 
checked it twice. Safety pin in the 
reserve, harness tight, static line 
secured. The adrenaline is starting 
and you begin to feel good. ’’Yeah, 
I can do it. ” 

Training is divided into three 
one-week phases: ground, tower 


and jump. During the first week, 
soldiers learn the basics on how to 
stand in the door of an aircraft, how- 
to exit, and how to make parachute 
landing fall. 

“The most critical phase of 
this week is the PLF,” Swanson 
said, “because the majority of the 
injuries will occur when the soldier 
makes contact with the ground. We 
start by the numbers on the ground, 
then progress to the lateral drift ap- 
paratus. With this piece of equip- 
ment the soldier will learn to use all 
five points of contact no matter 
what direction he lands.” 

Sound Off For 
Equipment Check! 

FROM the front of the plane 
toward the rear ... ”17 OK, 18 
OK, 19 OK. ... All OK, ” you yell 
at the jumpmaster. 

Tower week begins where 
ground week left off, but the train- 
ing intensifies. Instead of practicing 
individual exits from the plane, 
mass exit techniques are taught. 

Only one jumper will receive 
the command to stand in the door. 
The remaining jumpers will not 
have the opportunity to look at the 
earth below and ponder the thought 
of jumping. They will just jump. 

A 34-foot mock door tower 
simulates the door of either a C-130 
or C-141 aircraft. Jumpers, con- 
nected to an overhead steel cable, 
are required to properly exit the 
tower and then slide down the cable. 
But the important part of jumping is 
still a safe landing. 

A second tower is used to 
teach jumpers to control their para- 
chutes, and make a good PLF. The 
jumper is connected to the para- 
chute and the parachute to a metal 
skirt. After a final check by the in- 
structor, the student is hauled aloft 
to 250 feet. Another instructor on 
the ground will give the student last- 
minute instructions on which direc- 
tion to steer the parachute and w hen 
to assume a correct body position 
for landing. 

“We try to get each jumper 
off the tower at least twice,” said 
SSgt. Richard A. Christie, a tower 
branch instructor. “This is the first 
time soldiers will experience a free 
fall under a parachute, control their 


Far left, when your heart 
is in your throat, you’ll 
know you have a good 
chute. • Center, the most 
important part of a jump 
is the safe landing when 
the ground comes up to 
meet you. This jumper 
avoided the steel, but 
will experience the cri- 
tique from a Black Hat. • 
Above, from the top: Sol- 
diers prepare a para- 
chute and jumper for a 
ride to the top. • An air- 
borne tradition, pushing 
away the red clay of Fort 
Banning, Ga. • Once 
connected to the para- 
chute, a jumper is hauled 
aloft to 250 feet. During 
tower week, jumpers have 
their first opportunity to 
free fall under a para- 
chute, control direction, 
and perform a proper 
parachute landing fall. 

MAY 1983 


Lt Col Robert R. Wllhams 



The final week is what airborne training is all about— making five jumps out of a plane from 1,250 feet. When soldiers pin on their ^ 
wings, they become a cut above everyone else. That sense of accomplishment will stay with them the rest of their lives. 

direction and then land correctly.” 

As a jumper started his ride 
up, Christie started talking to him. 
“OK, number four, as you pass the 
75-foot level, look back at the 
tower. Hey, number four, what are 

“Airborne!” yelled number 


“When your heart is in your 
throat, you’ll know you have a good 
chute,” Christie continued. “OK, 
number four, pull your right riser 
. . . drop number four.” 

Stand In The Door! 

THIS is it, you’re really going to do 
it. You shuffle up to the door and 
the jumpmaster grabs your static 
line with one hand and your arm 
with the other. 

As you turn and face out the 
door, the wind begins to ripple at 
your face. You really want to look 
down at the ground. It can’t be all 
that bad. The jumpmaster has a 

hold on your arm, gives you a 
squeeze and shouts something to 
you. You really don’t understand 
what he said, but sound off with a 
“Clear, sergeant! Airborne!’’ 

The final week is what air- 
borne training is all about — making 
five qualified jumps from a plane. 
Students don’t do any PLFs. The 
training has stopped. The execution 
begins. Everything taught is pulled 

Why do soldiers volunteer 
for this training? “1 wanted the 
challenge,” said Pvt. 2 David 
Hawley. “It was a goal. The train- 
ing so far has been great. They 
could make it rougher on us . . . but 
1 don’t know by how much. If they 
do. I’ll take it. I want to be air- 

You’re as ready as you ever 
will be. The past two weeks race 
through your mind. You did more 
push-ups and PLFs than the law 

allows. Let’s see, you mumble, j 
“Tight body position, count to four I 
thousand, grab the risers and check | 
for a good chute ... no streamers j 
or Mae Wests for me. thank you | 

. . . then check for other jumpers j 
and prepare to meet the ground. ^ 
This should be a piece of cake.” 

“Once a soldier pins on his | 
wings,” Swanson said, “he becomes 
a cut above everyone else. He walks 
taller, his uniform looks better, he 
has a military bearing that says. 'I 
went through this training and came 
out a winner.’ That sense of accom- i 
plishment w ill stay with him the rest 
of his life.” 

The light by the door turns 
from amber to green. 

“GO!” The jumpmaster i 
screams it into your ear and slaps ; 
you on your butt. 

The next instant your entire 
body shakes as your parachute 
opens. You are . . . airborne. 



Cooks’ Day Off 

NELLINGEN, West Germany— Officers at Flak Kaserne 
recently traded their offices for the kitchen. It was their 
way of saying thanks to cooks of the 4th Transportation 
Battalion, 2nd Support Command, VII Corps, during the 
unit’s sixth annual Cooks’ Day OfT 

Besides giving cooks time off together, officers 
received firsthand experience in running a large dining 
facility which feeds between 700 and 1,000 soldiers daily. 

Cooks for a day included Maj. Vic Miller, 13th 
Supply and Service Battalion; and CWC 2 James Dorrill, 
4th Transportation Battalion. Miller proved that “field 
grade” potatoes were his specialty, while Dorrill cooked 
his special chili. 

SFC Robert Armstrong, dining facility manager, 
I and Sp5 Carolyn Williams, a shift leader, were two of the 
five enlisted volunteer supervisors. They said the cooks 
for a day did a good job, were easy to work with, and 
didn’t freelance “too much” with recipes. —Maj. Daniel 
Ross and Capt. Robert Garcia 


Vermont National Guard 
has a new unit that is the 
only one of its kind in the 
Army. The sole mission of 
A Company, 72nd Infantry 
(Mountain), is winter and 
mountain fighting, or 
“Alpine” warfare. 

Activated last year, 
A Company conducts lim- 
. ited offensive and defen- 
sive operations, long- 
range reconnaissance, pa- 
trol and special opera- 
tions in cold weather and 
mountainous regions. 
They can also use their ex- 
pertise to assist larger 
units to which they may be 

“We’re getting 
many airborne and ranger 
qualified soldiers,” said 
Lt. Col. John Freeman, an 
operations officer at Ver- 
mont National Guard 
headquarters. “All but 
four of our first 36 were 
prior service. One guy left 
active duty with the 1st 
Battalion (Ranger), 75th In- 
fantry (Fort Stewart, Ga.), 

and signed with us on the 
next day. People are com- 
ing to us who are good 
climbers and skiers.” 

The last time the 
United States had such a 
unit was during World War 
II when the 10th Mountain 
Division fought in Italy. 
“Equipment has changed 
over the years,” Freeman 
said, “but the basic doc- 
trine of Alpine fighting has 
stayed the same. Besides 
studying the 10th Moun- 
tain Division, we studied 
historical and contempo- 
rary German Alpine units. 
The Germans have always 
excelled at this type of 
thing. In fact, the United 
States is the only major 
power without significant 
Alpine capability.” 

The unit’s home. 
Camp Ethan Allen Train- 
ing Site, Underhill, Vt., will 
open a winter warfare 
center soon where other 
National Guard units will 
learn to fight and win in 
snow-covered mountains. 
—Steve Stromvall 

Oaks from Little Acorns 

SCHOFIELD BARRACKS, Hawaii— When a 25th Infantry 
Division soldier received a package by mail last Decem- 
ber, he thought it contained Christmas goodies. Instead, 
Sgt. Bennie Mclnnis, D Battery (Target Acquisition), 26th 
Field Artillery, opened the padded envelope and found 31 
live oak seedlings from the state of Louisiana. 

“It all started, I guess, when I called my daddy in 
Baton Rouge, La., last November to tell him we were OK 
after Hurricane Iwa,” Mclnnis said. “He asked if there 
was any damage. I said that the tree in my backyard that 
reminded me of home in Louisiana had snapped. I had no 
idea it would mushroom into this.” 

“My son asked me for a tree, so I asked a friend in 
the governor’s office to see what he could do,” Mclnnis’ 
father, Sam, said. “So, they sent him his tree.” 

The seedlings are descendants of the Doby Seven 
Sisters Oak in Mandeville, La. The 157-year-old tree is 
reputedly the largest live oak in the world, its branches 
having a span covering 132 feet of ground. 

The Louisiana State Forestry Commission’s De- 
partment of Natural Resources wasn’t sure how the 
seedlings would do in Hawaii’s climate. However, each 
seed had sprouted before Mclnnis had opened the pack- 
age. The seedlings are doing better than originally 
expected, Mclnnis reported. He potted the trees and they 
took root. 

“I know they’ll live,” he said. “It’s a little piece of 
home and they’ll survive.” He gave them to the state of 
Hawaii and the 25th Infantry Division. His quarters’ 
backyard isn’t large enough for a full-grown oak. -RFC 
Jonas Gaspar 

MAY 1983 


time it comes in the gate to the time 
it goes out. The item might sit here 
two to three weeks after we’re done. 
There’s also production cycle time. 
That’s from the time we start work- 
ing on the vehicle until it’s finished. 
Cycle times vary from 35 to 52 days, 
depending on whether it’s an over- 
haul or conversion, and the type of 
vehicle. Right now, it takes us about 
45 days for a tank overhaul.” 

Vehicles aren’t shipped back ■ 
to the states because of the high 
cost. Shipment would cost from 
$50,000 to $60,000 round-trip for ' 
one tank. “Also, if they were shipped 
back, Europe would need extra ones i 
to replace those temporarily oui-of- • 
country,” Livecchi said. “One way I 
to reduce the number of vehicles the 1 
.Army needs is to have a depot closer 1 
to the units. Vehicles stay in coun j 






Story and Photos 
by SSgt. Victoria Mouze 

WHEN you need surgery, you go to 
a hospital, right? Well, when Army 
combat vehicles in Europe need 
surgery, they also go to a hospital of 
sorts, to be overhauled, modernized 
or mended. This year nearly 1,670 
patients will rumble through the 
hospital’s doors. 

This hospital for tanks and 
other major systems is Mainz Army 
Depot in West Germany. The 10 
other depots in the Army’s Depot 
System Command, a subordinate of 
the Army’s Materiel Development 
and Readiness Command, work on 
a specific vehicle. For example, An- 
niston Army Depot, Ala., works on 
tanks; Letterkenny Army Depot, 
Pa., self-propelled howitzers; and 
Red River Army Depot, Texas, ar- 
mored personnel carriers. Mainz is 
the only depot that handles them all, 
including the Bradley fighting 
vehicles and the multiple launch 
rocket system. 

‘‘There is only one combat 
vehicle maintenance depot in 
Europe. That’s us.” said Lt. Col. 
Samuel G. Livecchi, deputy com- 
mander. ‘‘We support all of U.S. 
Army, Europe. We also work on 
vehicles made in the states that 
belong to our allies: Austria, 

Belgium, Canada, Egypt, Portugal, 
the Netherlands, Sudan, Switzer- 
land, the United Kingdom and West 

The Mainz plant is a U.S. 
government-owned, contractor- 
operated facility. About 2,800 con- 
tractor employees, 95 U.S. Army 
civilians and German nationals, and 
20 military persons work there. 

“Normally, we can overhaul 
or convert a vehicle within 60 
days,” he said. “That’s from the 


try, they’re fixed faster, and money 
is saved.” 

Reusing parts is another 
money saver. “It costs too much to 
strip a tank of all its parts, throw 
them away and buy new ones,” he 
said. “For example, used engine 
valves can be reground. They won’t 
look new, but will meet standards 
for newness. We can’t reuse all the 
parts, though. They might be too 
worn or broken.” 

A vehicle is sent to Mainz for 
one of three reasons. The first and 
most common is for an overhaul. In 
the past the overhaul was done based 
on mileage. Now evaluation teams 
inspect a vehicle at unit level. 

“By the time a vehicle is over- 
hauled, all the ‘bugs’ and other 
problems have surfaced,” Livecchi 
said. “If anything isn’t quite right, 
such as a welding problem, it gets 
fixed. Transmissions and engines 
are taken apart and repaired. We’ll 
turn out a product that is equal to a 
brand-new item. It’ll last just as 
long when returned to the field.” 

Once a transmission or engine 
is overhauled, it’s tested to ensure 
set standards are met. Final testing 
for transmissions takes anywhere 
from 45 minutes to a couple of 
hours. Engines undergo a three- 
hour test. 

Livecchi commented that the 
depot tries to be ready to service a 
new type of vehicle by the time it’s 
sent to units. “We can’t always do 
that,” he said. “It’s hard to keep up 
with new systems. To meet that 
challenge, we program into the 

“We look at everything — 
special tools, storage space, work- 
force,” he added. “We know, for 
example, that the number of man- 
hours needed will increase in the 
next five years. This year we’ll 
spend about 3 million hours repair- 
ing about 1,670 vehicles. By 1988 
we’ll be at 5 million hours repairing 
about 2,300 vehicles.” 

For example, while M-1 
tanks aren’t scheduled for overhaul 
until 1986, Mainz already has M-1 
test equipment. “The neat feature 
about the M-1 test cell is that it does 
everything a vehicle does to its 
transmission, such as stopping and 

swerving,” Livecchi said. “The cell 
was designed for the M-1, but we 
will have adapters for the Bradley 
and the MLRS. We can test four 
systems with one piece of equip- 
ment. That saves money.” 

The M-1 was fielded in Europe 
last year. The first USARELfR units 
will receive the Bradleys and MLRS 
in September. 

Modernization is the second 
reason a vehicle can be sent to the 
depot. The Army doesn’t convert all 
specific vehicles at the same time. 
“We’ll convert 800 M-1 13-family 
vehicles to A2s this year” Livecchi 
said. “The A2 program will no 
doubt go on for 10 years until the 
entire fleet is done in Europe. We 
also convert M-60A1 tanks to A3s, 
and M-109A1 howitzers to A3s.” 

Conversion saves money. A 
new M-60A3 tank costs almost $1.4 
million. Mechanics and technicians 
convert Als to A3s by adding im- 
provements such as laser range- 
finders and solid-state computers 
for about $314,000. 

Severely damaged vehicles 
are also repaired at Mainz. Enough 
damage will have occurred that it 
takes depot level skills and tools to 
repair. “You would think we would 
get more wrecked vehicles during 
NATO exercises, but we don’t,” 
Livecchi said. “They come in all 
year long.” 

Besides working on vehicles, 
depot personnel visit units. Teams 
went out last year to units and 

trained direct- and general-support 
mechanics on the M-60A3 fire con- 
trol system. Livecchi noted that the 
Army has such a variety of equip- 
ment that tank mechanics could see 
anything from an M-60 basic model 
to an M-1 . 

“Keeping mechanics and 
tankers up-to-date isn’t easy,” he 
said. “We try to constantly train 
them. That’s kind of a side mission, 
but one we consider important. We 
can give soldiers great equipment, 
but if they don’t know how to take 
care of it, it doesn’t last long. 

“We also invite personnel 
here. We’ve had division com- 
manders, logistics people, tank 
drivers and mechanics. If they 
understand what we do here, it’s 
easier for them to relate to us.” 

Each vehicle sent back to the 
units has a card attached stating: 
“Produced by Mainz Army Depot. 
If you’ve got a problem, drop the 
card in the mail or call us.” If 
Mainz does get a complaint, repair 
teams are sent out to the unit within 
48 hours. 

“Our job is supporting sol- 
diers in the field,” Livecchi said. 
“They know who we are. They 
know they can expect a good prod- 
uct. We want to give a soldier the 
best opportunity to be ready in case 
of mobilization and give him the 
best possible equipment in the best 
possible operating condition. We 
keep soldiers ready so, hopefully, 
they won’t have to fight.” □ 

Opposite page, mechanics work on a vehicie at Mainz Army Depot, West Germany. 
Vehicles can be overhauied or modernized within 60 days. • Above, the Mainz depot is 
the oniy facility of its kind in Europe. Work on ali of USAREUR’s vehicles is done there. 

MAY 1983 


Sp4 David Schad 

THE 9th Infantry Division’s “Fal- 
con Battalion” has been to hell and 
back. The unit, 2nd Battalion, 39th 
Infantry, left the division’s home at 
Fort Lewis, Wash., and went to 
“Green Hell”, a well-deserved nick- 
name for the Army’s Jungle Opera- 
tions Training Center at Fort Sher- 
man, Panama. 

The Falcons, with support 
elements from eight other Fort 
Lewis units, was one of the 13 
battalion-sized Army units scheduled 
to take the JOTC three-week course 
last year. 

Joining the Falcons for the 
training in Panama were soldiers 
from the 1st Battalion, 11th Field 
Artillery; the 9th Military Police 
Company; the 109th Military Intelli- 
gence Battalion; the 709th Main- 
tenance Battalion; the 15th Engineer 
Battalion, 67th Air Defense Artil- 
lery; and the 9th Cavalry Brigade 
Battalion, 67th Air Defense Artil- 
lery, and the 9th Cavalry Brigade 
(Air Attack). The soldiers who com- 
pleted the rigorous training program 
joined those who already wear the 
jungle expert badge. 

“Out in that jungle it was a 
whole ’nother world — something 
totally different from what any of 
us were used to,” said PFC Michael 
Goldberg, a member of the scout 
platoon. “We learned a lot from the 
school’s cadre, and because of the 
way they stressed teamwork, we 
learned a lot from each other.” 

Designed on a round-robin 

Left, 9th Division soidiers wait for fur- 
ther orders in Panama’s Green Heil. • 
Right, Sp4 Andrew Owen sports his reac- 
tion to the jungie obstacle course. 

format, the first week of training 
had the prospective jungle experts 
rotating from station to station, 
each of which dealt with a different 
aspect of jungle warfare. Following 
this basic instruction, individual 
squads were tested. Those who 
passed moved on and those who 
didn’t returned to the station to try 

Classes included mines and 
booby traps, intelligence gathering, 
jungle plants, waterborne opera- 
tions, rappelling and air-assault 

It was during the first week 
that squads experienced the in- 
famous Green Hell jungle obstacle 
course. The course is more than a 
quarter-mile of mud, hills and 

specialist assigned to the 9th Infantry Division Public 
Affairs Office, Fort Lewis, Wash. 

“God, what a killer,” gasped 
one mud-covered NCO after he and 
his squad staggered over the finish 
line. “I’ve seen these courses from 
Germany to Korea, but this one 
takes the cake. The heat, that hill 
... I see now why it’s called Green 

The weather was always a 
popular topic of discussion. Al- 
though the mercury rarely went 

higher than 90 degrees, the humidity 
in Panama was murderous. Regard- 
less of whether the sun happened to 
be shining, or of what the thermom- 
eter said, most soldiers’ jungle 
fatigues were constantly soaked 
with sweat. 

Rain was another weather 
factor. A thunderstorm often hit in 
a matter of minutes, dumping 
several inches of rain on already 

From top left, the world of Panama's Green Hell includes running on 
beaches, • crawling in muddy streams • and, bottom left, crossing rope 
bridges. • Above, Falcons grab some shut-eye when they can, • and unit 
cooks have a special treat for the troops. 





' t 




water-soaked terrain and leaving as 
quickly as it had come. 

At the start of the second 
week, squads were again tested on 
previous instruction. The platoon 
test lane was composed of six dif- 
ferent test stations, beginning with 
loading and handling squad-sized 
rubber rafts. Squads had to paddle 
their rafts two miles up the Chag- 
gras River, beach the boats and 
move out by foot to the second sta- 
tion, where they had to build a one- 
rope bridge and cross a river in 15 
minutes or less. 

After that, it was jungle plants 
and jungle living, which included 
rappelling through a waterfall. 
Squads broke down into two-man 
teams with each team constructing a 
poncho raft and re-crossing the 
river. It was easy to tell who the no- 
gos were because they emerged 
empty-handed after the river cur- 
rents flooded and sank their rafts. 

At the final station, squads 
had to construct and hook up a 
field-expedient antenna using com- 
munications wire, C-ration spoons 
and sticks cut from the jungle. 

All six stations were timed, 
and each squad was allowed up to 
two no-gos. Those receiving more 
were re-tested. The units also went 
through a live-fire course and 
classes on jungle warfare tactics 
during the second week. Most of the 
tactics emphasized operations at 
squad and platoon levels. The 
soldiers found that they had to rely 
heavily on each other. 

“The jungle and the empha- 
sis on squad and platoon-level mis- 
sions challenged the soldiers and 
tested the leadership of our NCOs to 
the highest degree,” said CSM 
Derry L. Fries. “The leaders found 
it necessary to rely on the complete 
squad. Loners just wouldn’t survive 
out there. They have to get in and be 
a part of the team. NCOs have been 
the key to our success down here.” 

“Because of the nature of the 
training. I’d say the squad leaders 
and platoon sergeants now have a 
lot more confidence in their subor- 
dinates. Nobody’s perfect, and 
when these guys made a mistake, 
there was always someone to step 
forward and help get the situation 

straightened out,” Fries said. 

On Friday of the second 
week, the battalion took a day off 
and had a barbecue on one of 
Panama’s many beaches. The cooks 
put on a feed that won’t soon be 
forgotten. The menu included steak, 
lobster, ribs, chicken, baked beans 
and rice. 

The final week included a 
three-day field training exercise in 
which the battalion was pitted 
against members of the 193rd Infan- 
try Brigade, the unit assigned to 

Panama. The FTX consisted of nu- 
merous small unit raids, ambushes 
and movements, and airmobile 

On Sept. 9, the day before 
the unit departed for home, every 
eligible soldier received his jungle 
expert badge. 

That moment was the real 
reason these soldiers had come from 
the rainy Great Northwest to the 
steamy tropical jungle. The badge 
was proof that these Falcons had 
spent some time in hell. □ 


WHILE the 9th Infantry Division’s 2nd 
Battalion, 39th Infantry, was learning 
to fight in the rugged jungles of 
Panama, it seemed the silence was 
broken every five minutes by whisper 
of “Hey, where’s the medic? Oh! 
There you are. Com’ere and have a 
look at this!” 

During the 21-day deployment, 
the battalion’s 28 medics treated 
more than 500 cases in their aid sta- 
tion. Numerous treatments also were 
given in the field, miles from the 
nearest permanent facility. 

"I got more experience here 
than I’ve ever had before, said Sp4 
Andy Savage, Headquarters Com- 
pany. “The variety of injuries we saw 
out in the field was unbelievable— 
things we’d never see back in Fort 
Lewis (Wash.).” 

Savage said the isolation and 
rough terrain of the training areas 
sometimes made outside medical 
assistance next to impossible. The 
medics handled all cases on the spot. 

“We routinely handled things 
out there that would’ve been sent 
straight to Madigan Army Medical 
Center if we had been at Fort Lewis,” 
Savage said. 

Among the more “common” 
ailments treated in Panama were 
problems with the lower legs and 
feet, minor heat injuries, cuts, 
bruises and, as anyone who made the 
trip can tell you, the infamous black 

The black palm is a tree native 
to Panama. Its trunk is covered with 
slim, long and extremely sharp 
needles. More than one “Old Reli- 
able” found out just how sharp the 
needles were when he reached out 
for something to grab as he slipped 
down the jungle’s muddy embank- 

"Black palm isn’t really seri- 
ous,” said SSgt. Scott Yokum, one of 
the battalion’s senior medics. “It just 
hurts like hell for a few days, espe- 

cially if it worked its way under the 

Although few cases were 
serious enough for treatment, many 
soldiers found that their feet took 
quite a pounding. “The wetness is 
really rough on the feet,” Yokum said. 
“If you’re in the jungle for any 
amount of time, your feet are wet 
constantly from water or sweat.” 

With the extreme humidity in 
Central America, one might have ex- 
pected a high rate of heat casualties, 
but this wasn’t the case. “We only 
saw 10 to 12 cases that would be con- 
sidered really serious,” Yokum said. 

He attributed the low heat 
casualty rate to three things. First, 
the unit made sure soldiers drank up 
to 12quartersof wateraday. Also the 
line medics kept special watch for 
heat injury symptoms and treated 
them before they got serious. Lastly, 
the unit’s rigorous PT program also, 
prevented heat injuries. 

Medics gained respect from 
9th Infantry Division soldiers who 
went to Panama. Troops agreed the 
medics really earned their money. 
Every time a group of soldiers ven- 
tured into the jungle, they were joined 
by a medic. He humped with the in- 
fantry the entire time, carrying a 
weapon, 40-pound rucksack, and up 
to 10 pounds of medical gear. 

‘‘Some people may think 
medics have a sham job,” said PFC 
Steve Carter, an infantryman. “Be- 
lieve me, they don’t. They worked as 
hard as anyone out in the field. I don't 
know what we’d have done without 

Medical platoon sergeant SFC 
Daniel Lubinski said, “We’ve received 
nothing but praise. Lots of officers 
and senior NCCs have told us that, 
under these conditions, the medics 
did a fantastic job and should be con- 
gratulated. If they can handle the 
things they faced out there, they can 
handle anything.” 

MAY 1983 


Sp4 Doug Ide 

Keenan; Foreign Exchange 

For one officer in 
the 82nd Airborne Divi- 
sion, last spring’s crisis in 
the Falkland Islands has 
personal meaning. 

Maj. David H. 
Keenan, a member of the 
2nd Battalion, British 
Parachute Regiment, is 
serving with the 2nd Bat- 
talion (Airborne), 505th In- 
fantry, Fort Bragg, N.C. 

His battalion, 
known to the British as 2 
Para, spearheaded the at- 
tacks against Goose 
Green and Darwin in the 

“I would have loved 
to have been in the Falk- 
lands for the sake of being 
with my fellow country- 
men,” Keenan said. Sev- 
eral of his friends were 
killed in the fighting, 
including the man who 
replaced him as battalion 
adjutant and his battalion 


‘‘Both were dy- 
namic people,” Keenan 
said. “They died as they 
probably would have 
wanted to, going down 

Keenan joined the 
82nd as an exchange of- 
ficer in 1981, and serves 
as a battalion operations 

“The job here is 
demanding and time con- 
suming,” Keenan said, 
“but extremely satisfying 
because I have a chance 
to learn and teach. But 
more importantly, I am 
working with super 
troops.” — Sp5 Dave 

Bernhard Czerwin- 
ski was a prisoner of war 
held by the Americans 
from 1944 to 1947. 

To show his appre- 

ciation for the treatment 
he received, the German 
decided to make friends 
with three American 
soldiers of the 6th Infantry 
Division (Mechanized), Bad 
Kreuznach, West Germany. 

First, Czerwinski 
asked American officials 
to honor a few requests. 
He asked that the se- 
lected soldiers be about 
20 years old. “That was 
my age at the time I was 
captured.” he said. 

“One soldier must 
be a black man," he said. 
“When I was captured. I 
was almost frozen to 
death. A U.S. soldier 
recognized my physical 
condition and gave me a 
cup of hot tea. That man 
was a black soldier. The 
cup of tea was the first hot 
drink I had after three 
weeks of tough front-line 
service at temperatures 
below zero.” 

He asked that one 
of the soldiers be from 
Louisville, Ky.. where he 
worked in an Army hospi- 
tal during his confinement. 

His final request 
was that one of the sol- 
diers speak Spanish. 

“My Spanish is per- 
fect,” Czerwinski said. 
“But my English is not 
good enough for a plea- 
sant conversation. If one 
of the soldiers speaks 
Spanish, he can translate 
for the others." 

The 8th Division 
public affairs office ar- 
ranged for Czerwinski to 
meet Sp4 Timothy Canny 
and PFC Adolphus Lane 
of Headquarters and Head- 
quarters Company, and 
PFC Ivan Fernandez of the 
92nd Military Police Com- 

They began their 
day together by touring 





Czerwinski: Ex-POW 

Koehler: Golden Knight 

the factory where Czerwin- 
ski has worked for 20 
years. Then followed 
I lunch and, later, coffee 
and conversation at Czer- 
winski’s home. There, he 
showed the soldiers 
photos of himself before 
and after his capture. 

Offered a choice of 
I enlisting “or else,” the 
58-year-old German com- 
mented, he was a bomber 
crewman when shot down 
over France while on a 

“You could tell by 
looking at his eyes that 
this meant a lot to him,” 
Lane said. “He survived 
the war and the ROW 
camp and is finally getting 
to say thanks. I’m sure 
this day brought back 
both good and bad mem- 
ories for him. In any case, I 
am glad we were able to 
make him happy and I’m 
glad to have a German 
friend.” — Sp4 Timothy 

The Golden Knights 

has another first. 

1st Lt. Michelle 
Koehler, new operations 
officer for the Army’s 
parachute team, is the 
first female officer to be 
assigned to the elite unit. 

Koehler is a former 
member of the 82nd Air- 
borne Division and has 
been stationed at Fort 
Bragg, N.C., for 2V2 years. 
The 23-year-old Fredonia, 
N.Y., native is also a veter- 
an of more than 160 

Koehler is no stran- 
ger to the Golden Knights. 
Her husband. Gene, is a 
former member of the 
team and the 1981 nation- 
al parachuting champion. 

She is excited 
about her new job. She 
said she likes the chal- 
lenge of being an official 
Army representative. 
Koehler will be responsi- 
ble for scheduling the 
team’s demonstrations, 
aircraft and training She 
will also coordinate 
support activities for the 
team.— May. Jim Correll 

“Snake” is both his 
nickname and his hobby. 
Maj. John W. Schmid, 
chief of Chemical Training 
Branch, 7th Signal Bri- 
gade, Mannheim, West 

Germany, has had pet 
snakes and other reptiles 
since his early school 
days in New Jersey. 

“It all started when 
I began buying small tur- 
tles at the dime store and 
watching them grow,” he 

His pets have in- 
cluded boa constrictors, 
iguanas, chameleons and 
alligators. Next to snakes, 
iguanas are Schmid’s 
favorite pets. 

“I bought a 22-inch 
iguana from a pet store 
one day and named him 
Buddy. Wanting to supple- 
ment the lizard’s diet of 
vegetables and fruit, I 
decided to add dog food,” 
Schmid said. 

The feeding plan 
produced phenomenal re- 
sults. “Within 24 months. 
Buddy grew to five feet,” 
he said. 

Pets like cats and 
dogs have no difficulty in 
expressing love for their 
owners, Schmid remarked. 
While in the Army, Schmid 
cannot take his unusual 
pets with him. He usually 
donates them to a nearby 
zoo when transfer time 
comes. Then he starts his 
collection over when he 
gets to his new duty 

“Snakes like Harry, 
my boa constrictor, have 
problems returning love 
shown them,” he said. 
“But they can still give the 
best hug around.” 
— Stephen Sanderson 

MAY 1983 


Suddenly appearing from 
behind dense clouds of 
smoke, like visions from 
the past performing a 
beautiful yet deadly 
ballet across the fields 
of northern Germany, these 
soldiers are honed to 
a razor’s edge. They’re 
keeping alive the. . . 






Story and Photos by SSgt. Linda Kozaryn 

“SLASH to the head! Thrust and turn! Butt-stroke to 
the groin! The spirit of the bayonet is?” 

“TO KILL!” a hundred men scream. 

In Lt. Col. Robert “Cold Steel” Powell’s battal- 
ion, infantrymen learn to use the bayonet. 

For two hours each month, sometimes more, the 
men of the 3rd Battalion, 41st Infantry, at Clay Kaserne 
in northern Germany, practice the “Terrorist Two- 
step,” the “Cold Steel Stick ’Em and Kick ’Em Drill” 
and other death-inflicting moves as martial music blares 
from a loudspeaker. 

“To me, two keys of a good unit are good disci- 
pline and good esprit,” Powell said. “For infantry 
units, the bayonet is a pri- 
mary means of developing 
esprit.” Powell earned his 
“Cold Steel” nickname 
during three tours in Viet- 
nam. His units always had 
their bayonets fixed. 

“Somehow the name 
always got ahead of me,” 
he said. “When I took com- 
mand here, they already 
had it written on the wall 
in my office.” 

Black, 8-inch letters 
proclaim the Georgia native’s nickname in an office full 
of mementos. Photographs of Gen. George Patton and 
John Wayne are there, along with knives, a saber and a 
mounted bear’s head. 

Powell started bayonet training in the battalion 
when he took command in January 1981 . His is the only 
battalion at Garlstedt, West Germany, regularly con- 
ducting the training. 

“The Army used to do bayonet training,” said 
Maj. Jim McDonough, battalion executive officer. 
“But on the modern battlefield, the bayonet is con- 
sidered a defunct weapon, so the Army decreased the 
number of training hours.” 

STAFF SERGEANT LINDA KOZARYN is the Stars and Stripes bureau chief in 
Bremerhaven, West Germany. 

Lt. Col. Robert Powell 

i MAY 1983 




Above, emotions run high. . Top, SSgl. Ronald Otstott (left) and 
Pvt. Rodolfo Trevino pairoff, as do . center, 2nd Lt. Ferdinand 
Irizarry (right) and SFC Ben Lymore. • Far right, Sgt. Eddie 
Turner takes a smoke break. 


Bayonet training “instills a fighting spirit — that 
killer instinct that an infantryman needs,” he said. “It 
strikes the tone of the battalion itself as combat-ready, 
fit, tough, lean — like the bayonet.” 

Powell also uses bayonet training to get his 
troops ready for the field or for a live-fire exercise. On 
the day of a battalion move-out, about 100 C Company 
soldiers spent more than an hour charging up. 

They grunted, growled and maneuvered through 
a series of bayonet drills before completing an obstacle 
course and finally securing their own barracks. 

“It makes you really think about your job and 
helps you prepare to go to the field,” said PFC James 
Gray after the drill. 

“Here they really make you train and I need to 
survive when I go to combat,” said PFC Damon 
Chenault. “If combat really comes. I’ll be ready for it.” 
Bayonet training is not new to SSgt. Ronald 
Otstott, an assistant platoon sergeant. “When I first 
came in the Army during the Vietnam days, they used to 
teach bayonet training in 
basic training,” he said. “It 
burns off frustration, 
builds confidence — all the 
things needed for combat- 
ready soldiers. I’d like to 
see hand-to-hand combat 
training come back.” 

And being combat- 
ready is the name of the 
game in Cold Steel’s bat- 
talion. Newcomers are 
given a letter that states: 

“Our mission is to 
prevent war from starting 
by our display of professionalism and to be ready to kill 
the enemy if war starts. Our goal is to be ready to deploy 
on short notice and to be ready to effectively and effi- 
ciently kill the enemy.” The letter also cites “The NCO, 
Perfect Discipline and Esprit” as the “foundation and 
soul” of any unit. 

Powell said there are no colored bedspreads in 
his barracks — only Army blankets with white cuffs. 
Drawer and wall locker displays are part of the unit 
policy. “If you can’t get a soldier to keep his chin strap 
fastened or his toothbrush bristles and teeth of a comb 
in the right direction in a drawer display, how are you 
going to get him to die for his country?” he asked. 

“In this unit, we believe we’re going to fight and 
we’re ready to fight,” said 2nd Lt. Ferdinand Irizarry, 
bayonet instructor for C Company. “The men see them- 
selves as a team. When they run out of bullets, they still 
have bayonets. They can still fight.” 

Soldiers fresh out of basic and advanced indi- 
vidual training do not have much difficulty adjusting to 
Powell’s unit, he said, but some career soldiers “resist 
for a little while.” 

“Most soldiers don’t come in the Army for an 
easy thing,” Powell said. “They come in looking for 
something strong and viable.” □ 

MAY 1983 




story by Faith Faircloth 

Photos courtesy U.S. Air Force 

IN 1942 America was totally com- 
mitted to the war with Germany and 
Japan. Smokestacks across the 
country evidenced the round-the- 
clock production of war machinery. 
And Rosie the Riveter was earning 
her place in history in the nation's 

High in the sky above Rosie 
another group of women was also 
making history. These women 
logged 60 million miles and 
flew every plane in .Amer- 
ica’s wartime arsenal, 
from a Piper Cub to the 
B-29 Superfortress. 
But they, like Rosie, 
were no longer needed 
when Johnny came 
marching home. 

Women first 
climbed into the 
cockpits of 
planes in the 
.Army Air 
Forces in Sep- 
tember 1942. 
being fran- 
tically pro- 

up on the assembly lines because all 
available male pilots were going into 
combat training. 

Nancy Harkness Love, a 
well-known pilot, gained AAF per- 
mission to recruit women to fly 
these planes from the factories to 
stateside airfields for overseas 
delivery. The women formed the 
Women’s Auxiliary Flying Squad- 
ron of the Air Transport Command 
Ferry Division. 

Love recruited 28 experi- 
enced women pilots, each with more 
than 1,100 hours’ flight time, to 
form this experimental unit. The 
women reported to New Castle 
Army Airfield in Wilmington, Del., 
at their own expense. 

Although all were profes- 
sional pilots, the WAFS were put 
through a 40-day training 
period before they could fly 
even the smallest planes in 
the inventory. Ironically, 
some of their instructors for 
this course were men whom 
they had taught to fly. 

One of the first vol- 
unteers, Cornelia Fort, had 
been a flight instructor in 
Hawaii and was flying with 
a student when the Japa- 
nese bombed Pearl Harbor. 

For her, the day the WAFS 
completed their training 
had a special meaning. She 
expressed her feelings in a 
1943 issue of the Ladies 
Home Companion magazine: 

“For all the girls in the 
WAFS, I think the most concrete 
moment of happiness came at our 
first review. Suddenly, and for the 
first time, we felt a part of some- 
thing larger. 

“Because of our uniforms, 
which we had earned, we were 
marching with the men, marching 
with all the freedom-loving people 
in the world. 

“And then while we were 
standing at attention, a bomber 
took off, followed by four fighters. 

“We knew the bomber was 
headed across the ocean and that the 
fighters were going to escort it part 
way. As they circled over us I could 
hardly see them for the tears in 
my eyes. 

“As long as our planes fly 
overhead, the skies of America are 
free, and that’s what all of us every- 
where are fighting for. And that we, 
in a very small way, are being allowed 
to help keep that sky free is the most 
beautiful thing I have ever known. 

“I am profoundly grateful 
that my one talent, my only knowl- 
edge, flying, happens to be of use to 
my country when it is needed. That’s 
all the luck I ever hope to have.’’ 
Fort was killed in a bomber 
crash in March 1943. She was the 
first of 38 woman pilots to die while 
serving her country. 

As the WAFS began their 
ferrying operation, another group 
of women pilots was being formed. 
Jacqueline Cochran, winner of three 
consecutive Harmon trophies (the 



Preceding page, Lenora Horton (left) and Mildred Axton model 
the infamous “zoot suits.” • Above, trainees arrive for flight 
class at Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas. 

highest award given to an aviator in 
America), gained the AAF blessing 
to form the Women’s Flying Train- 
ing Detachment. 

Cochran’s first WFTD class 
reported Nov. 17, 1942, to Houston 
Memorial Airport in Texas to begin 
five months’ training. The new re- 
cruits met the 100-hour flight time re- 
quirement, but differed from Love’s 
WAFS: Most were flying enthusiasts 
rather than professional pilots. 

They came from every walk of life — 
housewives, strippers, Hollywood 
stunt artists, doctors, nurses, black- 
jack dealers and young college grad- 
uates who had learned to fly in Civil 
Pilot Training programs on campus. 

Jane Straughan of Silver 
Spring, Md., was one of the first 
arrivals in Houston. She had 

attended a cocktail party given by 
Cochran at the Mayflower Hotel in 
Washington, D.C., a couple of 
months earlier. Cochran had asked 
her and other members of the 
Ninety-Nines women’s flying club if 
they would fly for their country. 

“After a couple of cocktails, 
we all said ‘Sure,’ but I don’t think 
any of us took her seriously,’’ 
Straughan said. 

About eight weeks later, 
Straughan received a telegram to 
report to Houston at her own 
expense to fly for the Army. “1 
wasn’t going to go,’’ she said. “My 
husband was getting ready to go 
overseas, and I wasn’t about to 
leave.’’ But after talking it over with 
her husband and finding that some 
of her friends were going, she 
changed her mind. 

“When we got there, 
they had no idea what to do 
with us,’’ she said. “We 
had to find our own hous- 
ing from a list they gave us, 
and we ended up scattered 
all over Houston. They 
later moved us to a motel 
and had a bus take us back 
and forth to the field.’’ 

The 28 women in 
Straughan’s class trained in 
a motley assortment of air- 
craft at the commercial air- 
port until the military planes 
began to arrive. All their 
meals were provided at the 
contractor’s mess hall. Straughan 
remembers that they had prunes 
three times a day for dessert. 

Half their day was spent in 
the air and the other half on the 
ground learning navigation, mete- 
orology and mapping. 

After a few weeks, personal 
flying clothes they had brought 
from home began to wear out, so 
the women were provided men’s GI 
jumpsuits, sized 40 to 46. With their 
shoulders, arms and legs lost in 
yards of khaki and the coverall 
crotches drooping at their knees, the 
women dubbed their new outfits 
“zoot suits.’’ New words to the tune 
of “Bell Bottom Trousers” were 
soon being heard around Houston: 
“Zoot suits and parachutes 
And wings of silver, too 

MAY 1983 


Fifinella, the Walt-Disney-designed 
gremlin, was the WASPs’ mascot. 

He’ll ferry planes 

Like his mama used to do. ” 

Straughan’s class graduated 
in April 1943 at Ellington Field in 
Houston. Since no uniforms were 
furnished, the women bought tan 
pants, white shirts and khaki over- 
seas caps for the occasion. This 
became standard graduation attire 
until August, when uniforms were 
finally provided. 

With Houston behind them, 
the new graduates joined the WAFS 
at New Castle Army Airfield. With 
81 more graduates soon expected 
from classes two and three at 
Houston, Love established WAF 
units in Dallas, Texas; Romulus, 
Mich.; and Long Beach and Palm 
Springs, Calif. 

Straughan was one of the 
women who stayed at New Castle. 
“We were luckier than some of the 
girls,” said Straughan. “The WAFS 
had been at New Castle for a while 
and the base was sort of broken in. 
We were accepted and treated 
beautifully. We never had any 

Straughan first ferried Piper 
Cubs to bases all over the United 
States, then flew the open cockpit 
Fairchild. Finally, she checked out 
in the multiengine planes. When 
pursuit (fighter plane) school 
became available at Palm Springs, 
Straughan went. From then on, she 
ferried nothing but P-40 Warhawks, 
P-47 Thunderbolts, P-39 Aira- 
cobras, P-63 King Cobras and P-51 

Sometimes Straughan would 
be away from New Castle for weeks 
at a time. 

“I would take a P-47 from Island to Long Beach, pick up 


a P-51 there and fly it to Newark.” 
she said, “and pick up a P-47 there 
and fly it back to the West Coast.” 

Straughan and her husband, 
an Army mapping pilot, sometimes 
passed each other in the night. 
“Once, we ran into each other in 
South Carolina, and we were both 
able to spend the night,” she said. 
The two went to a hotel and her hus- 
band signed in at the desk. 

“As we started up the stairs, 
the manager called us back,” 
Straughan recalled. “He said the 
hotel didn’t allow military people to 
have a room together. We tried to 
explain that we were married, but 
the manager called me aside and 
gave me a lecture on venereal 

disease. We finally showed him our 
orders and convinced him we were 

Back at the Houston facility, 
the trainees were about to vacate 
their hotels. When 150 trainees 

arrived for the fourth class at 

Houston, support facilities were 
bulging at the seams. This class was 
almost as large as the first three 
classes combined. So in April 1943, 
the trainees flew their planes from 
Houston to Sweetwater, Texas, and 
their new home. Avenger Field. 

The days of living in motels 
were over. They moved into 

barracks, rose to the sound of 
reveille, marched to meals and en- 
dured the rigors of calisthenics. 

Their training program became al- 
most identical to that of the male 
cadets. The fledgling pilots were in 
the Army now . 

Avenger Field, a former male 
aviation cadet base, was under con- 
struction when the women arrived 
and during much of the war. Run- 
ways were under construction, and a 
large replica of the female gremlin 
“Fifinella” waited to adorn the ad- 
ministration building. Fifinella was 
designed by \N'alt Disney as the 
women pilots’ mascot. 

There were still a few male 
cadets at .Avenger Field when Gavle 
Bevis Reed of Vienna. Va.. arrived. 
Reed doesn’t remember any hanky- 
panky, though. 

“^'ou wouldn’t believe what 
things were like in those days.” she 
said. “1 would say .Avenger Field 
was somewhere between a convent 
and a monastery.” 

Reed had taken civil pilot 
training at college and was working 
in a chemical factory when she was 
accepted for the W FT D. “They had 
lowered the flying time required to 
35 hours by then.” she said. ”1 
think 1 had 68 hours vvhen I got to 
the detachment.” 

Reed moved into the 
barracks and shared a bathroom 
with 11 other girls. ”We had no 
problem at all. strangely enough.” 
she said. “1 don’t remember ever 
having to wait. 1 was there in the 

Two Women’s Airforce Service pilots prepare to take off on a target-towing mission at 
Camp Davis, N.C. Bullets aimed at the targets sometimes peppered tow planes. 

Jacqueline Cochran (second from right), Army Air Forces director of women pilots, 
meets the target-towing squadron at Camp Davis, N.C. 

summer when your coveralls got so 
dirty and encrusted with salt that 
you washed them by getting in the 
shower with them on.” 

While Reed was at Avenger 
Field, the WAFS and WFTD were 
merged to form the WASPs 
(Women’s Airforce Service Pilots). 
Cochran was selected AAF director 
of women pilots, and Love was 
made WASP executive for the Ferry 

Reed’s class was the first to 
graduate in the official WASP uni- 
form. Designed by Cochran in a 
bright blue material, the flight uni- 
form included pocketless slacks, 
oxford-cloth blue shirt and Eisen- 
hower-type jacket. 

The WASP dress uniform 
was a straight, knee-length blue 
skirt with white shirt, black tie and 
belted blue blouse. The hat was a 
beret-type pulled to the right with a 
seal of the United States worn cen- 
tered. The infamous “zoot suit” 
was replaced by dark blue coveralls 
with a drop-seat design. 

Most of the women were still 
going to the Ferry Command after 
graduation. But the command was 
doing more than just ferrying air- 
craft from place to place. 

“A good friend of mine went 
on to fly the B-24 Liberator (four- 
engine bomber) in bombing runs,” 
Reed said, “and a lot of the girls 
flew target-towing missions.” 

The women who flew the tar- 
get-towing missions sometimes 
returned to base with bullet holes in 
their planes as well as in the large 
muslin targets they towed behind 
them. Often feeling like targets 
themselves, these WASPs helped 
train air and ground gunners while 
flying planes that were anything but 
the Army’s best. 

“I lived for the day when I 
would get pursuits,” Reed said. “I 
finally got them in the Ferry Com- 
mand.” Reed was stationed at Love 
Field in Dallas, but was rarely there. 

She described herself as a 
gypsy. “I’d be in Wichita picking up 
an airplane to take to California, or 
I’d be somewhere else picking up a 
plane to take to Fort Dix, or I’d be 
in Pecos, Texas, for three days 
waiting for the weather to lift so I 
could get out.” 

Her room in the barracks at 
Love Field was 10 feet by 10 feet 
with a single bed and a closet of 
sorts. The walls were exposed 
2-by-4s on one side and covered on 
the other. 

“Some of the girls fixed 
them up with curtains and things,” 
she said. “I bought a pair of blue 
and white drapes, but that’s about 
as far as I got. 

“We were civil service em- 
ployees, unclassified, unknown in 
the war,” Reed commented. “When 
you have a big war effort, they put a 
lot of things under civil service until 
they can decide what to do with 
them. We were treated like officers. 
We lived in officers’ quarters and 
ate at the officers’ mess and in the 
officers’ club.” 

Reed lost one of her brothers 
in the war, but never lost a close 
friend in the WASPs. “We’d hear 
about them from somebody, that 
they’d been killed,” she said. “But, 
in the first place, it was wartime. In 
the second place, we were a product 
of wartime movies and the whole 
war psyche. Whenever you saw a 
wartime movie, they would have 
three cadets in it, and one of them 
was going to get killed. This is the 
way it always was. You were brave 

about this sort of thing. It was just 
in the cards: Some people got killed. 
We always knew we were going to 
win. We were the good guys, we 
always won.” 

Reed was a WASP a little 
longer than most. After the other 
WASPs had returned to their 
homes, Reed was still in an Army 
hospital in McKinney, Texas. 

She had been hurt during a 
crash-landing in a pursuit plane. 
Something had gone wrong. 

“I didn’t know the landing 
gear hadn’t come down, and I 
landed,” she commented. “Well, 
the darned thing nosed up and 1 
thought the airplane was going to 
explode. I had auxiliary (fuel) tanks 
hanging on the wings, and 1 thought 
they were dragging. 

“So help me Hanna, not out 
of fear but out of wanting to look 
good back in Dallas, I made a fast 
decision: I got out of the plane,” 
she continued. “I meant to go off 
the back wing, but in the P-63 the 
cockpit sat almost ahead of the 
wings. Most likely, I went in front 
of the airplane. 

“The last thing 1 remember is 
two red handles, one of them 
opened the door and the other one 
jettisoned the canopy,” Reed said. 

MAY 1983 


A class of Women’s Airforce Service Pilots trainees prepare to pass in review on 
graduation day at Avenger Field. 

“I broke my leg and fractured my 
skull. I’m probably the only WASP 
who ever got run over by her own 

Some WASPs were not as 
lucky as Reed. Loes Monk Mac- 
Kenzie of Alexandria, Va., watched 
a friend’s plane spin to earth and 
explode at Avenger Field. 

“We were just learning to do 
spins and stalls,” MacKenzie said. 
“We had a buddy system in the air 
where one would circle above and 
watch the other perform. It was on 
our first or second day of soloing in 
aerobatics that she went into a spin 
and never pulled up. I don’t know 
what happened, and I don’t think 
anyone ever found out.” 

MacKenzie learned to fly on 
a dare. “I was dating a tennis 
champ in college in South Dakota, 
and World War II broke out,” she 
said. “We were at a dance one night 
and got into a fight. I told him he 
was chicken because he wouldn’t get 
into the Civil Pilot Training pro- 
gram and learn to fly so he could 
join the Air Force. 

“He said if I thought it was 
so great, I should do it. He said they 
would take one girl with every nine 
men, so I asked how much it cost. 
He said $30. 

“Well, it was depression 
times, and I was working my way 
through college, so 1 told him I 
didn’t have it,” MacKenzie recalled. 
“He said he would pay it. 1 knew he 

didn’t have $30 either, but a crowd 
had gathered around us on the 
dance floor to watch the fight, so I 
said I’d do it. The next morning, of 
course, I was there. He was too — 
with the $30.” 

Being the first woman to fly 
in South Dakota, MacKenzie 
attracted so much business for her 
flight instructor that he did not 
charge her for her pilot’s license. 
“He was making a lot of money 
because of me,” she said. 

MacKenzie reported to Aven- 
ger Field right after college gradua- 
tion. “It was the most work I’ve 
ever done in my life, but 1 loved it,” 
she said. MacKenzie and her class- 
mates worked extra hard because 
they had heard the Army intended 
to wash out 50 percent of the class. 

“Our class had little fun, 
except for making friends and doing 
a little laughing,” she said. “We 
studied and did everything by the 
book right up to graduation.” 

MacKenzie and 1 1 other girls 
from her class went to Childress, 
Texas, to fly bombing runs to train 
bombardiers and navigators. They 
all became fast friends. 

“There wasn’t an odd-ball in 
the lot,” said MacKenzie. “We were 
all different characters — from the 
South Dakota farmgirl to the Texas 
girl who had been married several 
times and wore diamonds all the 
way up both hands — but we got 
along perfectly. We had so much 

fun together, and would help each 
other without question.” 

The women at Childress flew 
the AT-Il, nicknamed “Kansas.” 
The plane was fitted out with the 
top-secret Norden bombsight in the 
nose and bomb bay doors. The back 
of the plane held navigational 
equipment. The Norden bombsight 
was a device that automaticalh 
triggered release of the bombs when 
the target was in sight. 

“We had to pack a ‘45’ when 
we flew,” MacKenzie said. “Our 
orders were to shoot to kill if any- 
one entered the plane without 

When they arrived at Chil- 
dress, the women received a warm 
reception from the men. “You 
could have weighed 500 pounds and 
they would have thought you were 
cute,” .MacKenzie said. But the 
women still had to prove they could 
fly. “The boys had never flown with 
girls and they were scared spitless,” 
she said. But after the first couple of 
flights with the women pilots, the 
boys were standing in line to fly with 

“We were good pilots, and 
we didn’t get mad at them like the 
men,” she said. “The only time wc 
told them off was when they kept us 
an hour after our mission because 
they screwed up and didn’t drop 
their bombs.” 

The women had another way 
of getting even with the men, and 
MacKenzie admits to using it one 
time. “They had really messed up, 
and they were being awfully smart. 
So, on the way home, 1 just rode my 
rudder pedals,” she said. 

Riding the rudder pedals 
causes the plane to fishtail while re- 
maining level. .Although it doesn’t 
affect the pilot, it can cause motion 
sickness for the swaying passengers 
in the rear. 

“When they got out. they 
were so green they couldn’t do any- 
thing,” she said. “See ya. boys. 
Next time, let’s do it on time.” 

MacKenzie remembers a 
friend of hers at who 
often got out of the plane with her 
leather fiight jacket tied around her 
waist and telltale wet marks down 
the back of her slacks. 

“They had a relief tube in the 



back of the plane for the male 
cadets,” said MacKenzie. “But we 
girls just had to hold it for four or 
more hours. Fortunately, I had the 
kidneys of a camel, but my friend 
didn’t. She earned quite a reputa- 

WASPs all across the country 
were earning a reputation — as good 
pilots. WASPs ferried more than 
half of all the fighter planes pro- 
duced during the war, with as good 
a flight record as the male pilots. 
They flight-tested modified and re- 
paired aircraft, flew bombing runs 
to train bombardiers and naviga- 
tors, flew target-towing missions for 
gunnery practice and flew the coun- 
try’s first jet aircraft. Of the 1,830 
women who entered training, 1,074 
earned their wings. 

Love and Betty Gillis (one of 
the original WAFS pilots) were the 
first women to check out as B-17 
Flying Fortress first pilots. (The 
first pilot is the crew member whose 
job it was to fly the aircraft.) The 
two women were selected to ferry 
one of the big bombers to Prest- 
wick, Scotland. They would have 
been the first women in the program 
to cross the Atlantic, but their 
orders were cancelled when they 
I reached Goose Bay, Labrador. Gen. 
Henry “Hap” Arnold, commander 

of the AAF, was afraid the women 
would be shot down. 

Lt. Col. Paul W. Tibbets Jr., 
who later piloted “Enola Gay,” the 
B-29 which dropped the first atomic 
bomb, selected two WASPs to 
demonstrate the huge bomber to 
wary male pilots. 

Aside from the B-29’s size 
(twice as heavy, 25 feet longer and a 
wing span 40 feet wider than the 
B-17), the plane had experienced 
engine fires. Male pilots, whom 
Tibbets had to train, were refusing 
to fly the new bomber. 

After intensive training from 
Tibbets, the two women piloted the 
mammoth craft, decorated with the 
WASPs’ mascot, Fifinella, and 
named “Ladybird,” to Alamo- 
gordo, N.M. There, at one of the 
bomber training bases, the women 
demonstrated the plane was a 
smooth flying, delicately rigged and 
responsive ship. The effect of the 
women’s demonstration on the male 
pilots was exactly what Tibbets had 
hoped for. 

Cochran, the director of 
women pilots, wanted the Army and 
the government to recognize WASP 
duty as being military service. She 
had designed her training program 
with this in mind and had even sent 
the women pilots to Officers’ Train- 

ing School in Orlando, Fla. But 
militarization of the WASPs was 33 
years away. 

When Congress considered a 
bill in 1944 that would have given 
the WASPs direct commissions into 
the AAF, the war was going well in 
Europe and victory was in sight. 
Male aviators were coming home, 
and the need for new pilots was 
drastically reduced. 

Male civilian pilots who had 
been training cadets in the civilian 
schools were suddenly unemployed. 
These male pilots, who risked being 
drafted into the infantry, felt the 
women were holding jobs they 
should have. The men joined to- 
gether to put pressure on Congress 
and gain the public’s sympathy. The 
story was twisted to seem that, as 
WASP Reed put it, “1,(XX) women 
were keeping 10,000 men out of 
work.” The bill was defeated. It 
would be 1977 before the WASPs 
gained military benefits. 

On Dec. 20, 1944, the WASPs 
were disbanded. They said goodbye 
to each other and their male pilot 
friends and went their separate 
ways. Some found flying jobs in the 
civilian world. Most returned home 
— to cast an occasional longing 
glance skyward when a plane roared 
overhead. □ 

Left, Nancy Love (left) and Betty Gillis 
were the first women to qualify as B-17 
bomber first pilots. • Above, Margaret 
Hurlburt (top) and Anne Bartholf exam- 
ine a bomber wheel at Dodge City Army 
Airfield, Kan. 


* if. 

•' ^ . . 

'■ M ' 


J'"' ■■■ 



Illustrations by Bill Thompson 

Shootii^ an azimuth 

lish teachers ever taught you. 

The Army has reshuffled the] 
language and dealt us all a greener' 
grammar. For example, how do yooj 
walk behind a set of instructions?"” 
You simply follow orders. Oh, and 
calm down, paratroopers. You< 
should assume a tight body position 
when you’re about to leap from a 
plane. Did you know that “ener- 
getic disassembly” is one of the 
latest ways of saying “explosion”? 

Recently, cartoonist Bill 
Thompson said he sees light at the 
end of the jargon tunnel. 

Thompson chose, under- 
standably, to keep his whereabouts 
a secret. It’s obvious to us that his 
flagrant disrespect for “Army-1 
speak” has driven him to hide in^ 
shame. We hear he’s become a 
hermit somewhere in Oklahoma, h 

Should you happen to concur4l| 
(agree) with any of these civilian 
sentiments, or should you discover ar 
disconnect (you don’t like them), 
you may submit to the aforemen- 
tioned (write to us). We shudder at • 
the thought that this guy (once a^ 
temporary permanent-party Texan) J 
will inspire others, and that more of' 
this material may creep into our< 
mailbox. Yet, being the brave souls 
that we are, we shall endure the' 
horror that accompanies each and 
every nick upon the pearly gems o 
Army grammar. □ 



Conducting an EDRE 

Battling against heavy odds 

Firing a Dragon 

MAY 1983 



Doni Call Us 


into the dining facility carrying a 
sheaf of papers in his hand. As he 
came to the NCO dining section, he 
spotted his best friend eating lunch. 

“I got my pinpoint,” the 
sergeant said, waving the papers as 
he joined his friend. The sergeant 
had been on orders for Germany for 
quite some time. Now he had his 
pinpoint assignment — the specific 
unit to which he was going. 

“Great! Where ya going?” 
asked the friend. 

“To ‘Hell on Wheels’ — the 
2nd Armored Division.” 

“Naw, that can’t be right. 
The 1st and 3rd Armored divisions 
are in Germany, but the 2nd is at 
Fort Hood.” 

“Yeah, that’s what I thought, 
but I asked Top. He just came from 
Germany and he said the 2nd AD is 
over there.” 

Who’s right? Top or the 
friend? Both. 

The 2nd AD is at Fort Hood, 
Texas, but part of it — a brigade, 
known as the 2nd AD (Forward) — 
is stationed in northern Germany. 
Its maneuver units are the 2nd Bat- 
talion of the 50th Infantry and the 
3rd Battalion of the 41st Infantry, 
both mechanized, and the 2nd Bat- 
talion, 66th Armor. The 1st Battal- 
ion, 14th Artillery, provides direct 
artillery support. Scout and engi- 
neer units are C Troop, 2nd Squad- 
ron, 1st Cavalry; and Company D, 
17th Engineer Battalion. Combat 
service support is provided by the 
498th Support Battalion, which is 
basically a minidivisional support 

Because of their unusual sit- 
uation, the people in the forward 
brigade sometimes feel as though 
they suffer from an identity crisis. 
It’s not an ordinary one. They know 
who they are — but no one else does. 

Story and Photos by Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

“We want people to know 
who we are,” said Lt. Col. James 
M. Carson, chief of staff. “We’re 
not Brigade ’75. We’re the 2nd Ar- 
mored Division (Forward) and 
we’re proud of ourselves.” 

The 2nd AD (Fwd) came to 
Germany in 1975 and was known 
then as Brigade ’75. Formed with 
soldiers from Fort Hood, Brigade 
’75 was headquartered at Grafen- 
woehr. In July 1978, the unit was re- 
designated the 2nd AD (Fwd), and it 
spent five months, starting that 
October, moving into Clay Kaserne, 
about 20 kilometers north of 
Bremen in the city of Garlstedt. 

The facilities at Clay Kaserne 
are one source of pride for the sol- 
diers there. Built by the West Ger- 
man government specifically for the 
brigade, the Kaserne’s red brick 
office buildings and barracks are 
among the most modern U.S. facili- 
ties in Germany. The barracks, with 
two- and three-person rooms and 
kitchenettes, rival any in the Army. 

The motor parks have vehicle 
shelters and the maintenance bays 
are heated to protect against the 
harsh northern German winters. 
The motor park is also equipped 
with a high-pressure wash rack for 
tracked vehicles. 

A multipurpose indoor range 
allows soldiers to fire small arms 
regardless of the weather. In the 
range, slide projectors can project 
images of Canadian bull targets for 
zero, or silhouettes for record fire. 
The projected silhouettes are scaled 
to simulate distances up to 350 

Motion picture projectors in 
the range project films of combat 
situations. As soldiers fire at the pic- 
tures of the enemy, the sound of the 
shot stops the film momentarily. 
Lights shining on the back of the 
target screen show through the 

bullet hole, and the soldier can 
whether he hit the enemy. As thcj 
film starts again, the target screen, a 
roll of paper, moves slightly.] 
Another roll of paper behind it also' 
moves slightly in the opposite direc- 
tion, so that the bullet hole is no 
longer visible. 

The range is even large ] 
enough to accommodate tanks, 
which can simulate firing with a 
laser device. 

Family housing units are lo- 
cated in six areas of the nearby tow n 
of Osterholz-Scharmbeck. The 
housing is modern and intentionally 
resembles the surrounding civilian 
neighborhoods. The integration ^ 
puts Germans and Americans into . 
closer contact to help build better! 
relations. \ 

A community center forf 
youth activities, child care and com-1 
missary shopping is also located in| 
the town, as is the U.S. school. The] 
school, which has grades kindergar-j 
ten through high school, is within a| 
mile of all housing areas. 

As the only major U.S. unit 
in northern Germany, the 2nd AD 
(Fwd) was once considered a novelty 
by the local Germans. The soldiers 
and their families have since been 
accepted as part of the community? 
and have come to consider Oster-- 





holz-Scharmbeck their “home- 

“Garlstedt is nothing more 
than a sign on the road outside the 
gate,” Carson said. “We are a part 
of Osterholz-Scharmbeck.” 

Soldiers of the 2nd AD (Fwd) 
are proud of the bonds of friendship 
they have formed with the commu- 
nity of Osterholz-Scharmbeck. 

Germans and Americans 
have come to know one another 

through the 400-member German- 
American Club and the Kontakt 
club, which offers younger soldiers 
and their families a chance to social- 
ize with young Germans. Also, the 
New Neighbor Program pairs Ger- 
man and American families of 
similar backgrounds and interests. 

A local farmer — the town’s 
second deputy mayor — recently pre- 
sented the brigade with a horse 
named Appelkorn, which is now a 

Members of the 2nd Armored Division « ; ' 

(Forward) stand formation at Clay 
Kaserne, which the Germans built i j 

especially for the U.S. troops. • Below, 
soldiers take brisk PT in the streets. 

mascot. Americans are welcomed at 
the local all-weather swimming 
pool, guest houses and the commu- 
nity’s St. Wille Hade church. 

For those who wish to wan- 
der a little farther afield during their 
off-duty hours, the port city of 
Bremerhaven offers a variety of 
sights. The attractions include the 
Zoo by the Sea, the German Mari- 
time Museum, an art gallery, wind- 
surfing, water skiing, boating and 
seafood restaurants. 

When there is no time to go 
to town, soldiers can find plenty to 
do at Clay Kaserne. The community 
club has separate lounges and dining 
rooms for officers and NCOs, plus a 
lounge and snack bar for junior en- 

The recreation center has a 
crafts shop, the usual assortment of 
pool tables, video, board and card 
games, as well as nine sound mod- 
ules in the music center. Soldiers can 
check out instruments and play to 
their hearts’ content in the sound- 
proofed modules. 

“One of the modules is 


MAY 1983 

Soldiers of the 2nd Armored Division (Forward) can practice marksmanship at Clay 
Kaserne at any time. Their modern multipurpose indoor range uses motion picture pro- 
jectors and a special two-reel scrolling paper backdrop to show targets and hits. 

equipped as a professional four- 
track recording studio,” said Rox- 
anne Silbaugh, assistant director. 
‘‘Another one is big enough for an 
eight-man band.” 

Silbaugh and director Linda 
Tarpley work hard at keeping sol- 
diers entertained. Just before the 
unit moved out for Exercise Starke 
Wehr, one of last fall’s Autumn 
Forge exercises, Silbaugh and Tar- 
pley posted a sign-up roster for any- 
one who wanted to receive a box of 
goodies in the field. 

‘‘To our surprise, over 300 
people signed up,” Silbaugh said. 
‘‘We worked for eight days, baking 
over 2,600 cookies and 600 each of 
several kinds of cupcakes, as well as 
fudge. But everybody who signed up 
got a box.” 

The Kaserne Community 
Center contains a PX, bank, post 
office, theater and snack bar. Other 
activities include a bowling alley, 
library and education center. 

Soldiers are encouraged to 
take advantage of a wide variety of 
educational programs, and soldiers 
are given a Basic Skills Education 
Program diagnostic test when they 
go through the Hell on Wheels 

Named after the division’s 

motto, the academy is a two-week 
school at which newly assigned sol- 
diers receive Headstart or Gateway 
instruction and a unit orientation. 

‘‘We set the standards,” said 
SFC Balhazar Sovarzo, HOW Acad- 
emy NCOIC. Those standards are 
high. Spit shines, sharp uniforms 
and regulation haircuts are the 
norm, not the exception. Those who 
won’t meet the standards soon find 
themselves being processed for a 

‘‘We get rid of the duds and 
bums so we can concentrate on the 
good soldiers,” said Brig. Gen. 
George R. Stotser, 2nd AD (Fwd) 
commander. Everybody gets a 
couple of chances to foul up, but the 
third time is usually the last, Stotser 

‘‘There’s no room for rag- 
bags here,” added SFC Ronald 
McElliott, a platoon sergeant in 
Company B, 2/50 Infantry. 

Not all soldiers take willingly 
to the tough discipline, but the ma- 
jority seem to. As a matter of pride, 
soldiers in civilian clothing routinely 
salute officers voluntarily. 

The 3/41st Infantry soldiers 
regularly take PT in flak jackets or 
field gear. On the mornings of their 
battalion runs, the commander 

moves to the side of the road at tb# 
end of the run. With his staff sand} ' 
ing behind him, he salutes dw 
passing soldiers, who cheer as , 
go by. 1 ^ 

The soldiers also take a let « 
pride in their training. Being ih^ 
only U.S. unit in the area, they 
frequent opponunities to train * 
German soldiers and other NATO » 

During Starke Wehr, tfaa i 
Americans operated as a part of dm 
11th German Panzer Grenada 
Division. The 1st Platoon of Gan^ 
pany C, 3/4Ist Infantry, joined iht 
323rd German Panzer Grenadia ' 
Brigade on tactical maneuvers. 

‘‘It was really great, workiof 
with German troops,” said Sgt, 
Bernard Malloy, one of the platoon^ 
squad leaders. “That’s what 1 
to Germany for. We got to »c how 
they are treated, how they act and 
their day-to-day discipline. It was • 
great learning experience.” f 

Starke Wehr was the first 
time in more than two years that the 
Americans had operated as a bi> 
gade in a German division. Getting 
the whole organization out at once 
gave the 2nd AD (Fwd) a chance to 
test itself on interoperability 
logistical support and tactics. e9 
plained Maj. Anthony Mirra, ass& 
tant operations officer. 

“About 800 vehicles rolled 
out that gate,” Mirra said. “All hiM 
about a half dozen came back uncte 
their own power. Not that thingi 
didn’t break, but when they did, wc 
usually got them fixed on the spttt. 
The 498th Support Battalion people 
were just super.” 

The exercise included aa 
80-kiIometer tractical road march. • 
40-kilometer night move to attat^ 
positions, a 70-kilometer attack and 
a night river crossing. 

“There are a lot of rivers up 
here,” Mirra said. “They are our i 
major obstacle. The river crossing 
was really a necessary experience.” 

If you get a pinpoint for the | 
2nd AD in Germany, rest assured i 
it’s not a mistake. The advance ele- 
ment of the division sits squarely on r 
the northern German plain, evi- 1! 
dence of the U.S. resolve to deter r 
war. They take their jobs seriously j 
and are proud of their mission. □ | 




3rd Infantry Division 

“Marne Division” 

Wuerzburg, West Germany 

ORGANIZED on Nov. 21, 1917, at 
Camp Greene, N.C., the 3rd Infan- 
try Division arrived in France in 
April 1918 and earned its first of six 
World War I battle streamers at 
Chateau-Thierry in May and June. 

On the Marne River in July 
1918, the unit won its nickname. 
The Marne Division, by holding a 
12-kilometer line against heavy Ger- 
man assaults. When the French 
corps commander asked the Marne- 
men whether they could hold, the 
division commander, Maj. Gen. 
Joseph Dickman, said “Nous reste- 
rons la (We’re staying there).” 
Dickman was right. His response 
became the division motto. 

The division left France in 
August 1919 for Camp Pike, Ark., 
where it remained until September 
1921 . The Marnemen then moved to 
Camp Lewis, Wash. 

In May 1942, the division 
moved to Camp Ord, Calif. In 
November 1942, it entered World 
War II, landing in North Africa, 
then going on to Sicily, Anzio and 
the invasion of southern France. 
The division’s action in clearing the 
Colmar Pocket resulted in its being 
awarded the Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion and French Crobc de Guerre 
with Palm. The 3rd Division is also 
credited with 10 campaigns for 
World War II service. 

After occupation duty in 
Germany, the unit rotated to Fort 
Campbell, Ky., in September 1946. 
In December 1948, the division 
moved to Fort Henning, Ga., and 

This article on an Active Army division is one in a 
series compiled from official Army sources by Danny 
M. Johnson, a managemenf analyst who works for the 
assistant chief of staff for intelligence at the Pen- 

Shoulder sleeve Insignia 

later departed for Japan in August 

The Marne Division arrived 
in Korea in November 1950, engaged 
in eight campaigns and was awarded 
two Republic of Korea Presidential 

Unit citations. During the Korean 
War, Marnemen distinguished 
themselves by smashing the “Iron 
Triangle” area north of the 38th 
parallel. This won the division the 
second of its two Korean Presiden- 
tial Unit citations. 

The 3rd Infantry Division 
departed Korea for Fort Henning in 
December 1954 and was rotated to 
Germany in April 1958 under the 
Army Gyroscope program. 

In June 1963, the 3rd Divi- 
sion was reorganized as mechanized 
infantry. Now assigned to VII Corps 
in Germany, the division trains in 
tactical field exercises to fulfill its 
mission as part of the front-line 
shield of NATO. □ 

Men of the 15th Regimental Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, move cautiously up a 
South Korean hillside during an attack on communist Chinese forces near the 38th 
parallel in March 1951. The enemy was driven from the South by the end of the month. 



ONE baseball player’s career made a detour 
into the real bush leagues. A1 Bumbry, 
speedy center fielder for the Baltimore 
Orioles, commanded a tank platoon in 

■ South Vietnam from June 1970 to May 1971 . 
“The Army,” the former first lieute- 
nant said, “taught me responsibility.” 

It takes more than just talent to make 
it to the top in major league baseball, to 
make it to the 1979 World Series and the 
1980 All-Star game. It takes finely tuned 
skills that come from hours of training. It 
takes determination to work through mental 
lows that come with injuries and slumps. 

Bumbry knows what it takes to make 
it to the top in professional sports. With a 
knack for the spectacular, crowd-pleasing 
catch, he has played a decade of major 
league ball. He knows it takes responsibility 
to get the job done — responsibility to the 
club’s other players, to the game, to the fans 
and to himself. 

“It’s up to you what you do,” Bum- 
bry said. “In this game if you don’t perform 
and do your job, somebody’s waiting to take 
over for you. Nothing is guaranteed. You 
have to keep yourself together at all times.” 
Bumbry has brought more to the 
game than the fast feet that make him the 
Birds’ all-time stolen-base leader with 231 
thefts. He also brought a degree from Vir- 
ginia State College and a Bronze Star for 
valor from Vietnam. He made it to the ma- 
jors when he was 26 years old, an age when 
many ballplayers start to think about trading 
in their spikes and bright flannels for the 
oxfords and gray flannels of business. 

Bumbry doesn’t like to talk about his 
wartime experiences. “I feel it’s not some- 
thing you can laugh and joke about.” 

Most of his teammates were in grade 
school or high school while he was in the 
war. With the natural curiosity of young 
men, they’ll ask him about the war. “You go 
i to a party and you’re sitting around shooting 
the breeze,” Bumbry said, “and that topic 
always comes up.” 

He’ll tell them he was fighting so they 
could play baseball. “That’s the only thing I 
tell them when they ask about Vietnam. That 
usually quiets them down.” 

Bumbry and his platoon patrolled the 
outskirts of a city once called Saigon. 

“The thing about war . . . ,” he said, 
and paused. His smile vanished; his eyes 
shifted away from direct contact. Creases on 
his forehead deepened as he knitted his eye- 

“You talk a lot about life and the 
value of life,” he said. “It’s one thing when 

Bunting Tips 

by Al Bumbry, Baltimore Orioles Outfielder 

THE bunt most commonly used is 
the sacrifice bunt, and its proper 
execution involves several steps. 

• Start with your normal 
batting stance. As the pitcher be- 
gins his delivery, start to rotate 
your body on the balls of your feet 
until your body and shoulders are 
squared and you are facing the 
pitcher. Your knees should be 
slightly bent. 

• As you start your rota- 
tion, bring the bat from your shoul- 
der to waist-high position in front 
of your body. Make sure the bat is 
out in front of your body. This is important because as the ball makes 
contact with the bat, you must let the force of the ball take the bat in a 
backward direction. Your arms should be slightly bent at the elbows 
and relaxed, not stiff. 

• As you bring the bat to the ready position, slide your top hand 
up the handle to a position just below the label. Your bottom hand 
should also slide up the handle to a position approximately 6 to 8 
inches from the top hand. 

• Don’t squeeze the bat. Hold it between your thumb and index 
finger. This serves as an axis for the movement of the bat and aids in 
guiding the ball in the direction you have selected for placing the bunt. 

• When placing the bunt, the head of the bat should be pointed 
in the direction you want the ball to go. To drop the bunt toward first 
base, the bat head should be angled toward first. When bunting down 
the third-base line, the head is angled in that direction. Always be sure 
that the bat is in fair territory as this will improve your chances of 
keeping the bunt in fair territory. 

Be sure to watch the pitch from the time it leaves the pitcher’s 
hand. Slowly give in with the bat on contact with the ball. This will help 
deaden the ball and make for a better bunt. Once you have made con- 
tact, run and keep running. Never look back. 

you’re in the states, but it’s another to be out 
there in a war. That’s when you truly realize 
the importance of life. That is, the finality of 
combat — that any second could be your last. 

“You don’t think about that back in 
the states,” Bumbry said. “When you’re in 
combat, all you need is one mistake. And a 
lot of times, it doesn’t even take a mistake. 
That was the big thing that I learned from it: 
the value of life and the things that you do if 
you’re involved. 

“Map reading — you have to learn 
how to read a map,” he said. “When I was 
in school — basic training and all — I never 
passed a map-reading course. When I got to 
Vietnam, I learned fast. It didn’t take me 
that long because I got put into situations 
where, if I didn’t do it, I wouldn’t be around 
the next day.” 

One member of Bumbry’s platoon 
was killed and another was wounded. The 
rest went home. 

These combat veterans returned 
home to a nation that was being torn apart 
by the very war they had fought. There was 
never a hero’s welcome, but that doesn’t 

IM AY 1983 


Baltimore Oriole 
center fielder Al 
Bumbry stops to 
chat with a fan 
at the Baltimore 
Veterans Administra- 
tion Medical Center. 
The Oriole speedster 
was guest speaker 
last year at the 
center’s Veterans 
Day observance. 

bother Bumbry. He feels war isn’t something 
to be celebrated. 

Bumbry returned to a baseball career 
that had been short-circuited when he went 
on active duty. He had gone to Virginia State 
College on a basketball scholarship. But 
there aren’t many pro cagers who stand 5 
feet 8 inches. In his senior year Bumbry 
played baseball, slugging .378 to claim the 
Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association 
batting title. 

He signed with the Orioles system and 
went to the team’s farm club in Stockton, 
Calif. He played 35 games before reporting 
for active duty. 

The first two years of ROTC had 
been required at Bumbry’s college. Between 
his second and third year, he was classified 
1-A, the top category during the draft years. 

“I didn’t want them to take me out of 
school,” he said. “I figured I’d be smart and 
join the advanced course.” Besides, ad- 
vanced ROTC cadets were paid $50 a month, 
big money for a college student in those 
days. What he’d done didn’t strike home for 
another two years. 

“When 1 graduated and raised my 
right hand and took the oath of office, 1 
said, ‘Oh, my God.’ 1 started shivering and 
everything. I hadn’t realized what 1 was 
doing until I raised my right hand. 

“From that point on, 1 started to 
change. You can get cocky being a soldier, 
marching and going to the firing range and 
stuff like that,” he said. “Well, it’s not the 
same thing. 

“When I went to Vietnam, it all hit 
me. First of all, it gave me a sense of respon- 
sibility for the platoon. .At the same time, it 
made me realize the value of life. .And it 
made me realize a lot of the problems that 
we do have here don’t compare to what the 
problems were in the military .” 

With the pressures of the war behind 
him, his baseball career took off. In 1971 he 
went to the Orioles’ .Aberdeen, S.D., farm 
club and hit .336. After 16 months in the 
minors, he moved to the majors in Baltimore 
and has been there ever since. Bumbry hit 
.337 during his first full season w ith the club 
and the American League picked him as its 
1973 Rookie of the Year. 

Bumbry’s 1978 season was cut short 
in May when he broke his left leg sliding into 
second base. After therapy and large doses 
of exercising and running, he came back as a 
pinch-hitter in September and then spent a 
season in the Venezuelan Winter League. He 
snapped back into gear in 1979, the year the 
Orioles blew a 3-1 World Series lead to the 
Pittsburgh Pirates. 

The club named him the .Most Valu- 
able Oriole at the end of the 1980 season, a 
banner year for Bumbry in which he led the 
team with a batting mark of .318. 

Last year was “horrible,” said Bum- 
bry, as one bad day led to another and yielded 
a .262 season at the plate. But determination 
paid off, and he hit safely in his last II 
games of the year at a .364 clip. It was the 
last day of the regular season that Milwau- 
kee claimed the American League East 
crown by drubbing the Orioles 10-2. 

During the off-season, Bumbry 
makes numerous appearances for the 
Orioles’ Speakers’ Bureau and plays for the 
club’s basketball team. .Active in the com- 
munity and fond of Baltimore, Bumbry- 
finished second to Ken Singleton in the 1981 
balloting for the Roberto Clemente .Award, 
presented annually by major league baseball 
to the player who best exemplifies the game 
on and off the field. 

Bumbry has recently become involved 
in a number of charities including the Mary- 
land League for the Handicapped, the Santa 
Claus Anonymous Fund, Maryland Special 
Olympics, the Muscular Dystrophy Founda- 
tion and the Junior League of Baltimore. He 
makes frequent visits to veterans hospitals. 

Bumbry predicts a strong year for the 
Birds. The team, he said, knows how to w in. 
“If the guys can stay healthy and play up to 
their potential, they can take the pennant. It 
won’t be a cakewalk. But we can have a suc- 
cessful season. The bottom line is winning 
the World Series.” □ 



Gilman Goes for Gold 

WASHINGTON, D.C.— Capt. Dave Gilman, Oakland Army 
Base, Calif., has won the Touchdown Club’s Timmie 
^ward as Military Athlete of the Year for 1982. Gilman 
'eceived the award for his competition in kayaking. 

From the first time he saw a kayak in 1974, it didn’t 
:ake him long to become world class competitor. Gilman 
was on the 1976 and 1980 U.S. Olympic kayak teams. 

And if that wasn’t enough to keep him busy, he 
turned his attention to the luge. “I was finding it hard to 
Hnotivate myself,” Gilman said. “It takes two to four 
minutes to run a kayak race. But the luge is a sprint and 
totally demanding for 40 seconds.” 

A luge is a 40-pound sled. The “slider” lies back on 
;he sled with toes pointed downhill and steers the sled by 
[applying pressure to the right or left sides. The object is 
CO make it down the course. 

In January, Gilman’s training paid off when he 
jiiade the U.S. National Luge team. He now has a new 
goal to shoot for: Should he make both the kayak and 
uge teams, Gilman will be the first American to compete 
^n the same year’s summer and winter Olympics. 


Seven Skiers Score 

rOBYHANNA ARMY DEPOT, Pa.— Seven members of the 
depot’s ski team captured first place in the Mid-Atlantic 
^nter-lnstallation Athletic Conference Grand Slalom 

! The team, with a combined average time of 50.28 
seconds, beat the Fort Ritchie, Md., team (52.44) and 
Carlisle Barracks, Pa. (53.25). Forty-three skiers from 
seven installations competed in the race. 

Coaches Needed for USMAPS 

FORT MONMOUTH, N.J.— The U.S. Military Academy 
Preparatory School is looking for a few good 03Cs, but 
there are some strings attached. The prep school needs 
soldiers for coaches in the varsity athletic program. 
Interested soldiers must be E-5 or below, and have a mini- 
mum of 2 years’ playing experience in basketball, foot- 
ball, lacrosse, swimming, track, volleyball or wrestling. If 
you meet the requirements, send your resume to: Robert 
Mueller, Athletic Director, USMA Preparatory School, 
Fort Monmouth, N.J. 07703. 

All-Army Snatches Victory 

MARINE RECRUIT DEPOT, Calif.— The All-Army weight- 
lifters snatched first place in the interservice powerlifting 
championship in February, with a total of 31 points. 

Second place went to the Air Force, 28 points; 
third. Marines with 27 points; and fourth, the Navy with 15 
points. Lifters are required to compete in three events: 
bench press, squat and dead lift. The best lift, or heaviest 
weight for each event, is added together for a total lift. 

First place Army winners were (114-lb. class) Sp4 
August Clark, 892 pounds; (123 lbs.) Sgt. Joe Robinson, 
1,041 pounds; (148 lbs.) SSgt. Joe Dawson, 1,355 pounds; 
(181 lbs.) Capt. Bruce Takala, 1 ,625 pounds; and (198 lbs.) 
Capt. Joe Walden, 1,714 pounds. Second place went to 
(148 lbs.) Sgt. Ray Baxter, 1,350 pounds, and third place 
to (198 lbs.) Sp4 Mozell Hicks, 1,576 pounds. 

A total of 15 soldiers from stateside posts, Pan- 
ama, Hawaii and Europe participated. 

McKinney’s 3rd First 


SSgt. Dewayne McKinney 
captured first place for the 
third consecutive year in 
the Longstreet Race held 
here in March. 

McKinney, a mem- 
ber of the All-Army Mara- 
thon Team, took the lead 
for good at the five-mile 
marker and won the race 
in 1:54:57. Second place 
went to 1st Lt. John Zizzi, 


A throng of 1,014 
runners began the race, 
with 838 completing it 
under five hours. 

MAY 1983 


SSgt. Gary Kieffer 


SSgt. Terri Wiram 

THE largest building in the U.S. Army 
might also be the most important to the 

It covers 14 acres, is one-fifth of a 
mile long and has 1.6 million square feet of 
office space. The building is the U.S. Army 
Finance and Accounting Center, Fort Ben- 
jamin Harrison, Ind. 

The center is responsible for adminis- 
tering $81 billion of the taxpayers’ money. 
About $61 billion of that is the Army’s 
budget. Each month the center pays more 
than 805,000 Active Army soldiers, 657,000 
Army Reserve and National Guard members, 
and 539,000 Army retirees and annuitants. 
The Army’s budget also finances equipment 
and supplies such as tanks and ammunition. 

But that isn’t all that the finance 
center does. Part of the $81 billion budget 
pays 44,000 Department of Labor Job Corps 

Moving people, equipment and sup- 
plies also brings about 264,000 transporta- 
tion bills to the center. It pays these bills for 
the Army, Air Force and Office of the Secre- 
tary of Defense. The center processes 1 .6 
million allotments and issues more than 
80,000 savings bonds. Each year, all of this 
adds up to more than 300 million pay and 
financial transactions. 

The center began operation in 1953. 
and required a staff of 6,000 people. .A great 
deal of the work was done by hand. That 
began to change almost from the beginning. 
The finance center was a pioneer computer 
user and has been an automated data proc- i 
essing innovator. Today, the center has one 
of the world’s most advanced computers and 
is able to operate with half the number of 
people it had in 1953. 

Because of computers. .Army paydays 
are now almost totally cashless. Soldiers ' 
receive checks or direct-deposit credits. That 
hasn’t been the only change. Computers ■ 
make it possible for the center to gi\e | 
soldiers a valuable tool: the monthly Leave 
and Earnings Statement. I 

Much of the information on an LES ‘ 
is nuts and bolts, such as name and grade. 
That’s probably why some soldiers skip 
everything past ‘‘Net Pay Due” and why . 
others are too embarrassed to ask questions < 
about confusing parts. 

In ‘‘Anatomy of a Paycheck." 
SOLDIERS looks at pay, allowances and the 
LES. Never underestimate the modest- 
looking LES. Every block is important for 
what it says or doesn't say. Compare your ' 
latest LES with our sample to find out 
what’s going on. . 







Basic Pay 


Pay for soldiers on active duty or inactive duty for 

Based on pay grade and time 
in service. 

Hazardous Duty 

Incentive pay for performing hazardous jobs 
such as flight duty, demolition duty, parachute 
duty, submarine duty, flight deck duty, and experi- 
mental stress duty. 

Non-crew: Officers, $110 per 
month; Enlisted, $83. 

Crew: Officers, $125 to $350; 
Enlisted, $83 to $131. 

I Diving Pay 

Special pay for enlisted and officers performing 
diving as a part of their jobs. 

Officers - Up to $200 per month 
Enlisted - Master diver - $300 

Diver 1st Class - $175 
Salvage Diver - $135 
Diver 2nd Class - $100 
Scuba Diver - $100 

Combat Diver - $175 

Foreign Pay 

Special pay for enlisted soldiers working in cer- 
tain overseas areas such as Korea and some 
places in Germany and Japan. 

Varies from $8 for E-1 to $22.50 
for E-9 per month. 

Overseas Pay 

Incentive pay for soldiers in specific skills and 
grades to extend their tour overseas. DA Circular 
614-81-1 contains specific information. 

$50 per month, if alternate 
incentive is not elected. 

Hostile Fire Pay Special pay for soldiers normally serving in desig- $65 per month 
nated hostile fire areas, not during time of 
declared war. Examples of past hostile fire areas 
are Vietnam and Cambodia. Also, soldiers sub- 
' jected to hostile fire may be individually certified 

under AR 37-104-3. 

Proficiency Pay 

Special pay for serving in critical skills or special 
assignments. Three areas of pro pay include 
shortage specialty pay, special duty assignment 
pay and superior performance pay. Currently, only 
drill sergeants, career counselors and recruiters 
receive special duty pay. 

Career Counselor - $50 per 

Drill Sergeant - 0-6 months of 
duty - $50 

6-12 months of duty - 

more than 12 months 

Recruiter - 1-3 months of duty 

3-9 months of duty - 

more than 9 months - 

Aviation Career 

Incentive pay for aviation officers and warrant offi- 
cers to encourage continued service in aviation. 

Varies with years of aviation 
service from $125 to $400. 

Medical Pay 

Special pays for health professionals. 

Varies with type of medical 


Special pays for enlistments and re-enlistments of 
members in the Active and Reserve components. 
Bonuses are determined by the needs of the Army. 

Varies with type of bonus. 

Aviation Career 

Special pay for aviation officers who extend duty 

Based on years of service. 

Officers Pay 

by written agreement. 

I AY 1983 


Block 1: Service Member's Name. 

Block 5: Social Security Number — The "V" in the 
shaded area of this block means the SSN has been 
verified with the Social Security Administration and 
MILPERCEN. To the right of Block 5 is "Net Pay Due." 
which is the amount of money to be paid at the end of 
the month. 

Block 2: Unit Identification Code — Identities wt>ere 
service member is assigned The shaded pair to the 
right for the Training Category Code indicates Reserve 
Component training pay category code 

Block 3: Pay Grade — Jones is an E-6 

Block 4: Period Covered — The period lor which you 
are being paid 



i (LAST. FIRST. Ml) 




1 UNIT <6*co6c^ 

•YiKi c*r> ^A* 4 

.cool |L(U£«r 


01-31 MAY 

5. SOC. SEC NO. 






• other COLLCCTiCNS 




W type 


L 1 




1102 jso 







12 '00 



1 oosgVi 



145 08, 





303 30 











188 05 








V 25100 

■ -- ' . 4 . ., 



Block •; Amount Brought Porward — E~ 
payments are even doBa< amotpila The 
shown was brought forward from 

Block 10: Total Enmiemenis — All pay due 
taies and allotments are deducted This 
matches the total from block 6 

Block 11; ASotment CoAectons — Tout ef 
allotments from block 7 

Block 12: Other CoSectorts — Total dedw>.i«^ 
block 8 

Block 13: Net Earnings — Net or laAe-homa pay 

Block 14: Mid-Month Pay — Jones lecewes part ol 
pay at mid-month Midmonth pay can be up to 
half of the total monthly net pay 

Block IS: End of Month Pay — Ramarnder of pay 

Block 16: Amount to be Brought Porwa.’d — 
have 16 cents added to lus June pay — this i 
up m block 9 of the June LES 

Block 6: Entitlements — The money Jones has earned. 

It includes basic pay, basic allowance for quarters, 
clothing allowance, separate rations and variable 
housing allowance. All pay and allowances earned are 
listed here. 

Block 7: Allotment Collections — Jones has an allot- 
ment to a financial institution (FININ) and a donation 
to the Combined Federal Campaign. An allotment is 
money that you have asked finance to take out of your 

Block 17: Slate and Federal Income This Period — Pay 
that is taxable by the state and federal government for 
the month. Allowances are not taxable. 

Block 18: Federal Income Year to Date — Pay earned 
so far this year that is taxable by the federal govern- 

Block 6: Other Collections — These collections can be 
either voluntary or involuntary. In this block you will 
find federal (and state, if applicable) Income tax 
deductions as well as the amount withheld tor FICA 
(Federal Income Contributions Act. better known as 
Social Security). Other deductions are for Service- 
men's Group Life Insurance and lor the U.S. Soldiers 
and Airmen's Home. Advanced or casual pay collec- 
tions. previous overpayments or statement-of<harges 
collections will also appear. 

Block 19: Federal Tax Year to Date — Federal income 
that has been withheld from Jones' pay this year. 

17 AT A FfO MC [ 


(l9 FCO TAX TtAA^M FID |}1 7} AM 

a F’CA «Ao« j 

1101 i80l 

55J4 j 0( 

i 527 I70i M2 1 


Block 20: Federal Exemptions — Marital status arid 
number of exemptions claimed by Jones lor federal 
tax withholding purposes. "M " means "married' arxl 
"S" means "single. " 

Block 21: Federal Additional Tax Withheld — Amount 
of any additional tederal income lax withheld at 
member's request. 

Block 22: FICA Wage — Pay subiect to FICA tax lor 
” the month 

Block 23: FICA Wage Year to Dale — Pay so far this 
year subiect to FICA tax 

Block 24: FICA Tax Year to Date — Amount of FICA 
lax withheld this year 


r |m tTATt ulm 


nnl 7 1 



j u r 

, I ‘ 

05:42 o' ->->je-.nn_L 44 

Block 25: State Code — State In which Jones cl 
legal residency. He is from Ohio (OH), which has a 
state tax (T). States with no tax have an "N" alter the 
state abbreviation. 

Block 27: Slate Additional Tax Withheld — Amount of 
additional state income tax withheld at member^ 

Block 26: Stale Exemptions — Marital status and 
number of exemptions claimed lor stale tax withhold- 
ing purposes. Entry does not have to match block 20 



Block 29: State Tax Year to Date — Amount of state 
tax that has been withheld from Jones’ pay this year. 

Block 30: Beginning Leave Balance — Number of 
days' leave Jones had at the start of the fiscal year. 
Fiscal years begin Oct. 1 and end Sept. 30. 

fit no INC vf 4 







ctaTE f""" 

Block 35; Leave Paid — Total number of days' leave a 
soldier has cashed in after Feb. 9, 1976. (Not more 
than 60 days during career.) 

Block 31; Leave Earned — The leave Jones has earned 
since Oct. 1, 1982. For each full month in a duty 
^tus, you earn 2 V 2 days of leave. 

Block 28; State Income Year to Date - 
year that Is taxable by the state. 

Pay so far this 

Block 32; Leave Used — Leave used since Oct. 1 , 1982. 

Block 33; End Leave Balance — Number of days' leave 
Jones has left. A minus (-) balance would mean 
Jones had used leave which was advanced or loaned 
to him. 

Block 34; Any leave not accrued because of AWOL or con- 
finement, or because excess leave was taken. You may use 
up to 45 days' advanced leave 
- without being charged for excess 
" leave taken providing you have 
enough time left before your ETS 
to earn that amount of leave. 
; A Otherwise, you may use only the 

- ^ ■ -•‘-I ^ amount you will earn before ETS. 

I Any over that will be charged as 

I excess leave. 

Block 38; Balance Due U S. — This is the amount 
owed to the government for things like reimbursing 
advanced pay or a prorated report of survey. 

Block 37; Total Accrual — Total amount of block 36 for 
the year, minus any amounts you have withdrawn. 

Block 36; Monthly Accrual — Amount requested to be 
withheld and kept in-a "savings" account at the U.S. 

Army Finahce and Accounting Center, (USAFAC), Fort 
Benjamin Harrison, Ind. The money may be withdrawn 
in whole or in part at any time. Usually this option is 
used during a war. 

Block 42; Sex, Service, dual status code — Jones is a 
male (M), Regular Army (R), has no dual status (N). 
Dual status might be an enlisted or a warrant officer 
holding a commission in the inactive reserve. Other 
symbols include: F (female). G (Guard), and V 

Block 40; Disbursing Station Symbol Number — Iden- 
tifies the finance office which maintains Jones' pay 

Remarks — Shows pay option chosen and 
changes in service member's pay, allow- 
id so forth. 

Block 43; Other Pay Entry Date — This date is used for 
clothing maintenance allowance and medical/dental 
pay. If Jones had a break in military service of more 
than 90 days, the OPED would be the date he came 
back on active duty. 

Block 44; Pay Entry Basic Date — The date from which 
Jones' pay is based. Normally, the date on which you 
enter active duty. Additional credit is 
given for time spent in the Reserve 
Components or in other government 
_ service. 

Block 45; Basic Active Service Date/Aviation Service 
Entry Date (for aviation officers) — The BASD is thei 
date Jones came on active duty. ASED is the date 
when aviation officers graduate from flight school. 

Block 46; Total Federal Officer Service — Number of 
years an officer has held commissioned status. 

Block 47; Years of service for pay purposes. Based on 
the date in block 44. 

Block 48; Expiration of Term of Service date — Jones' 
current enlistment ends on June 23, 1983. 

Block 50; Adjusted Leave Balance — Leave accrued 
before Aug. 31, 1976. Before this date, soldiers were 
paid certain entitlements (Basic pay, BAS, BAQ) it 
they cashed in any leave at re-enlistment or ETS. 
Since then, soldiers only receive basic pay for any 
leave cashed in. The number in block 50 is the number 
of days a soldier can cash in and receive these en- 

Block 49; Payroll number — A code indicating the 
soldier's accounting fund and his or her unit 

AY 1983 



Basic Allowance 
for Subsistence 

Basic Allowance 
for Quarters 

Variable Housing 

Cost of Living 

Station Housing 
Allowance (and 
Rent Plus) 




Family Separation 



An allowance for meals. Paid automatically to 
officers. Paid to enlisted members when author- 
ized to mess separately, or when it is impractical 
or impossible to provide rations in kind (food pro- 
vided by the Army). Those who are authorized to 
live outside the barracks generally get BAS. 

A housing allowance for those authorized to live 
off-post or for the support of dependents. Soldiers 
with dependents, unless they live in government 
quarters, receive BAQ. Also eligible: soldiers with- 
out dependents and for whom adequate govern- 
ment quarters are not available; and all single offi- 
cers and NCOS in pay grade E-7 and above if they 
decline bachelor housing. A partial "without de- 
pendents” rate is paid to single soldiers living in 
government quarters. This pay offsets the loss of 
basic pay from the reallocation of pay into allow- 
ances in 1977 and 1978. Other unique situations 
may entitle a soldier to BAQ. 

The difference between BAQ and the actual cost 
of housing. Paid to soldiers in CONUS who draw 
BAQ and live in an area where the average rent is 
at least 15 percent more than their BAQ. Congress 
set aside this formula in FY 83 with the current 
pay cap. Soldiers serving unaccompanied over- 
seas tours and whose dependents don't live in 
government quarters are paid VHA at the rate for 
the area in which their dependents live. 

Paid to soldiers stationed overseas to offset the 
expense of living in an overseas area where goods 
and services are higher than in the United States. 
COLA is determined by the difference between 
U.S. and foreign exchange rates. 

Helps make up the difference between BAQ and 
the average housing costs in an overseas area. 
For soldiers living in non-government housing out- 
side of CONUS. Rent Plus is replacing SHA. Under 
this program, soldiers who rent within established 
rental caps are reimbursed their actual rental 
costs plus a monthly utility allowance and start- 
up/terminal occupancy costs. 

An allowance paid to enlisted personnel begin- 
ning in their seventh month of active service to re- 
place uniforms. 

Paid to soldiers separated from dependents for 30 
or more continuous days because dependents are 
not allowed to accompany them on TOY or PCS. 
Allowance is paid to defray unexpected expenses. 
Type 1 is paid to soldiers regardless of rank when 
the soldier is permanently assigned outside the 
United States, or in Alaska, when movement of de- 
pendents at government expense is not author- 
ized, and government quarters are not available. 
Type 2 is paid to soldiers where dependent travel 
at government expense is not authorized either in 
CQNUS or overseas. 


Officers— $98.17monttrty. 1 
Enlisted Members — i 

When on leave, hospitalized, * 
TOY or when authorized to 
mess separately: S4.6&day. ; 

When rations in-kind are not 
available: $5.29/day. , 

When assigned to duty un- | 
der emergency conditions 
where no U.S. dining facilities ^ 
are available: $7/day. 

Rates vary based on grade and 
whether the soldier has de- 

Depends on geographic loca- 
tion, pay grade and whether 
soldier has dependents. 

Based on rank, location of as- 
signment, number of depend- 
ents and the average cost of 
living, other than housing. 
Rate may be changed or elim- 
inated, based on the area's 

Rates vary based on location. 


7 to 36 months - $8.40 men» 
$9.90 women. After 36th month 
- $12 men/$14.10 women. 

Type 1 - BAQ w/o dependents ’ 
at your pay grade. 

Type 2 - $1 per day - no more ' 
than $30 monthly. j 



Can you connect the numberless dots in panel 2 and copy 
EXACTLY the panel 1 picture? 


“Personally I think a Mother’s 
Day card from your men is a 
nice gesture, sergeant.” 

MAY 1983 



• The Army places strong emphasis on 
running because it's the most practical way to 
get people into good shape in a reasonable 
amount of time. 

You may not have to run to the next war, 
but the fact is you'll need a lot of energy and 
endurance if you're going to work long hours 
digging foxholes, changing tires, carrying litters, 
building bridges — and are then ordered to defend 
your headquarters. 

One way to ensure soldiers have the endur- 
ance they'll need is to spend at least three or 
four hours a week in appropriate PT. 

The activity must drive the heart rate past 
125 to 130 beats per minute and hold that level 
for 20 to 30 minutes. Running, cross-country 
skiing, cycling, swimming and speed marching 
are excellent. Sports such as basketball, flag 
football, lacrosse and handball are also good if 
the player is in the game continuously. 

Jogging and running are practical, but care 
must be taken to avoid injuries. Before and after 
running, stretch the legs. If you're over 35, 
stretching is even more important to prevent 
injuries. Take care to drink water before and 
after sustained exercise even though you may not 
feel thirsty. 

Reduce your exertion in hot, 
humid weather and remember that 
sustained effort under these condi- 
tions can be dangerous if you're out 
of shape. In cold weather, wear 
several layers of clothing rather 
than one heavy set, and keep your 
head covered because most of the 
heat you lose is through the scalp. 

Select running shoes that 
have a thick, flexible sole with a 
heel that's raised higher than the 
toe, a comfortable arch, and 
sufficient width and length for foot 
expansion during exercise. 

Seek immediate medical help 
if you should ever note that you’ve 
stopped perspiring, your pulse or 
heartbeat becomes irregular, 
there's pain or discomfort in your 
chest, or you have a marked shortness of breath. 
Rest if you develop a limp or acute soreness in 
your feet, legs or hips— get medical help if the 
condition persists. 

Young, healthy people can gradually reach 
a high level of endurance in eight to 12 weeks of 
progressive training. Persons over 35 who are 
generally healthy but still out of shape may take 
longer. A common-sense, gradual program 
should be the general rule in any case. 

During the early weeks of running, most 
persons respond best to running every other day. 
You can safely increase the amount of running 
time by 5 percent every week. After the third 
week, cut back for a week to give your muscles, 
bones and ligaments a chance to adjust to their 
new lifestyle. 

Running four to six days a week can be 
tried safely after the early weeks, providing you 
alternate between hard and easy workouts. For a 
person in good condition, an easy workout might 
be 20 to 25 minutes of strenuous exercise and a 
hard one, 40 to 45 minutes. Likewise, a beginner 
might be taxed by a 10-minute run. 

(Condensed from an article by Col. Fred R. 
Drews, director of the Army Physical Fitness 
Research Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.) 





(More What’s New on Pages 2, 56) 

USAR Pickier 

• Stiffer educational require- 
ments have gone into effect for 
Army Reserve recruiting. Now, 
people will be considered non-high 
school graduates if they have only 
GED credit rather than high school 
diplomas. Another policy limits 
the number of non-high school 
graduate, non-prior service en- 

SBP Open Season 

• Many reservists and former 
reservists who are eligible for re- 
tirement can enroll in the Reserve 
Component Survivor Benefit Pro- 
gram during an open enrollment 
which will continue through Sept. 
30. If you were under age 60 and 
had earned 20 years of retirement- 
qualifying service by Aug. 13, 1981, 
this open season applies to you. 
Program coverage can provide sur- 
vivors with up to 55 percent of the 
reservist's retirement pay. Call 
(800) 325-8311 for details. 

New Video Trainer 

• The Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, 
Okla., may have the world's largest video game 
in the Training Set, Fire Observation, left. TSFO 
can be used by up to 30 students at a time. It 
uses slides and a 16-foot by 6-foot screen to 
produce terrain scenes, targets and simulated 
artillery fire. 

When an observer identifies a target, he 
must decide how to neutralize or destroy it. 
TSFO can accept a variety of missions, simulat- 
ing target engagements with high explosive, 
smoke and illumination projectiles. Fire missions 
can be replayed to allow instructor critiques. 

TSFO is being fielded to Active Army field 
artillery units, TRADOC schools and the Reserve 
Components. The Army is scheduled to have 62 
sets in operation worldwide by late 1983. 


Joint Domicile Program 

• Since the Army announced a program in which all married 
Army couples could be automatically considered for a joint domicile, 
less than half of the 15,000 known married Army couples have 
applied. The new program eliminates the need for soldiers to apply 
for joint domicile each time their spouses receive reassignment 
orders for a new duty station. 

Military Personnel Center officials attribute the low rate of 
participation to the fact that not all married Army couples know 
about the program. 

To be included in the new Married Army Couple Reassignment 
Program, a couple must first make a one-time submission of a DA 
Form 4187 (Request for Personnel Action) and a Married Army 
Couple Data Code Sheet to the local military personnel office. Only 
one member has to apply, but both signatures must be on the form. 

Once this is done, the couple will be considered for a joint 
domicile in all future assignments. The program reduces paperwork, 
anxiety and inconvenience, but it doesn't guarantee couples will 
receive joint domicile assignments. 

Couples can withdraw from the program by submitting the 
same forms and stating that desire. 

Soldiers who are married to members of other services are not 
covered by this program. They must submit an ordinary request for 
reassignment to a specific location, indicating the reason for the 
request. The individual must complete at least 12 months at the 
present duty station and be able to complete at least 12 months at 
the new station. 

(More What’s New on Pages 2. 

• The ball sitting atop the OH-58 helicopter in the painting 
above is the primary new item being added to the aircraft under the 
Army Helicopter Improvement Program. The item is a mast- 
mounted sight on a pylon about 32 inches above the rotor blades. 
The sight will contain a laser designator, day TV, and a forward- 
looking infrared sensor. Operating like a periscope, the sight will 
allow the observation helicopter to stay hidden from enemy weapons 
while the crew searches for targets, and then calls in attack craft or 
artillery. Also, the cockpit will be completely redesigned, and 
upgraded engines and transmissions will be installed. First flight of 
the modified helicopter is scheduled shortly. 

• E-7s and above who are 
married to other service members 
may now decline government hous- 
ing and collect housing allowances 
instead. They had been excli 
from this option. A serv'ice mem- 
ber who decides to collect housr 
allowances may not occupy t 
spouse's government quarters. If 
an E-7 or above is married to an E- 
6 or below, only the higher^ranki 
member may choose between t 
options. The option may be deni 
if the installation commander de- 
termines that it will have an ad- 
verse impact on military readin 
or discipline. 

More information is available 
at installation housing offices. 

• The 1983 Army Emergenc 
Relief fund drive is still in pro- 
gress. Your contributions can help 
the Army take care of its own. 

Answers to The Lighter Side (page S3) 

Enlisted Club Managers Sought 

• Soldiers in grades E-5 to E-7 are sought for the Club 
Management Career Program. To qualify, NCOs must liave less than 
16 years' service, and experience in food service, business adminis- 
tration or financial management. Change 1 to Army Regulation 
614-200, Section VII, Chapter 7, has more details. 

Payday and Not a Day Earlier 

• A change in the way the Army makes direct pay deposits may 
cause some soldiers to alter their check-writing habits. Using the 
controlled Federal Reserve Bank method of transfer, the Army now 
makes pay available to financial institutions on payday, not before. 
Previously, the Army mailed checks. Some banks received them 
early and credited them to soldiers' accounts before payday. 




Mm m 





The start on the road to becoming a soldier. 

Everything is new to you, from the clothes you wear, to 
the chow you eat, to the people in your squad. First call 
is long before the sun rises and lights out long after the 
sun has set. There’s first aid and PT, rifle marksmanship 
and PT, dismounted drill and PT, long marches and PT— 
and just PT. And there’s always your drill sergeant, 
pushing, teaching and leading you through the day. At 
first he is the meanest, toughest, grisliest person you 
have ever met. And according to him, your squad has no 
hope for the future. But near the end, you begin to 
understand him. He was right there in the rain and cold 
and on the marches with you. And somehow your squad 
managed to make it through. Basic training, for the first 
time, the second time and those who get you through, 
starts on page 9. 


John O. Marsh Jr. 

Secretary of the Army 

JUNE 1983 VOLUME 38, NO. 6 

Gen. E.C. Meyer Ma). Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. 

Chief of Staff Chief of Public Affairs 








Wheeling and Dealing 

Consumer tips for buying used cars 

Eight Weeks and Counting 

Basic training marks the birth of the soldier 

Drill Sergeant School 

Bringing new meaning to the word “dedication” 


As it was in the beginning, is now and . . . 

Back to Basic(s) 

The second time around’s not bad, 1982 vs. 1963 

Reliving D-Day 

Re-enactment at Fort Story, Va. 

Me and a Truck Named Sharon 

King — and queen — of the road 

Taking the Army to the People 

The Army rolls into the crossroads of America 

Spanning the Mighty Mo 

South Dakota and Fort Riley, Kan., join forces 

Das Deutsche Heer 

Life in the West German army today 

Aerobic Dancing: Working Out to the Beat 

The music makes it fun 

Aerobic Dancer: Working Out to the Beat 

She spreads the word every chance she gets 

Behind the Walls 

PAGE 15 

PAGE 23 

The military’s “big house 

’ at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 


What’s New 






Sports Stop 




Lighter Side 




Dateline: Excellence 

PAGE 28 

Credits: Front cover by SFC Michael A. Brown; inside front cover by Capt. Thomas A. Williams; inside back cover, 
ktaff photograph; and back cover by Bill C. Walton. 

Editor in Chief, Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor, Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor. Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor, 
’^a|. Keith P. Schheider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Associate Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SFC Norman Oliver. SSgt. Vic- 
dria Mouze. SSgt. Terri Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, Sp5 Cecil M. Stack Jr.; Executive Secretary, Sharon Stewart; and Secretary, Dolores King. 

jiOLDIERS (ISSN 9903-8440) is published monthly under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timely, factual information on policies, plans, operations and 
.echnical developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Army civilian 
mployees. It also conveys views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in achieving information ob- 
ictives of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is authorized to: Editor, SOLDIERS. Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 
12314. ■ Phone; AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial (202) 274-6671. ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for cartoons, “by permission” and copyright items), material may 
e reprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. ■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military distribution: From the Army Adjutant 
leneral Publications Center. 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore. Md. 21220, in accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by commanders. ■ Individual paid subscrip- 
ons ($31 annually to stateside and APO addresses and $38.75 to foreign addresses) are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Vashington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department of the Army, Dec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number: UA 23.A1S6. ■ 
econd class postage paid at Alexandria, Va.. and at additional mailing offices. ■ POSTMASTER: Send address changes to SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314. 

Thurman to Vice Chief 

• Lt. Gen. Maxwell R. Thurman has been 
tapped to be the next Army vice chief of staff. 
The appointment carries with it a promotion to 
four-star general. 

He will replace Gen. John A. Wickham, who 
has been confirmed as Army chief of staff. 
Thurman has been the Army's deputy chief of 
staff for personnel since August 1981. 

Thurman began his career in July 1953 as a 
second lieutenant commissioned through the 
ROTC program at North Carolina State Universi- 
ty. He earned a bachelor of science degree in 
chemical engineering there. 

His recent assignments have included serv- 
ing as commanding general. Recruiting Com- 
mand; director, Program Analysis and Evalua- 
tion, Office of the Chief of Staff; deputy chief 
of staff for resource management. Training and 
Doctrine Command; deputy assistant com- 
mandant, Field Artillery School; division artillery 
commander, 82nd Airborne Division; special 
assistant to the .Assistant Vice Chief of Staff; 
and team chief and op>erations research analyst. 
Office of the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff. 

His military awards include the Legion of 
Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster; Bronze Star Medal 
with Valor Device and Oak Leaf Cluster, and the 
Meritorious Service Medal with Oak Leaf 

They Should Be No-Shows 

• Students are still showing up at Army training sites without 
meeting qualifications to attend their course. 

This commonly involves students who report to a class without 
sufficient time on their enlistment to satisfy training prerequisites, 
especially in the "time-you-owe-Sam-back" category. Some of these 
students can't re-enlist or extend anyway because they lack weapons 
qualification, haven't completed the PT test or current physical 
exam, or have simply refused to re-enlist or extend when advised of 
course obligations. 

Officials emphasize that losing command military personnel 
offices must ensure that soldiers are qualified for a school or 
assignment before allowing them to depart. For procedures, check 
Army Regulation 614-200 and Pamphlets 600-8 and 600-8-10. 

• There's good and bad news if 
you are PCSing. First, the bad 
news: There's always the chance 

that your household goods could be 
lost or damaged. The good news is 
the government has raised the 
highest amount you can claim for 
losses or damages to $25,000. This 
$10,000 increase became effective 
on July 28, 1982, as the result of an 
amendment to the Military 
Personnel and Civilian Employee's 
Claims Act of 1964. See your local 
transportation counselor for 



Compiled by Gene Harper 

(More What’s New on Pages 54-55) 

No Phone Home 

• A word to the wise: If you are 
caught making unauthorized calls 
on Army-provided telephones, you 
will end up paying more than just 
the cost of the call. A $10 charge 
per phone call will be added to the 
cost of the unauthorized call. This 
surcharge is being applied to cover 
the expense of searching for tele- 
phone abusers. 

Some Army posts have 
already been charging varying 
amounts, but this step standardizes 
the charge. Army Regulation 105- 
23 is being changed to reflect the 
new policy . 

An Army Communications 
Command spokesman at Fort 
Huachuca, Ariz., said that it is 
almost impossible to determine the 
actual Armywide costs of unau- 
thorized phone calls per year. The 
champion abuser caught, however, 
supposedly had a $6,000 bill, the 
spokesman noted. It was collected. 

First Bradley in Germany 

• Maintenance personnel in U.S. Army, 
Europe units which are getting the Bradley 
fighting vehicle will begin training on the new 
system this month. USAREUR's first Bradley, at 
left, rolled onto Bremerhaven docks in March. 
Unit transition training will start in September. 

Military Mail 

• In Korea, more than 80 percent of letter 
mail now arrives within seven days of postmark. 
So says the Military Postal System Agency about 
its 1982 performance in its first annual report. 
MPSA supports more than 700 overseas post 
offices run by four services. The agency also 
says that nearly 200 million pounds of mail 
passed its doors in 1982. MPSA was established 
in 1980 to manage overseas mail. 


Army to “Hum” Along 

• If all goes as expected, field units will get the long-awaited 
successor to the jeep and other vehicles by December 1984. The 
contract for the "Humvee," for the abbreviation HMMWV (High 
Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle), was awarded to AM General 
in March. The five-year, $1.2 billion contract will mean nearly 
55,000 Humvees for the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force. The 
new vehicles are replacing some jeeps, M-880 pickups, M-561 Gama 
Goats and M-274 quarter-ton mules. 

Officials expect the Humvee to improve readiness and 
modernize the Army's vehicle fleet. 



Your articles on combat medics 
and medicine in the February 1983 
issue were well received. There ore 
many Army medical department 
careerists who firmly believe that 
junior soldiers holding the medical 
MOS do not receive the support and 
publicity they deserve. Combat 
leaders know that when the crunch 
comes they will be depending on the 
skills of the medic (and support 
services) to do the job so well that 
their soldiers know they hove the best 
medical core humanly possible, in cose 
something goes wrong on the 

I must take exception to the photo 
on the inside bock cover. It appears 
the soldiers are carrying a litter away 
from and to the rear of the helicopter. 
This is not a good practice. Persons 
approaching or leaving the aircraft 
should do so at an angle anywhere 
from the forward edge of the nose to 
perpendicular to the doorway, in full 
view of the crew. This keeps people 
away from the toil rotor and enhances 
control. Obviously, we don't want any 
more casualties than we started with. 

Capt. Glenn D. Baker 

APO New York 

You're right. Even though the 
medics are in full view of a crew 
member, they do appear to be heading 
towards the tail rotor. Thanks for the 
safety tip. 


I really enjoyed the article by Bill 
Mauldin in the March 1983 issue. He 
truly is a "down to earth" or should I 
say "down in the earth grunt." I 
personally think his World War II book 
"Up Front" should be required reading 
for all officers and NCOs. There is a 
lot to learned from that man. Thanks 
Bill! Could you give me Mr. Mauldin's 

mailing address please. 

A thanks to SOLDIERS mogozine 
for the good orticles too! 

Sp4 Daniel L. Mullen 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Mr. Mauldin may be contacted by 
writing to: 

Mr. Bill Mauldin 

c/o Field Newspaper Syndicate 

401 N. Wabash Ave. 

Chicago, Rl. 60611 

The article "Tips for Better 
Pictures" was very interesting for o 
beginner and well-written (December 

The first paragraph, page 38, 
column 2, contains a couple of errors. 
I believe the author is talking about 
positive and negative color film. 

Both positive and negative color 
film react the some for over or under- 
exposure. Underexposure results in o 
very dense and no-contrast film. 
Overexposure results are a highly 
transparent, low-contrast washout 
film. This is the opposite of block and 
white film. 

SSgt. Martin D. Meyer 
Hampton, Va. 

The information contained in the 
referenced paragraph is correct. Dark- 
slides are underexposed, and transpar- 
ent ones have been overexposed. 
Underexposed film (color and black 
and white) is thin and transparent, 
while overexposed film is dense. 

I have just finished reading the 
February 1983 edition of SOLDIERS 
magazine. You and your staff have 
done a superb job in felling the Army 
story and I offer my congratulations to 
all the men and women who make that 
happen each month. In your February 

issue, I porticulorly opprecioted :r* j 
orticle "Focing the Blocks to Hun* 
Relations" by SFC Oliver and the 
piece "To Yoc^ Heolth!" 

Again, my congrofulaf ions to MM J 
and the staff of SOLDIERS — yoL* d> n 
fine work and con fake great pride in 
your product. 

Good luck and Cod bless. y 

Lt. Gen. Julius W. Becton Jr. i 

Army Inspector of Trainir^g 


The two letters on loneliness iram " 
two PFCs in the February issue pro- 
vided a good insight to the probien 
facing many of our young men ir :fie 
Army today. The one letter claimed * 
lock of recreational focilities caused 
many single men to spend evenings Old 
weekends in the barrocks consuma^ . 
large quontities of alcoholic ’ 
beveroges. The other letter indicated 
o positive tone by indicating that wh* ► 
we know we ore lonely, we must !id(M 
steps to help ourselves. Both letters 
were well-written orvd indicote oboMS j 
average comprehension. ™ 

Both individuals ore no doubt doing 
0 good job in their di-itv ossignmenl. 
but like many others thev ore not usrfq 
their spiare time to build for fheif 
future. People with time on their 
hands will never be lonely if thev t*S 
the initiotive to expond their knoed- . 
edge by utilizing oil the progrorcs th# * 
Army offers. It is o trogeC' tnoi 
learning centers at so monv installs 
tions hove so much moteriol on bond 10 
improve and exfxind a p>erso<i's krscw^ ' 
edge in their own or ollied MOS, tx t it 
is little utilized. These learning 
centers also provide ossisti»x-e for 
enrolling in correspondence or on post j ' 
college credit courses, hut o*ilv a small 
percentage of our troops take odvnn- 
toge of this great opportunity. , 

tion is the key to odvoncement ir Of * 
out of the Army. There is no lim'< ;o ■. 



your progress, but you must set your 
goals and then go after them. 

Col. Fred E. Gerber 

New Cumberland, Pa. 


' In the February 1983 issue of 
SOLDIERS, it was stated that Fort 
Stewart, Ga., was the largest base in 
training area that the Army has east 
of the Mississippi River. 

I understand that Fort McCoy, 

Wis., has the most space. Who is 

I SSgt. R. G. Kortsch, USAR 

I Milwaukee, Wis. 

I Fort McCoy, Wis., consists of 

,59,228 acres of land held by the 
\military and 551 acres held in the 
jpublic domain. Total is 59,779 acres. 
Fort Stewart, Ga., is more than four 
'^times larger with 279,270 acres. Our 
story did not say Fort Stewart has 
.more training area than any post east 
\of the Mississippi. We said Fort 
Stewart is the largest post in that 
geographic area. 


I Request your clarification on the 
proper wearing the Army green shade 
,415 short sleeve shirt, when worn as an 
outer garment (no green coat, wind- 
breaker, wool sweater, etc.) with the 
Army green trousers. Based on my 
understanding of paragraph I 1-14(3), 
Army Regulation 670-1, the short 
sleeve shirt can be worn with a tie 
when the shirt is used as an outer 
garment . 

This view and interpretation are 
disputed by other members of this 
detachment. It has also been brought 
|to my attention that this matter was 
discussed at the Sergeant Majors 
Academy approximately two years ago 
and it was then agreed that the tie 
cannot be worn as an outer garment 

(no green coat, windbreaker, wool 
sweater, etc.). 

SSgt. Clifford E. Phillips 

Beaumont, Texas 

The tie must be worn with the 
blouse and the long sleeved green 

The tie may be worn with the 
short sleeved green shirt— with or 
without windbreaker or sweater. 

“Boy . . . humble he’s not.” 


This letter is in reference to your 
article "Mauldin Returns to the Front" 
in the March 1983 issue. In that 
article it's stated that the Wehrmacht 
existed long before the Nazis - that's 
not so! 

In June 1919, the Treaty of 
Versailles reduced the Reichwehr to 
1 00,000 men. 

On October 14, 1933, Hitler de- 
clared that he would not stay with the 
100,000 men limit. 

On December 18, 1933, Hitler in- 
creased the size of the Reichwehr 
from 100,000 to 300,000. 

With the draft reinstated 16 March 
1935, first at that time was the 
German Army renamed Wehrmacht; up 
to that point it was called Reichwehr. 

MSgt. Allan von Tigmroth 

Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Danke schbn! 


Some days I am happy just to wake 
up, to watch the sunrise, to iron my 
fatigues and pin my hair up. Some 
evenings I feel good inside — knowing 
I've given a part of myself to my 

Sometimes I dress up in my greens 
just to walk down the street. I smile 
as I hear people say: "Look— she's in 
the Army." Yes, some days I feel 
very proud to pin on my PFC stripes, 
knowing there is no limit to how well I 
can prove myself. 

I hear others complaining: "The 
food's lousy, the housing is bad, there's 
not enough money, it's too much 

It makes me feel like I know 
something they don't, because I am 
proud to have this chance to be some- 
body. No more factories, no more 
dead ends. 

The Army has changed my life 
around and I am very proud to just be 

PFC Mary Sours 

Corpus Christi, Texas 

SOLDIERS Is for soldiers and DA civilians. We invite 
readers’ views. Stay under 150 words — a postcard 
will do — and include your name, rank and address. 
We’ll withhold your name if you desire and may con. 
dense views because of space. We can’t publish or 
answer every one but we’ll use representative views. 
Send your letter to: Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron 
Station, Alexandria, VA 22314. 

JUNE 1983 



Story and Photos by Faith Faircloth 

IF NEW CAR prices leave you gasp- 
ing for breath, buying a used car 
may be a good idea. 

There’s no question that a 
used car can be cheaper to buy and 
insure than a new one. Whether a 
used car will provide you with years 
of trouble-free driving or years of 
just trouble, however, often de- 
pends on how well-informed you are. 

“An inexperienced and eager 
buyer can end up paying a bundle 
for someone else’s troubles,” said 

Ruth Siegel, Army Consumer .Affairs 
coordinator. “People get rid of cars 
for different reasons. They may 
want to upgrade their car because 
their lifestyle has changed, or they 
may want to get rid of a lemon.” 

If you’re in the market for a 
used car, Siegel suggested you arm 
yourself with as much information 
as you can before you start shop- 
ping. “The first thing to do is decide 
what kind of car you need,” Siegel 
said. “Considering how the car will 

be used — for long or short dis- j 
tances, on freeways or country : 
roads, by yourself or with several 
passengers, in the states or overseas 
— will help you narrow the field.” 

If you plan to ship your car 
overseas, the Military Traffic Man- 
agement Command advises that vir- 
tually all .American and foreign 
makes can now be converted to run 
on leaded fuel. The only exception is 
Subaru, and SFC Elijah Moore of 
MTMC reported the command is 
working with that company to de- 
velop a conversion kit. 

However, it can cost a lot to 
get a car repaired in Europe. It takes 
longer to get spare parts, and even a 
minor repair could mean a long 
delay in getting the car back on the I 
road. If there’s an overseas assign- t 
ment in your future, your best bet 



might be to buy a fairly new car in 
tip-top operating condition. 

Once you’ve decided on 
the type of car you need, de- 
cide how much you can afford 
to pay for it. The used car ads 
in the classified section of your 
newspaper will give you an idea 
of what the asking prices are 
for different models. 

Newer models of 
small, fuel-efficient cars 
may cost more than mid- 
size models of the same year, 
but the savings start after the 
purchase. Repairs, parts and tires 
will probably cost less, and you can 
save hundreds of dollars in fuel by 
buying the smallest, newest car that 
fits your needs. 

According to a Federal High- 
way Administration pamphlet, 
“Cost of Owning and Operating 
; Automobiles and Vans,” a sub- 
compact costs almost a thousand 
dollars a year less to own than a full- 
size car. The savings include the 
costs of depreciation, maintenance 
and parts, insurance and taxes. A 
I free copy of this pamphlet is avail- 
able by writing to: Consumer Focus, 

; Pueblo, Colo. 81009. 

“Optional equipment can 
also affect the cost of a car,” Siegel 
I said. “Fancy equipment like power 
windows and door locks can mean 
I extra repair bills on a used car.” For 
economy, she suggested keeping 
[things simple. 

I A new-car dealership is 

usually the best place to look for 
and compare prices on a used car, 
according to the American Auto- 
mobile Association. The AAA notes 
new-car dealers generally keep the 

best trade-ins and wholesale the 
rest, and because they have service 
facilities these dealers are more 
likely to offer reasonable guarantees 
and honor them. 

You might find what you’re 
looking for from a private source. A 
drawback, AAA warns, is that a used 
car bought from a private owner 
rarely has any guarantee. If some- 
thing goes wrong, you pay for it. 

“You will also have to han- 
dle the paperwork yourself when 
dealing with a private owner,” 
Siegel said. “This might involve a 
three-party deal if the seller still 
owes money on the car. The seller’s 
loan will have to be paid off before 
you can get clear title.” 

You can sometimes buy a car 
from a relative or a friend. “This 
can result in a good buy,” Siegel 
said. “But, it can cause hard feel- 
ings if something goes wrong with 
the car.” 

According to Consumer Re- 
ports 1982 buying guide, used car 
dealers often buy the trade-ins new 
car dealers don’t want. They also 
are less likely to have service facili- 
ties. The publication suggests that 
the longer a dealer has been at the 
same location, the better your 
chances are of being treated fairly. 

“Car rental agencies and 
companies have large fleets of cars 
they sell to individuals,” Siegel said. 
Some of the larger rental agencies 
also offer warranties and service 
histories with their cars. Check local 
newspapers for these companies’ 
sale ads. 

Other sources for used cars 
are auctions and bank and finance 
company repossessions. There may 

be some bargains here, but Siegel 
cautions that if previous owners 
couldn’t keep up the payments, 
there’s a good chance they didn’t 
have the money to service their cars 
regularly. Also, you’re not likely to 
get a warranty with this type of 

When you find a car you 
like, it’s essential that you inspect it 
thoroughly and take it for a road 
test. The Used Car Buying Checklist 
on page 8 will help remind you of 
things to look for. 

The National Independent 
Automobile Dealers Association 
also has a pamphlet called “Some 
Straight Talk on How to Buy a Used 
Car.” This pamphlet tells you what 
tests to perform and what the results 
will tell you about a car’s condition. 
For a free copy send a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope to: NIADA, 
3700 National Drive, Suite 208, 
Raleigh, N.C. 27612. 

If you’re looking at a pri- 
vately owned car, ask if the owner 
kept a service record. “If he did,” 
Siegel said, “it will give you an idea 
of how the car has been taken care 
of. If you’re looking at a dealer’s 
car, ask for the name and phone 
number of the previous owner. That 
person may tell you about a prob- 
lem with the car.” 

After the car passes your in- 
spection, Siegel recommended tak- 
ing it to a professional mechanic or 
a diagnostic center. This will prob- 
ably cost $25 to $50. Have the ex- 
pert inspect the car thoroughly and 
give you a written report of the find- 
ings. If the owner refuses to let you 
do this, look for another car. 

You can also call the U.S. 



Department of Transportation’s 
toll-free Auto Safety Hotline (800) 
424-9393. They will tell you if that 
car model was ever recalled by the 
factory for safety-related reasons. If 
the car was recalled, you will want 
to make sure the repairs were made. 
Whether you’re dealing with a pri- 
vate owner or a dealer, get an agree- 
ment in writing that the necessary 
repairs will be made. 

When it comes to talking 
price, the National Automobile Of- 
ficial Used Car Guide, called the 
Blue Book, is a good source of in- 
formation. It’s published monthly 
and is available in most banks, 
credit unions, insurance offices and 

The guide lists three prices 
for each make and model; the trade- 
in (wholesale) price, the loan value 
and the retail price. Options such as 
automatic transmission and air-con- 
ditioning are noted, along with dif- 
ferences for very high or very low 

Before you sign on the dotted 
line, make sure you understand all 

the terms of the sales contract. Most 
sales contracts are based on your 
ability to obtain financing, but they 
don’t always specify at what interest 
rate. While it may be convenient to 
let the dealer handle the financing 
for you, shopping around could 
save you some money. If you’re 
buying from someone other than a 
dealer, you will have to arrange 
your own financing anyway. 

Check the interest rate and 
down payment required by your 
bank and credit union, and compare 
their terms to what the dealer is of- 
fering. You might also check into 
borrowing the cash value on your 
life insurance policy, suggested 
Siegel. If your policy has a cash 
value, you can usually borrow this 
amount at a low interest rate. 

It also pays to shop around 
for car insurance. “Some com- 
panies charge twice as much as 
others for the same car and driver,’’ 
Siegel said. She suggested calling 
several agents and asking what they 
charge to insure the car you’re buy- 
ing. If you already have an agent. 

it’s still a good idea to check with a f 
few others. If another agent is onlv ^ ! 
SIO to SI 5 lower, it might not be j 
worth changing, but the differen^t 
could be a lot more. 

If you buy from a dealer arc ( . 
get a warranty, make sure you 
understand what it covers. "Don’; 
take the salesman’s word for tt.‘ 
Siegel said. “Read it yourself — gc: 
someone else to read it if you don’t 
understand it.” Some warranties arc ' 
fifty-fifty, which means you pay ^ 
half and the dealer pays half of any ‘ 
repair costs. Some warranties cover i 
only parts, some cover only labor. i 
Once the car is yours, make 
sure your receipts for warranty i 
work list exactly what work was t 
done. If your receipt just says “war- I 
ranty work” and something was nc*; ■ 
done, you may have a problem get- ^ 
ting it fixed later. I 

“You can never eliminate all I 
the risks involved in buying a used 1 
car,” Siegel said. "But you can t' 
lower your chances of getting a 
lemon or paying an unfair price by i 
being informed.” ^ 

This list can help you check the condition of a 
used car and give you some idea whether re- 
pair costs will make your purchase worth- 

Yes No In the lot: 

Oil spatters or puddles? 

(may mean oil leak) 

Body rust? 

Exhaust system rust? 

Ripples or differently shaded paint? 
(could mean accident repairs) 

Bounce each corner of car — bounce 
back only once? (more bounces 
indicate worn shocks) 

Rusty or oiiy radiator water? 

(may mean radiator repairs) 

Water drops on oii dipstick? 

(may mean cracked block) 

Extra heavy oil? (shows 
lack of maintenance) 

Battery cables corroded or alternator 
light on? (may mean electrical or 
battery problem) 

Well worn seats? (hard use) 


Yes No 

New carpeting? (covering 
defects in the floor?) 

Do brakes sink to the floor when 
depressed? (may be brake trouble) 

More than two inches' free play in 
steering wheel? 

(may be steering problems) 

Unevenly worn tires? (indi- 
cates bad alignment) 

Accessories working? 


Windows, doors and locks 
Heater and air conditioner 

Safety belts 
Jack and spare 
Ignition/door keys 

Lights working? 


Tail, brake and turn lights 
Parking lights 
Warning/hazard lights 
Wiring frayed or brittle 
Worn fan belts 

Reprinted with permission ol 
Alexandria Otlice 
ot Consumer Attairs 
P O Box 178, City Hall 
Alexandria. Va 22313 

Yes No 

Road Check 

Red oil light stay on? (may 
be oil system probiemsi 
Gears, including reverse, 
shift smoothly? (may mean 
transmission problem if not 

Is there a lack ol power 
going up a hill? 

Does the car hesitate or 
buck when accelerating? 

Puffs of bluish exhaust 
smoke? (engine may need overhai 
Strange noises’’ (checK origin) 
Brakes grab, pull to one 
side or make noises at 
— 10 mph? 

—25 mph? 

—40 mph? 

(may be brake problems) 

Steam from radiator or hoses? 
(may be cooling system problem) 


Other tips | 

—Don't buy a car you've only seen at night or 
in the rain. Rain makes a car look shinier. Yout 
color perception changes at night Ram and 
darkness both tend to hide dents and defect^ 

— Have the car inspected and tested thoto 
oughly by your garage or by a professicir;d| 
diagnostic center If the seller won't let yoi: do 
this, don't buy the car (You can often negck 
date taking the cost of the inspection off th« 
price ol the car.) 



story and Photos by 
Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason 

PAUL CHRISTIAN stood at atten- 
tion at the head of a file of soldiers. 
He wore his helmet cocked back 
and slightly to one side. His field 
jacket, rumpled under his twisted 
rucksack straps, and dog tag chain 
with tags and locker key dangling 
outside his jacket made him look 
like what he was — a civilian trying 
to look like a soldier. 

As he waited for the next 
command from his drill sergeant, 
his eyes began to water. A tear 
|rolled down his cheek, leaving a 
glistening streak. 

i He wasn’t really crying, al- 
though he had reason to. The tear 
was from the biting cold New Jersey 
wind beating at his face. There he 
was — a Virgin Islander fighting the 
miserable Fort Dix winter, a civilian 
Tying to become a soldier in his first 
week of basic training, a young man 
who’d never supervised anyone — 
Tying to be a squad leader. 

“Being a squad leader is the 
lardest part,’’ Christian said. “You 
lave to take care of your own things 
ind make sure the other guys do 
what they’re supposed to do.’’ 

The “other guys,’’ the men 
if the 1st squad, 3rd platoon. Com- 
pany A, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Training 
Brigade, stood behind Christian. 

Jeffery Sheetz, 18, from Ce- 
dar Rapids, Iowa, joined the Army 
;o continue his education and to be 
i satellite station repairman. 

Kenneth Tedford, 19, from 
Vlinneapolis, Minn., joined the 
\rmy Reserve. Once in training, he 
pegan to miss his girlfriend and to 
egret his haste in joining the Army. 

' Paul Phipps, 19, from Glen 
Carbon, 111., needed a job and expe- 
dience. He was confident that he was 
joing to do well in basic. 

Ronnie Raikes, 21, from 
Richmond, Va., was one of the 



Clockwise from 
top: A drill ser- 
geant is always 
near to insist and 
assist. • Team- 
work is needed to 
pull through basic. 
• A trainee digs 
his fighting posi- 
tion during the tac- 
tical training 
phase. • “More 
PT, drill sergeant:” 
just one more 
chance to get in a 
few more push- 

older trainees in the squad. He, too, 
was confident in himself and wanted 
to do well in training. 

David Guthrie, 21, from East 
St. Louis, Mo., enlisted to be a ra- 
dio repairman. The toughest part of 
basic for him was physical training. 

Dave Grandy, 18, from 
Moundsview, Minn., seemed to al- 
ways be swimming in his oversized 
helmet. He joined to be a radio re- 
pairman and gain experience. 

Philip Sims, 23, was born in 
Omaha, Neb., but calls the Army 
home now. He had been a cook in 
civilian life and joined the Army to 
be a cook because “maybe they can 
teach me a few new tricks.’’ 

John Kasheta was the old 
man of the squad at 28. He joined 
the Army because even with a bach- 
elor’s degree in law enforcement, 
the best job he could find was a se- 

curity guard. His degree did get him 
PFC stripes when he signed up for 
an intelligence specialty which of- 
fered a $3,800 bonus. 

James Brown, 17, from La- 
mar County, Ala., signed up to be a 
welder. He joined because it was 
“kind of a family tradition around 
the house. My dad, every one of my 
cousins and uncles all have been in 
the Army,’’ he said. 

Vrodman Buchanan, 19. 
from Pasadena, Md., joined to 
learn how to drive trucks. But un- 
like the others in the first squad, Bu- 
chanan wasn’t standing in the file 
behind Christian. He was up front 
carrying the platoon guidon. 

Platoon guidon? That’s 
right. Under a concept called phased 
basic training, begun at Fort Dix a 
year ago, each platoon has its own 
guidon. In fact, each gets three 

' . ' -A 

guidons, a different color for each 
phase of basic. 

Basic training lasts eight 
weeks at Fort Dix. It’s one type -f 
initial entry training, mainly for the 
non-combat arms MOSs. Basic 
training graduates go on to other 
units for advanced individual train- 
ing in their MOS. l or the combat 
arms MOSs. there’s one station unit 
training, in which soldiers receiseall 
their lET training at one post with 
the same drill sergeants. Also, sine; 
last summer the .\rmy has returned 
to the practice of assigning basic 
trainees to either all-male or all- 



female companies. But men and 
women still take the same course of 

Fort Dix’s first phase covers 
two weeks. The guidon is red and 
r' the cadre use total control. 

Total control means a full 
day of training, every day, including 
weekends. With the exception of 
church call on Sunday, the training 
cadre supervise constantly. There 
are no PX or other post privileges. 
Emphasis is on “insisting and assist- 
ing.” Insisting means ensuring that 
standards are met, without excep- 
tion. Assisting refers to assuring 
that trainees get the instruction they 
need to meet the standards. 

Free time is limited to an 
hour in the evening, for shining 
I boots, getting gear ready for the 
[next day, writing the rare letter 
; home or, maybe a couple of times a 
, week, the chance to use the phones 
t downstairs for a call home. Gener- 
I ally, free time — even time for such 
a small pleasure as smoking a ciga- 
rette — is strictly rationed. 

When the platoon failed to 
meet standards, the platoon ser- 
geant could furl the flag — roll it on 
the staff and keep it rolled with rub- 
I ber bands. A furled flag let the 
' world know the platoon had fouled 
I up and also meant no smoking. 

' Third platoon’s flag was 

■furled Tuesday of the first week be- 
Icause the platoon didn’t clean the 
Ibarracks to standards in the time al- 
i lotted. They cleaned their area to 
jstandards on Wednesday, but not 
on time. The flag remained furled. 

I “I make a point of unfurling 
the flag as soon as they correct 
whatever was wrong,” said SFC 
Robert Davis, platoon sergeant. “It 
* may get furled again later that day 
for something else, but they learn 
that correcting their mistakes gets 

The barracks was ready on 
time Thursday and the flag was un- 
furled. At the start of the first class 
break that morning, the trainee pla- 
toon leader asked Davis if he could 
give the men a smoke break. 

“No,” was the curt reply. 
“Have them fall in on their equip- 
ment, I’ll be out in a minute.” 

Once the men were formed. 

Davis marched them away from the 
equipment and led them in jumping 
jacks for several minutes. When he 
figured they’d had enough, he gave 
them a smoke break — long enough 
for two or three drags. 

“That was to wake them 
up,” Davis explained. Many had 
been dozing in class. Exercise, he 
thought, would perk them up. 

Exercise seemed to be the 
standard cure-all for whatever ailed 
a trainee. PT was on the training 
schedule every day. A PT test was 
part of the final exam given at the 
end of basic, called Soldier’s Stakes. 

If you didn’t pass Soldier’s 
Stakes, you didn’t pass basic. It 
wasn’t a real tough PT test — 30 
push-ups, 35 sit-ups and a two-mile 
run in under 20 minutes. But for 
many it marks real accomplishment. 
During the diagnostic test given dur- 
ing fill week, the week before the 
start of the training cycle, some 
couldn’t do even one push-up and 
most others were far below the tar- 
get of 30. So whether they enjoyed 
PT or not, the trainees at least ap- 
preciated the importance of it. 

“PT’s fun when Sergeant 
Hayes gives it,” Buchanan said. 
SSgt. Lonnie Hays, assistant pla- 
toon sergeant, made PT tough, but 
injected some fun into it. The 
ground rules were that anyone who 
made a mistake, such as assuming 
the wrong position or moving on the 
wrong command, paid for his inat- 
tention to detail with 10 push-ups. 

When Hayes gave PT, he 
went out of his way to give the train- 
ees a chance to screw up. He often 
assumed the wrong starting position 
just to see who would blindly follow 
rather than think for himself. With 
every exercise, several soldiers 
found themselves pumping out extra 
push-ups. It meant extra work, but 
it was fun, especially when it was 
your buddy who was doing the extra 

There wasn’t a lot of fun 
during the first couple of weeks of 
basic, though. It was the time for 
learning the basics of soldiering; 
how to wear a uniform, how to tell a 
sergeant from a general and which 
one to salute, how to clean the bar- 
racks, and other exciting things. 

Top, a Pass in Review was part of the 
passage ceremony into phase three. 

• Parents, wives and children came to 
the March 25 graduation ceremony. 

While they were learning all this new 
soldier stuff, the trainees also soon 
picked up on an old Army tradition 
— changes. 

“They’re always making 
changes,” said Raikes. “At night 
they’ll write up on the board what 
you’re supposed to wear the next 
day. You get ready the next morning 
and then at the last minute, they 
change it.” 

Training requirements 
changed sometimes, and an unex- 
pected change in the weather could 
mean a last-minute change in the 
uniform of the day. The trainees, 
not being privy to the reasons for 
the changes, saw them as just some- 
thing to add to their confusion. 

Those were the things that 
made these first two weeks the hard- 
est. The classes were pretty easy, 
and often dull. In addition to learn- 
ing the basics of soldiering, trainees 
learned first aid and drill and cere- 
monies. Nothing hard. The adjust- 
ment was the hardest part. 

“You feel kinda lost some- 



times,” Guthrie said. ‘‘You get 
kinda homesick, and it’s kinda hard 
to adjust to living with people com- 
ing from different places.” 

To some, it was a time to 
think about quitting. 

‘‘You feel pretty low, like 
you’re nothing,” Grandy said. 
‘‘You get confused, learning all that 
new stuff, like coming to parade rest 
for NCOS and watching out for offi- 
cers — all that military stuff.” 

The end of the second, and 
start of the third week seemed to be 
the turning point. During a passage 
ceremony at the end of the second 
week, the red flags were exchanged 
for white flags. The drill sergeants 
began to loosen total control. The 
lock step of classroom training was 
past history. The almost-soldiers 
started in earnest to learn the sol- 
dierly skills of their trade. No train- 
ing was scheduled for Sundays, and 
sometimes, even part of Saturday 
afternoons were free. 

Phase two also marked a 
turning point in training. That 
seemed to do as much for morale as 
did the relaxed control. The phase 
started off with the gas chamber — 
not a pleasant experience, but it was 
real Army training. It was the kind 
of thing real soldiers do, something 
they can take pride in having en- 
dured. Once the tears were gone and 
they could breathe again, the train- 
ees smiled inwardly. Here was some- 
thing they could tell family and 
friends about when they got back 
home. It was something that civil- 
ians have heard about, but only sol- 
diers have experienced. 

Much of the phase was de- 
voted to basic rifle marksmanship. 
That too was real soldier stuff, and 
there was a lot of pride in qualifying 
with the rifle. From Johnny Mat- 
thews, 3rd platoon guide, v'ho fired 
a perfect score, to the men who 
didn’t quite make it the first time 
and had to refire to qualify, there 
was a sense of accomplishment. 
They passed another milestone on 
the road to becoming a real soldier. 
On top of that, they would have a 
badge to pin on those new green uni- 
forms, once they got them. 

Greens weren’t issued until 
just before the start of phase three. 

Most people either lost or gained 
weight during basic. Waiting a few 
weeks got them to a stable weight 
before they were fitted for greens. 
That delay also gave trainees some- 
thing to look forward to. 

‘‘I can’t wait to get my 
greens,” said PFC Gerald Spencer, 
the assistant platoon guide. “That 
sure is a sharp uniform.” 

To those men, midway 
through basic training, wearing the 
green uniform was not something 
they had to do because they were in 
the Army. It was an honor. Being 
able to put on their greens and stand 
tall was a privilege they were work- 
ing hard to earn. 

Saturday of the fifth week 
was the day of the phase three 
passage ceremony. The men of 
A-3-3 finally got to put on their 
greens. After they received their 
blue guidon, they passed in review 
before the battalion commander as 
the post band played martial music. 

“That was really nice,” 
Sheetz said. “I felt really proud just 
marching through there. 1 felt proud 
to be in the Army.” 

“The greens felt good,” 
Brown said. “You get more of a 
feeling wearing them than a regular 
three-piece suit. 1 can’t wait to wear 
them again.” 

Not everyone made it to 
phase three, though. Phase two also 
had been the time for weeding out. 
A few, like Tedford, developed 
physical problems and went home 
with medical discharges. Some oth- 
ers couldn’t or wouldn’t hack it. 
They were sent home under the 
trainee discharge program. 

Kasheta, the squad’s old 
man, left about midway through the 
cycle. An old knee injury was both- 
ering him, he claimed. 

“I’m going to work on 
strengthening my knees and I’ll be 
back,” he said. He did not, how- 
ever, receive a medical discharge. 

“Some just give up,” Davis 
said. During this cycle 28 men were 
discharged. Three of those dis- 
charges were for medical reasons. 

There were some additions to 
the company, too. David Harding 
joined the 1st squad of 3rd platoon 
during phase two. He was a “new 

start.” a recscle from another com- 
pany. He hadn’t been able to do 
enough push-ups to graduate. He 
had a lot of motisation. though, 
and was being gisen another chance 
through the new start program. ' 
“We didn’t do enough PT in ' 
my old company. ’’ Harding -aid. "I 
just didn’t ha\e a chance to build up i 
enough.” If it was building up he 
needed, he was in the right place. 
Esery other exercise during PT scs- i 
sions was the push-up. Those who | 



, weren’t able to do 31 perfect push- 
, ups during the mid-cycle diagnostic 
i test dropped and knocked out 10 
; every time the platoon took a break. 
Most of them didn’t have to be told 
to do it. They knew that graduation 
hung in the balance. 

By the time they got to phase 
three, their pocket-sized Smart 
Books were getting dog-eared. 
Smart Books contain all the infor- 
mation you need to know to grad- 
uate from basic. The men had been 

through a mid-cycle test just before 
the start of phase three. They had 
had a taste of trying to recall a lot of 
information under pressure. They 
knew they needed a lot of study. 

The start of phase three 
meant there were less than two 
weeks before Soldier’s Stakes. It 
was a tightly packed two weeks. 
Trainees had individual tactics 
training, where they learned to low 
crawl and maneuver under fire. 
There was bivouac, seldom a pleas- 

ant experience. “Bivouac was a dis- 
aster,’’ Christian said. “It was fun 1 
guess, and we learned a lot. And the 
Paragon Trail was something else. 1 
liked that, too. But the weather was 
cold and rainy, and we were always 
wet. It sure felt good to get back to 
the barracks.’’ 

During bivouac there was the 
Paragon Trail — a night move 
through the woods where trainees 
had to react to flares, were gassed 
with CS and had to low crawl under 

Clockwise from lower left: At 
the reception station, haircuts 
come immediately after uni- 
form issue. • The company 
commander makes a minor ad- 
justment during guard mount. 
Becoming a soldier means 
learning there is a right way 
and a wrong way to do almost 
anything, including wearing 
headgear. • Becoming a sol- 
dier means becoming phys- 
ically fit. Basic trainees take 
PT daily, ending each session 
with a two-mile run. • Splinting 
a fracture is one of the 30 
tasks on the end-of-course test 
called Soldier’s Stakes. Sol- 
diers can only fail four and still 
graduate. • Trying to reassem- 
ble an M-16 rifle isn’t all that 
easy the first time around. By 
the time Soldier’s Stakes rolls 
around, though, most trainees 
can do it in their sleep. 

i JUNE1983 


machine gun fire. They topped off 
bivouac with a 15-mile road march. 
It was the kind of training that 
makes you bone tired — good train- 
ing. Real soldier stuff. Those were 
real soldiers who marched back to 
the company area after bivouac, 
and they proved it a few days later 
at Soldier’s Stakes in near-freezing 
temperatures, rain and wind. 

After three days of constant 
reinforcement, “The Test” was 
here. A mistake on any of the 30 

chanan said. “D&C ... I know I 
can do better than that. I grabbed 
the sling w rong and right away knew 
I had messed up. The sergeant 
caught me. But I’ll get it right the 
next time, and I’m not going to get 
any more.” 

With each go, everyone 
started to gain more confidence. “1 
got five so far,” Grandy said, “and 
I’m starting to feel good. 1 can do it, 
1 know 1 can. I’m going to get all 
those gos.” 

During phase 
two of basic 
training, trainees 
practice the 
rush” — no 
more than three 
seconds on the 
run, and hit the 
dirt. There are 
many challenges 
to face. Those 
who endure be- 
come soldiers. 

tests meant a “no-go” for that sub- 
ject. Four “no-gos” meant failing 
Soldier’s Stakes. 

By now the Smart Books 
were tattered and falling apart, but 
the trainees were ready. “I’m going 
to burn it up,” Christian said. “The 
only thing that has me nervous is the 
claymore mine. 1 know how to put 
one out, but sometimes 1 get the 
steps mixed up. 

After the drill and ceremon- 
ies test, Sims knew he had been 
blessed. “1 thought everything had 
to be just perfect. 1 didn’t have my 
hand cupped correctly at attention. 
1 knew 1 was wrong and wanted to 
change, but 1 didn’t want the ser- 
geant to see me move. So 1 froze. He 
gave me a go.” 

Even the few no-gos didn’t 
stop them. “1 screwed up,” Bu- 


With each go, confidence 
and motivation built. Near the end 
of the day, everyone — trainees, 
drill sergeants and testers — knew 
they had a good thing going. 

When the day was done, A 
Co. had set a post record: 91 percent 
had passed on the first try. 

“1 knew they’d do well when 
they first came down here,” said 
SFC Jack Stewart, assistant opera- 
tions sergeant at Soldier’s Stakes. 
“They had a good attitude. 1 got a 
good feeling about them when 1 
started briefing the test. They were 
disciplined and motivated, and they 
knew the material.” 

A week later at the gradua- 
tion ceremony, the company guidon 
was draped with six of the seven 
streamers awarded. The streamers 
were for excellence in training. The 

brigade’s Drill Sergeant of the 
Cycle, an award based on the le\el 
of training of soldiers, was given to 
Davis, the 3rd platoon sergeant. 

Graduation. March 25. 1983. 
The end of a trainee, the beginning 
of a soldier. A goal that sometimes 
seemed far in the distance. 

"1 never thought this da> 
was going to come.” Brown said. 
“We thought about it — the 25th. 
the 25th — and the more we talked 
about it the longer it seemed to take. 
But it’s here, and I’m glad.” 

Graduation is also a time sol- 
diers stand a little bit taller, push 
their chests out a little bit farther, 
maybe even tell a war story or two. 
And wear the greens for the familv. 

Families arrived by the doz- 
ens — some the night before, others 
the day of graduation — to witness 
the change of husbands, sons or 
brothers. Somehow the 4:30 first 
calls, PT in the dark, long marches 
and dirt don’t seem so bad. Eight 
weeks ago they were scared of their 
drill sergeants. Today, they intro- 
duced them to parents. 

“1 was just plain scared of 
the drills." Brown said. "But they 
taught us everything we needed to 
know. They were hard, but they're 
the best sergeants in the world. 

“What made us so successful 
was everyone working together." 
Sheeiz said. “If somebodv was hav- 
ing trouble with something, the 
other guys helped him out." Every- 
one said the most important things 
they learned were discipline and 
working together. 

In the beginning, the platoon 
was 50 guys going in 50 different di- 
rections. By the end of the cycle they 
had pulled together to get the job 
done . . . whatever it was. 

",-\nd you can’t leave your 
socks lying on the fioor like at 
home." Raikes said. "1 guess disci- 
pline is the difference between a ci- 
vilian and a soldier." 

"1 feel a lot better about my- 
self." Grandy said. "There were a 
lot of challenges, but 1 met ’em. 
,-\nd 1 feel a lot older too. just from 
what I’ve been through. It was hard, 
but nothing like what 1 heard. I’m 
glad it’s over in a way. Now AIT. 
I’ve heard that’s reallv tough." 




Story by Sp5 Kathleen Ellison 
Photos by Vicky Lipps 

EDITOR’S NOTE: The photos ac- 
companying this story were taken 
'before the effective changeover date 
/rom white to green or brown 
T-shirts to be worn with BDUs. 

jWANTED: Tough, confident, top- 
quality sergeants ready to take on 
the challenge of forming tomorrow’s 

soldiers. The job requires dedication 
24 hours a day, seven days a week. 
Only the serious and capable need 

At the drill sergeant school in 

the Defense Attache’s Office in the U.S. Embassy, 
Port au Prince, Haiti. VICKY LIPPS, formerly a photog- 
rapher with the post Public Affairs Office, Fort 
Leonard V/006, Mo., has separated from active duty. 

Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., one of 
several run by the Army’s training 
posts, first-class NCOs take on one 
more challenge in already proven 
careers. If good drill sergeants are 
not only born, but made, then this 
school is where it all comes together. 

“This is probably one of the 
toughest schools an NCO can at- 




Preceding page, drill sergeant candidates learn that the 
“weaver” in out obstacle isn’t as easy as it may look. • Clock- 
wise from top, Sgt. Gregory Patton grimaces from the weaver’s 
physical demands. • SSgt. Herbert Soto, front, and SSgt. Willie 
W. Jones take on the hip to-hip obstacle. • Sgt. Dennis Koon 
and classmates strain in the body twist exercise. PT is an im- 
portant part of drill sergeant school — future instructors have to 
be in top shape to demand the same of recruits. • Sgt. Paul D. 
Weber warily plants his feet after a rope swing. • Instructor 
SFC Isaac Kelly, left, gives candidate SSgt. James McGee a 
hard glare during an in-ranks inspection. 



tend,” said MSgt. Samuel Clark, 
chief instructor at the school. ‘‘Not 
everyone can be a drill sergeant. 
Only the best in each career field are 

Drill sergeant candidates 
have either volunteered or have been 
involuntarily selected by the Army. 
The requirements for drill sergeant 
school are spelled out in Army 
Regulation 614-200. Men must be in 
pay grades E-5 through E-7 and 
women in grades E-4 through E-7. 
All must have a high school diploma 
or a general educational develop- 
ment equivalent. Also, they must 
have demonstrated leadership abil- 
ity. After graduation, drill sergeants 
serve a two-year stabilized tour and 
have an option for a third year. 

‘‘At first I was surprised to be 
selected, but then I was immensely 
pleased,” said SSgt. Michael Pana- 
ranto, who had been ‘‘chosen.” ‘‘1 
want to be a drill sergeant for career 
satisfaction as well as career en- 

hancement.” Panaranto, a combat 
engineer, came to the school from 
an assignment in South Korea. 

Military policeman SSgt. 
Tommy G. McKenna was also in- 
voluntarily selected, but said he 
wasn’t reluctant to leave Fort Riley, 
Kan., to attend the school. 

‘‘1 didn’t know much about 
being a drill sergeant, but once 1 
looked it over, 1 was glad 1 was 
selected,” he said. ‘‘Since beginning 
the school I’ve been able to take 
three minutes off my time for the 
two-mile run.” 

Between 300 and 350 ser- 
geants win their distinctive ‘‘Smokey 
the Bear” hats at Fort Leonard 
Wood each year. As any past or 
present drill sergeant will testify, 
that hat isn’t easily earned. About 
25 percent of the students won’t 
complete the training for reasons 
ranging from medical to academic. 

‘‘Some of the courses include 
basic rifle marksmanship, drill and 
ceremony, stress management, lead- 
ership and physical readiness train- 
ing,” chief instructor Clark said. 
‘‘During the course of eight weeks, 
the drill sergeant candidate must 
successfully complete 103 course 

Most candidates say they 
find the course both physically and 
mentally demanding. Although one 
of the entrance requirements is pass- 
ing the physical readiness test, drill 
sergeant school takes up where the 
test ends. 

‘‘We start out with a mini- 
mum run of two miles,” said Clark, 
‘‘and we work our way up to five 
miles. When candidates graduate, 
they can run five to six miles with no 

Because drill sergeants in 
their 20s and 30s must keep up with 
17- and 18-year-old soldiers in 
entry-level training, the school sets 
high standards for physical fitness. 
For those who have been away from 
the books for a long time, classes 
can be difficult as well. 

‘‘Most NCOs are not used to 
dealing with a lot of new material 
that must be grasped in a limited 
amount of time,” said SFC Johnny 
B. Fowler, senior course manager. 

‘‘They’re primarily accustomed to 
practical application, not intensive 
study. Here, they have to under- 
stand material that they’ll be re- 
quired to give in class the next day.” 
Although candidate Pana- 
ranto said the school is difficult, he 
found the experience positive. 
‘‘What I’ve liked most is being able 
to work with the high caliber of peo- 
ple I’ve found here,” he said. 

‘‘You learn more here than 
you would in your entire 20 years in 
the Army,” said candidate McKenna. 
‘‘It’s a lot of strenuous mind work. 
If you aren’t in the habit of grasping 
things quickly, you won’t make it.” 
Sometimes sergeants, espe- 
cially those with 10 to 15 years of 
service, have problems developing 
the receptive attitude necessary for 
the school. 

‘‘Some of the NCOs don’t 
like it when they’re told to make 
corrections on their uniforms,” 
Fowler said. ‘‘But I’d say that the 
majority of them come here with the 
right kind of attitude.” 

Anyone who looks back on 
basic training realizes that drill 
sergeants put in more than eight- 
hour days. Drill sergeants, who are 
with trainees virtually every waking 
hour, bring new meaning to the 
word ‘‘dedication.” 

‘‘I think being a drill ser- 
geant brings prestige to the NCO as 
well as Job satisfaction,” said 
Clark. ‘‘At the end of each training 
cycle, the drill sergeant can see an 
improvement in the people he or she 
has had to train and turn into 

Panaranto added, ‘‘This has 
been one of the most rewarding 
schools of my military career, and I 
think the job will be rewarding as 

McKenna was 35 years old 
and had 15 years in the Army when 
he went through the school. Some 
NCOs might think of slowing down 
at the stage, but not McKenna. 

‘‘They don’t need more 
young E-5s as drill sergeants. They 
need more mature soldiers like me,” 
he said. ‘‘1 was told by my friends 
that the school was tough, and it is 
— every bit of it.” □ 



story by Mike Quinn 

Photos by 1st Lt. Mike Edrington 

SOME things never change. 

In an Army that uses the lat- 
est in electronics, weapons and com- 
puter wizardry, kitchen police in 
basic training remains much the 
same as it was back in the earliest 
days of an Army. 

Washing pots, carrying ra- 
tions and scrubbing tloors are still 
on the training schedule for the Ar- 
my's new'est soldiers while they’re 
assigned to KP — duties which as- 
sist the cooks in their jobs. 

“The earliest reference to KP 
can be found in a manual for .Army 

MIKE QUINN Is assigned to Ihe post Public Allairs 01 
Ilea. Fort Jackson, S.C. He Is the chlel ot operations 
special projects olllcer In Ihe same olllce He has 
been reassigned to Fort Richardson. Alaska 

cooks published in 18 %,” said 
Clayton B. Kleckley, post historian 
at Fort Jackson, S.C. “Prior to 
that, food was individually issued. 
You know, hardtack and all that 
stuff.” * 

During the Civil War. rations . 
were issued three to four days at a I 
time and it was up to the soldiers to | 
prepare their own meals. Sometimes 
soldiers would consolidate their 
meal rations. Still, though, it was an | 
individual responsibility. 

Most .‘\rmy historians agree 
KP probably had its beginnings 
around the turn of the century. 

Vernon Mayes, a NS'orld NVai 
ll-era veteran now a civilian cm- i 
ployce at Fort Jackson, said he - 



fioesn’t remember much about KP 
|back then. “About all I remember is 
Ithat if you screwed up, you got 
;KP,” he said. 

i However, Willis Johnson, a 
retired master sergeant and a stu- 
dent at the University of South Car- 
alina, has some fond memories. 

I When he pulled KP in the 
early ’60s, “We used to have to tie a 
towel to our bunks so we’d be 
awakened at 2 a.m. KP wasn’t just 
for soldiers in basic training. We 
jhad to do it when I was permanent 
jparty, too,” he said. “All PFCs and 
below had to pull KP.” 

] Johnson agreed KP was cer- 
]tain for soldiers who “screwed up” 
and he remembered most of all the 

From the top left. Pvt. Miguel Hernandez 
mops the kitchen floor. • Pvt. Alfred Keeter 
gets dressed for KP at 3 a.m. • and finds 
himself on the pots-and-pans detail. • 
Keeter fills a steam table, as directed by 
PFC Robert Carmichael, • and cleans a 
meat sheer. • Only after everyone else has 
been fed do Keeter and his fellow KPs relax 
with their breakfast. 

“big potato peeling machine” he 
had to use. Although he claimed he 
never had to do it, he thought the 
worst job was cleaning out the 
grease trap. “That was an ugly 
job,” he said. 

The dining facility manager 
at Fort Jackson’s 8th Battalion, 
SFC Kenneth Lanbert, agreed that 
KP hasn’t changed much over the 
years. It takes about 30 KPs per day 
to run his dining facility, where he is 
responsible for feeding more than 
1,000 soldiers per meal. 

“They still do just about ev- 
erything,” he said. “We start 
around 4 a.m. each day and knock 
off at 8 or 8:30 that night. It’s a long 

But military KP duty may be 
heading for the same fate as 
starched fatigue uniforms, the P-38 
can opener and the M-151 jeep. In 
the modern Army, contract civilian 
workers do much of the KP duty 
that GIs once did. 

“The only exception is basic 
training,” said Capt. Doug Hay- 
wood, a Training and Doctrine 
Command spokesman. “Funds are 
not allocated for civilian KPs in 
basic training dining facilities.” 

Kitchen police duty is as 
much a part of Army life as uni- 
forms, barracks and cigar-chomp- 
ing drill sergeants. Ask people who 
have ever been in and they’ll tell 
you, “We’ve all done it.”D 




Sp4 Tommy R. Kovach 

drill sergeant screamed. “Not your 
shelter half, you knucklehead!” he 
yelled at a frightened, bewildered 

As I stood there under 
cloudy Oklahoma skies, I thought 
about the first time a drill sergeant 
had me emptying my bags on the 
ground to account for my basic 
clothing issue. That was in the sum- 
mer of 1963. 

I was young then — 18 and 
fresh out of high school. I had been 
visiting my sister in Los Angeles 
when I decided to enlist. In 1963 I 
never would have dreamed that I’d 
do it all over 19 years later. But 
there I was, at age 37, going through 
basic again at Fort Sill. 

A lot of my friends thought I 
was crazy. “And you mean you 
have to go back through basic 
again?” one of them asked. 

“Yup. After you’ve been out 
for so many years, you’ve got to go 
back through,” I replied. 

“At your age, that PT will 
kill you,” he said. “You’ll never 
keep up with those 17- and 18-year- 
old kids.” 

“I’ll give them a run for their 
money,” I answered boldly. 

But to be honest, I was a lit- 
tle frightened and apprehensive 
about the whole idea. I couldn’t 
help but wonder how I’d hold up to 
the rigors of PT, road marches and 
obstacle courses. Of even greater 
worry, I wondered how I would ad- 
just mentally. After all, when you’re 
almost 40, you are much set in your 
ways. And I realized that most of 
the officers and sergeants would be 
younger than I. 

It took some getting used to. 
I mean, I couldn’t sit in the mess 
hall and linger over that second or 
third cup of coffee as 1 had been do- 
ing for the past 16 years of civilian 
life. And my marching had certainly 
gotten rusty after all those years. 

I’ll never forget that first day 

at the reception 
center when we 
were marching 
to the mess hall 
and the drill 
sergeant put us 
people up front. 

He gave a col- 
umn right, and 
I went left — 
by myself. I felt 
more than a lit- 
tle foolish as 1 
ran to catch up 
with the rest of 
the platoon. 

But things soon started to fall into 

I think one thing that really 
helped me was the fact that my pla- 
toon had a few other prior-service 
people. These men, like me, had 
spent a long time in civilian life 
before returning to the Army. We 
all came back for basically the same 
reason: the downward slide of the 

Military people had changed 
a great deal since the last time I was 
in the service. I’ll never forget that 
first payday back in August 1963. 
My base pay was around $68 a 
month, and for that first half- 
month I believe I received about 
$30. For a kid fresh out of high 
school, 1 felt rich. Now, coming 
back in as a private first class, 1 was 
earning three times what I had been 
making when I got out in 1966 as an 
E-5, combat and overseas pay in- 

Money wasn’t the only rea- 
son I returned. As a construction 
worker and part-time free-lance 
writer, the faltering economy was 
certainly hurting me. But I also just 
plain wanted to come back into the 
Army. I remembered the good times. 
Even in Vietnam (here were good 
times, good memories. 

the 3rd Squadron. 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment. 
Amberg. West Germany. 

So here I was. in B Battery, 

5th Training Battalion. I’ll say one 
thing for the cadre at Bra\o-5: They i 
didn’t give a hoot if you were a Viet- 
nam vet or what rank you held the 
first time around. Now, you were a . 
private and a recruit. 

Not that 1 was exF>ecting any 
special consideration. Of course, 
there were the expected jokes about 
our ages — 1 was the oldest of the 
prior-service people and there was 
no hiding my gray hair, no matter 
how short it was. 

One drill sergeant referred to 
me as “Papa-san,” although I sus- 
pect he was actually a couple of 
years older than 1. .\nother said I ^ 
might die of a heart attack once the t 
PT really got going. 

My platoon sergeant. SFC 
Robert Nuckolls, liked to refer to 
everyone as “son.” But he once 
warned, “Kovach is the only one ^ 
who can call me son . . . and get 
away with it.” Nuckolls was about 
nine years my junior. 

One of the big differences I 
noticed in comparing basic training 
of 1982 with that of 1963 was the 
ages of the drill sergeants. The drill * 
sergeants at Fort Sill were, on the 
average, much older than those I re- 
membered at Fort Ord. Calif., in 
1963. My platoon sergeant in 1963 
was only about 23. .-\nd not to put 

down my former drill sergeants, I 
feel the Bravo-5 cadre was much 
more professional and experienced 
than my sergeants 19 years ago. 

Also, this go-around we went 
through One Station Unit Training, 
which we didn’t have in 1963. The 
drill sergeants at Fort Sill not only 
trained soldiers in the basic skills, 
they were also the best in their re- 
spective MOSs. In my case, that was 
13E, cannon fire-directional spe- 
cialist, which was the same job I’d 
had the first time. Our job is to 
compute firing data to send to the 
'people on the big guns. 

1 was fortunate to have two 
NCOs, Nuckolls and SSgt. Rodney 
Beck, who were qualified as 13- 
Echoes and who were also willing to 
spend long hours passing on their 
knowledge and skills to the new 

We had some other drill ser- 
geants in the battery who also im- 
pressed me by the way they did their 
jobs. One who especially stands out 
in my mind is SSgt. James Watley, a 
black belt in karate. Watley was a 
soldier’s soldier. The man was 
sharp. He was hard, but he knew 
how to train soldiers. He com- 
jmanded respect. He’d push you to 
your limit and then some, but you 
jdidn’t mind. His favorite saying: 
|“No pain, no gain!” 

When 1 compare the basic 
jtraining of 1963 and 1982, one of 
|the first things that comes to mind is 
Iwomen in the Army. In 1963, 
Women didn’t train with the men. In 
fact, nurses were about the only 
Women 1 saw in the Army back 
[hen. In Bravo 5, four women 
irained with us. (EDITOR’S NOTE: 
jCoed basic was discontinued on 
!Aug. 30, 1982.) 

' I feel there was more PT the 
jtime I was in basic. At 
Fort Ord in 1963, we ran 
everywhere — to the rifle 
range, to classes and so 
forth. At Fort Sill, cattle 
ears were used to trans- 
port us to various loca- 
ions. This speeded up 

Basic trainee PFC Tommy 
Kovach sounds off for SFC 
Robert Nuckolls in 1982. 

things, but the men hated the cattle 
cars and found them rather humil- 
iating. 1 think we could have used 
the additional PT. 

Back in basic of 1963 we also 
handled and fired our rifles more. 
We had the heavier M-14, but we 
did a lot of rifle PT and fired more 
rounds during our weapons qualifi- 
cations. In my second basic training 
we only had rifle PT once. 

Inspections: Oddly enough, 
we did not have one wall locker in- 
spection at Fort Sill. In 1963 we had 
at least one a week. We had only one 
in-ranks inspection at Fort Sill, and 
that was by the battalion com- 
mander. In my first basic we had 
many in-ranks inspections, in fa- 
tigues or dress greens and with 

I’ll say one thing, the bar- 
racks I had at Fort Ord certainly did 
not compare with my billets at Fort 
Sill. At Ord we had open bays and 
bunks. At Sill we had three men to a 
room, our own bathrooms, carpet- 
ing on the floor, desks and wide 
beds. That part was certainly a wel- 
come change. 

There were many similarities 
in the two basics, especially in terms 
of personnel. In 1963 with the draft, 
we had a lot of people who had a 
college education or some kind of 
college background. Because the 
U.S. economy was bad at that mo- 
ment, there were a lot of people in 
basic in 1982 who also had a college 
background. They entered the Army 
to take advantage of the military’s 
attractive educational opportuni- 
ties. The Army pay is also competi- 
tive now. 

Another trainee and I sur- 
veyed the battery to determine why 
people had joined. 

Our findings, based on about 

90 percent of the battery, were 
rather interesting. 

About 62.5 percent of the re- 
cruits were under age 21 while those 
over 28 constituted 15 percent. 
That’s quite a contrast to 1963 when 
I saw very few trainees over 24. In 
the battery, 12.2 percent of the 
troops had prior service. College ex- 
perience showed up at 37.5 percent, 
of which 17 percent had more than 
two years of college. 

Trainees came from all walks 
of life. Their backgrounds ranged 
from undertakers to masons, car- 
penters to busboys, truck drivers to 
college students, and farmers to 
store clerks. 

Why did they join? Money 
was the main reason for 65 percent. 
Other reasons mentioned to one de- 
gree or another were college bene- 
fits, adventure or career, 20 percent 
each; to have a job, 17.5 percent; 
experience, 12.5 percent; patriot- 
ism, 12.5 percent; physical develop- 
ment, 7.5 percent; to learn respect, 
7.5 percent; and to get away, 7.5 

When I was in basic training 
in 1963, some of the men I trained 
with in 1982 had not yet been born. 
Some were toddlers when I was 
shooting fire missions in Vietnam. 
Some of my sergeants and officers 
were in grade school when I was 
slogging through the jungles of 
Southeast Asia. 

I found myself adapting 
rather well. I ran with them, 
marched with them, did PT and 
push-ups and held my own. In fact, 
in the two-mile run during the PT 
test, I found I could outrun about 
90 percent of the battery. 

There were times when I had 
doubts: six weeks without a beer or 
pass, two months with no news- 
Biii Hardy paper, getting up at 3:30 
in the morning, some- 
times running five or six 
miles before breakfast 
with a drill sergeant sing- 
ing ranger songs. 

But I made it. 
And it was a good feel- 

A damn good feel- 
ing. □ 

Sp4 Christine Buckingham 

Bayonets Return to Hawaii 

SCHOFIELD BARRACKS, Hawaii — The 25th Infantry 
Division is bringing back the bayonet fighter. 

The 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry, recently conducted 
model unit training with the bayonet to show com- 
manders, platoon leaders, and platoon sergeants and 
squad leaders how effective bayonet training works. 

The program consists of progressive training: 
learning the moves, attack positions and skills, training 
in small groups, and working up to company-level exer- 
cises. Soldiers also complete an obstacle course. 

The course puts the training together. It give sol- 
diers a chance to improve their techniques on a simu- 
lated battlefield complete with training grenades and 
smoke screens. 

All infantry units in the division will eventually 
receive the same training. — Sp4 Jay Field 

6th MPs Are Army’s Tops 

MUENSTER-DIEBURG, West Germany — The 6th Military 
Police Company here is the Army’s best. The unit won the 
J.P. Holland Award, an annual prize given to the Army’s 
top MP company. 

The 6th MPs, a site security unit, competed against 
all MP companies in the Army. The units were graded on 
training, extra projects, results and re-enlistment statis- 
tics in addition to their regular missions. 

The unit placed a strong emphasis on academics 
last year. In 1981, only six people from the unit attended 
civilian education programs. Last year, the figure jumped 
to 296. 

“Soldiers had always been told, ‘You can't take 
college courses because you work shifts,’ ’’ said Capt. 
Jennie Nicotera, company commander. “So. we brought 
the classes to them.” Classes such as law enforcement, 
emergency medical technician and basic skills are now 
taught in the MPs’ work areas. 

“The extra 
projects really 
swung the award to 
us,” said 1st Lt. 
James Harrison, se- 
curity officer. “We 
just didn't sit on 
our mission. We ex- 
tended ourselves into 
the community.” 

The unit was involved in a major operation in 
Aschaffenburg last summer which led to the arrest and 
conviction of two rapist-murderers. The MPs also helped 
crack a $40,000 drug ring in and around that area. 

Huachucans Relive 1877 March 

FORT HUACHUCA, Ariz. — A troop of cavalry soldiers 
rode back through history recently when they helped 
celebrate Fort Huachuca’s 106th anniversary. 

Members of B Troop. 4th Regiment. U.S. Cavalry 
(Memorial), retraced the route used by Capt. Samuel M 
Whitside in 1877 that led to the establishment of the fort 
In February of that year, Whitside took two troops 
of cavalry and established a camp to protect the settlers 
and travel routes in southeastern Arizona. 

He found an ideal site at the mouth of the Hua- 
chuca Canyon. Today, that site is still a part of the Army 
Whitside’s Camp Huachuca is the only active post left of 

some 50 frontier Army 
forts established in Ari- 
zona in the latter part of 
the 19th century. 

In February. B 
Troop members left Tuc- 
son, Ariz., carrying food 
and equipment and wear- 
ing the same type uni- 
forms cavalry soldiers 
wore a century ago. 

The troop, made up 
of volunteer civilians and 
soldiers, was formed m 
1973 to keep alive the heri- 
tage of the fort's early cav 
airy beginnings. Bii< 

USAF Award 

BASE, Colo. — The mem- 
bers of the Army element 
of the 3420th Technical 
Training Group here will 
soon be sporting the red. 
white and blue Air Force 
Outstanding Unit Award 
ribbon. The Group recently 
won for meritorious serv- 
ice in providing photog- 
raphy and graphics train- 
ing to students of all the 
military services. — U. 
Col. Hal Boeder 



: A cool mist dampens the dawn’s air and clings to the beaches as the 
i sun rises to warm the day. The men hunker down in their positions, 
rechecking their weapons, ever eyeing the approaching invasion fleet. 
' The enemy must be stopped at the water’s edge. 




Clockwise from above: 
American soldiers 
scramble for cover 
while under heavy fire 
from the defenders. • 
The German defensive 
positions were well 
prepared, complete 
with minefields. • Ger- 
man soldiers on the 
assault against an 
Allied position guard- 
ing a bridge. • A 
British commando lies 
where he fell. • Ameri- 
can soldiers make 
their way inland from 
the beaches. 



IT was like a dream — a scene from World War II — June 6, 
1944, all over again. But this was not the Normandy coast- 
line of France. The scene was Fort Story, Va. The men were 
prepared to die, knowing full well that they could return 
from the dead five minutes later. They had only to play the 
parts of soldiers this day. 

They came from across the eastern half of the United 
States — places such as Washington, Chicago and St. Louis. 
They were actors, machinists, students and laborers. But for 
today they were soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS fighting 
for the Fatherland, British commandos snaking their way 
through ravines or American assault troops scrambling 
across the mine-strewn beaches. They had come to Fort 
Story to re-enact history. 

The battle was staged by the National World War II 
Re-enactment Federation, which is dedicated to studying the 
importance of the foot soldier in that war. 

GARY L. KIEFFER is a former staff photographic supervisor with SOLDIERS. He is now a 
staff photographer with Nation’s Business magazine in Washington, D.C. 

JUNE 1983 


Clockwise Irom left: German soldiers defend the 
high ground alongside the roadway • American 
soldiers check out the terrain before lea«ir>g pro^ 
tective cover. • A camouflaged German soldier 
takes time for a smoke. • A lone soldier sur- 
renders to the invading army. • A British com- 
mando ready for the attack. 

The federation has no particular political leanings 
and is not a paramilitary organization or a band of armed 
zealots. “We consider ourselves to be active historians,’’ ex- 
plained Tom Stubblefield, a professional actor portraying 
an officer of the 1st SS Panzer Division. 

“We have to be legit,’’ he said. “Otherwise we’d 
never be allowed to use military installations.’’ 

The federation holds other mock battles as well as the 
D-Day assault. Fort Indiantown Gap, Pa., is the location 
for an annual re-enactment of the Battle of the Bulge. The 
sites are chosen to closely approximate the terrain of the ac- 
tual battles. Besides reliving history, some of the men say 
they participate because they never really outgrew playing 
soldiers as children. Others do it mainly to blow off steam 
on the weekends. 

For whatever reason, they banded together once again 
to fight on the beaches at Fort Story. Unlike the soldiers 
they portrayed, they’d all be alive in the afternoon. 1 : 



Compiled by Faith Faircloth 

Information for Families 



Keep Poisons Out of Kids’ 
Reach— Children tend to touch, 
hold and taste items as a means 
1 of learning. According to the 
National Safety Council, / 
however, many common / 
household items can be / 
harmful to children if the i 
substances are swal- 
lowed. ^1^ 

More than half of all ^ 
reported poisonings involve chil- 
dren 5 years of age and under. To 
prevent your child from becoming 
a statistic, the council recom- 
mends these safeguards against 
accidental poisonings: 

• Put away all hazardous 
substances and medicines. Lock 
up household chemicals such as 
cleaners, polishing agents, sol- 
vents and paints. Put hazardous 
substances and medicines in up- 
per cabinets, out of the reach of 

• Store products in their 
original containers, not in cups, 
bowls, bottles or other objects 
children associate with food. 

• Teach children that poi- 
son can hurt. Explain that poi- 
sons can look like foods or 
treats. Let them know that medi- 
cine is used for illness, and is not 

I candy or something good to taste. 

I • Purchase medicines with 

i childproof safety caps if you 
have small children at home. In- 
stall child-resistant latches and 
locks on cupboards where harm- 
ful products are stored. 

• Keep the telephone 
numbers of your pediatrician, 
family doctor and local poison 
control center near the phone. 
Have the poison container in 
hand when you call so you can 
describe the substance your 
child swallowed. 

• Keep syrup of ipecac 
(pronounced “IP-a-kack”) at 
home for poison emergencies. 
Your doctor or poison control 

center will tell you whether to use 
the syrup, which induces vomit- 
ing. (Vomiting is a treatment for 
many poisonous substances, but 
not all.) 

The council says it’s bet- 
ter to be safe than sorry. If you 
think your child has swallowed a 
harmful substance, contact one 
of the poison prevention author- 
ities as soon as possible. — Na- 
tional Safety Council 

Individual Retirement Accounts 
are Everyman’s Tax Break— Any- 
one who earns an income in a 
part-time or full-time job can in- 
vest up to $2,000 a year in an IRA. 
If both a husband and wife work, 
each may invest up to $2,000. 

The amount you invest 
each year is deducted from your 
taxable income and will not be 
taxed until you start withdrawing 
it after age 59V2. Interest and 
dividends also are not taxed until 
you start withdrawing the money. 

If only one spouse works, 
the couple may also start an IRA 

for the non-working spouse. The 
total annual contribution to both 
accounts cannot exceed $2,250. 
The spouses can divide contribu- 
tions between their accounts as 
they choose as long as no more 
than $2,000 is deposited into 
either one of them. 

Although $2,000 is the 
maximum annual amount you 
can contribute to a plan, there is 
no minimum. It doesn’t matter 
whether you contribute in small 
amounts over the course of the 
year or deposit one lump sum. 

There are many ways you 
can establish an IRA. It can be 
passbook savings accounts, cer- 
tificates of deposit, certain 
limited real estate investment 
partnerships, and even regular 
pension plans. However, you can- 
not put IRA money into collecti- 
bles, such as antiques, artwork, 
stamps or coins, or into regular 
life insurance contracts. 

If you are not sure about 
the investment value of one IRA, 
you can put your money in a num- 
ber of accounts. But your total 
annual contribution to all the ac- 
counts may not exceed $2,000. 

Also, you can move your 
money from one account to 
another. If the money passes 
through your hands, you have 60 
days to redeposit it into another 
account. You may only do this 
once a year. If the money is trans- 
ferred directly from one account 
to another, you may move it as 
often as you like. Just be aware 
that you may pay handling fees 
or a penalty to the bank or institu- 
tion managing your account. 

To learn more about IRAs, 
visit your library, which should 
have references. A booklet, “A 
Guide to Individual Retirement 
Accounts,” is available for $2 
from the Consumer Information 
Center, Dept. 196L, Pueblo, Colo. 
81009.— News for Consumers 



was two years old the first time 
1 rode in a truck,” said Sp5 
Donald Hester. “My grand- 
father was a trucker, my dad 
was a trucker, and now I’m a 
trucker. It’s in my blood.” 

Hester is assigned to the 89th 
Transportation Company, 53rd 
Transportation Battalion, 37th 
Transportation Group, Kaiserslau- 
tern, West Germany. 

“I’ve been trucking since 1 
was 17, except for the first time 1 
was stationed in Germany. I was in 
the field artillery then. My recruiter 
said that was more fun than driving. 
1 was gullible.” 

After his first tour in Ger- 
many, he got out and started truck- 
ing full time. He hauled steel, con- 
crete, explosives and rocks around 
New York, Connecticut, New Jersey 
and Rhode Island. 

Yearning for cross-country 
travel, Hester took a job in Kansas. 
“I saw more country in that six 

months than 1 had ever seen before 
— California, Florida, Texas, Okla- 
homa, Washington. 

“1 made good money, but 
the security the Army gives you just 
wasn’t there. 1 had just married 
when truckers started striking in 
Florida. So 1 joined the .Army again. 
Sometimes 1 miss the money 1 made, 
especially when 1 don’t have any. 
I’ll be riding down the road wishing 
1 had 35 cents for a soda. That’s 
when 1 wish 1 was back in the states. 
I guess it doesn’t make any dif- 
ference, though. I enjoy what I’m 

Hester spends anywhere 
from 50 to 60 hours a week hauling 
just about anything in the .Army’s 
inventory all over Germany. 

“Our company has even 
hauled parts for a bowling alley. 
Today I’m hauling a shipment to a 
warehouse just outside Mannheim. 
It’s a short haul, meaning 1 won’t be 
out overnight,” he said. “The 

longest haul I’\c made was a spcci^: 
run to Denmark and back. Twenty 
hours — whew! Now. that’s a lon^ ; 
haul, a real long haul.” tHe had an 
assistant keeping him company on 
that run.; 

Before heading down the 
road to .Mannheim, Hester had to i 
do several things. First, he checked j 
his .M-915’s oil, lights and tire pres- | 
sure, as he does every morning at *». 
He then read and signed a safety 
briefing and picked up his opera- 
tions order. .A white posterboard 
sign hanging above the operation:: 
office window listed truckers in the 
“Top .Milers Club.” Hester’s name 
was there, next to 44,882 miles. 

Paperwork completed now. 
Hester drove around the motor poo! ^ 
looking for the trailer he was sup- 
posed to haul. He found it and slowiy i 
backed up, constantly checking hi: 
rear and sideview mirrors. He 
jumped out of the cab and hooked 
up to the trailer. He climbed back 





Story and Photos by SSgt. Victoria Mouze 

Sp5 Donald Hester and Sharon spend 
50 to 60 hours a week on the road. 
Their destination might be just a 
couple of hours down the German 
highway or 20 hours away in 
Denmark. Their mission is always 
the same: moving Army cargo. 


into the cab, revved up the 400- 
: horsepower engine and drove to the 
r checkpoint, where a problem was 
i found with his trailer. 

“I shouldn’t have been 
allowed to hook up in the first 
iplace,” a miffed Hester said. “If a 
trailer isn’t right. I’m not going to 
ipull it. It’s not safe. Now I have to 
take it back and get another one. 
Some days it’s just like that.’’ 

Back at the motor pool, 
Hester had to be ground-guided into 
:a narrow slot between other trailers. 
:“You want me to put this trailer in 
!there?’’ he asked. “Isn’t it kind of 
;shallow? I’m going to have to grease 
it to get it in there. Yeah, it’s going 
to be tight. You want me to do the 
! impossible.’’ 

He parked, unhooked and 
■ drove back to the operations office. 
“I got all day and all night to get a 
itrailer. If I can’t take this one, there 
lis always something to take some- 
Iwhere.’’ Sometimes, however, he 

isn’t so patient and understanding. 

“I’ll have been out on the 
road all week and run into problems 
like this. I’ll say the heck with them 
and tell the company I’ve had it and 
then they’ll say, ‘You gotta work 

“But I never get to the point 
where I can’t handle it. I just get in 
my truck, roll up the windows, lock 
the doors and turn on my music. 
Running the truck calms me down. 
Then I go back to the motor pool, 
get another load and roll on down.’’ 

An hour later, he had hooked 
up to another trailer containing 
15,000 pounds — 945 cases or 
11,340 individual boxes — of 
C-rats. His destination was still 
Mannheim, and he was ready to 
roll. “To get out of Kaiserslautern, 
you have to go down a bunch of 
hills. Hills are scary, but it’s twice as 
dangerous now since there is a lot of 
construction going on. But the more 
danger involved, the more I like it. 

Danger is the whole thing really. 
You’ve got to be alert every second. 
It’s definitely a challenge.’’ 

To the Army, his truck is an 
M-915 tractor; to Hester, it’s 
“Sharon.’’ “Trucks have their own 
personality,’’ he said. “They may 
look the same, but they’re not. Mine 
steers and handles differently. My 
brakes are set a certain way. I’ve got 
a heavy foot, so they’re purposely a 
little loose. Each driver has a certain 
way he wants his truck. My truck is 
‘my’ truck. 

“When you get in there, 
you’ve got to think ‘truck.’ That’s 
all you can think. If you think about 
relatives or friends across the water, 
you’re going to have an accident. 
Say I start worrying about my son, 
who might be sick that day. I’m not 
thinking about keeping my distance 
from that truck in front of me. Sud- 
denly he slows down. Crash! I’m 
piled up on that truck. 

“You can’t daydream and be 

a trucker,” Hester asserted. “You 
have to watch signs, people, traffic, 
air pressure, fuel and so on.” 

He has trained himself to 
think “truck” by getting problems 
squared away before he drives. And 
he stresses that to his students. New 
64Cs (motor transport operators) 
ride “shotgun” with experienced 
drivers for 3,000 miles before get- 
ting their own truck. 

“1 tell my students they need 
a clear head before getting in here. 
Sometimes they just don’t listen. 
They might have partied a lot the 
night before. They come in and ex- 
pect me to let them drive. For some, 
this is the first time away from 
home. You’ve got kids coming over 
here wanting to drive a tractor- 
trailer, which is about 30 tons zip- 
ping down the highway at 50 mph. 
If it hits a car, it’ll Just roll right 
over it. 

“So when students are driv- 
ing, 1 have to be on them every 

minute. I talk to them in a rational 
tone so they won’t get upset. If they 
do, they might cause more damage 
than they would’ve in the first place. 

“I’m constantly talking. I’ll 
tell them, ’When you come to that 
curve, slow down. Brake too hard 
and we’ll be eating windshield.’ Or, 
‘Why are you going over there? 
That’s a no passing zone. You have 
to watch the signs. If you don’t, 
you’ll be buying that Mercedes over 

“.After awhile, students 
catch on. They start thinking, *1 
can’t do this and I can’t do that. 
And if something happens, 1 have to 
do this.’ ” 

A former student of his had a 
habit of making wide turns. Hester 
had told him to watch the trailer; 
otherwise, he would have an acci- 
dent. Within two weeks after getting 
his own truck, he had an accident. 

“If you swing too wide, 
you’ll run up on the curb and hit 

something,” Hester warned. “Ger- 
man towns are crowded. It’s hard to 
drive a 40-foot trailer on those nar- 
row, winding streets. 

“If you run over something 
like a street sign, rest assured some- 
one is going to report it,” Hester ad- 
vised. “Consequently, the U.S. 
Army has to pay for damages. So 
far, I haven’t had an accident." 

The 4th Transportation 
Command goal is less than 6 acci- 
dents per million miles. Hester’s 
company is part of the command. 
His commander, Capt. .Mark 
Scheid, noted the unit has experi- 
enced just 2.3 accidents per million 
miles — the last 5(X).000 (as of mid- 
.April) were accident-free. 

.Most accidents occur while 
backing up. Extra mirrors and 
ground guides have been added to 
reduce backing accidents. 

Drivers who don’t have acci- 
dents can earn plaques and trophies. 
Hester is working towards his 

i 60,000 accident-free miles trophy. 
’ After that, he can get awards for 
80,000, 100,000 and 150,000 miles. 

However, truckers can lose 
miles for going too fast. Speed is 
recorded on a card inside the truck’s 
tachometer box. Truckmasters check 
that card each morning. Soldiers 
' who go more than 50 mph can lose 
1,000 miles, plus get a counseling 
I statement or Article 15. 

I Hester turned on his tape 

player, a car stereo mounted in a 
plywood box. It’s inscribed with; 
“Donald L. Hester — Keep your 
hands off — Or I break your face.’’ 
Cruising in a 915, going 50 mph 
I down the highway while Stevie 
' Wonder sings “That Girl’’ is surely 
a different way to see Europe. 
Music helps keep Hester awake. 

“Coffee helps, but I don’t 
j like the feel it gives me when I drink 
a lot. I get jittery. When I’m on the 
road, that’s the last thing I need. 
Soda is my main thing. By drinking 

sodas, I can stay awake all night 

“Plus, I keep my eyes mov- 
ing by looking at the gauges, the 
road, the traffic. If I keep my mind 
working, I can’t go to sleep. I think 
what’s happening with the truck, or 
what I need to do if a car stops 

“If I do get too sleepy, I stop 
and exercise or walk around. When 
I get back into the truck. I’ll turn 
the heater off and open the win- 
dows. When that cool air hits me, 
that usually does the trick.’’ 

Truckers on the road at night 
are required to call the battalion at 
dusk. The battalion staff duty offi- 
cer will either tell them to continue 
or to stop for the night. The unit is 
very strict about calling. With 50 to 
60 drivers on the road, there has to 
be some way of knowing where 
everyone is. 

“Driving in darkness is very 
difficult,” Hester said. “For one 

thing, you can’t see the trailer all the 
time. But for me, it’s just another 
challenge. I love it. I love everything 
about trucking. 

“But I don’t now how much 
longer I’ll get to drive a 915. When I 
re-enlist for the states, I could end 
up driving a sedan or a deuce and a 
half. I’ve done that before, but it 
got boring. If I have a choice. I’ll 
take the 915. I wouldn’t even have 
to think about it.” 

Hester got into Mannheim at 
10 a.m. He found the warehouse 
and backed in against the loading 
dock. While the truck was being un- 
loaded, he decided to walk to the 
lounge for some hot chocolate. An 
hour later, the truck was empty. 

He climbed up on the trailer, 
tied the tarp down and headed back 
for the 89th. He would drop off his 
rig, pull maintenance and go home. 
Getting up at 4:30 the next morning, 
he would begin another day of 
truckin’ — and love every minute. □ 

Trucking is more than 
just getting into the cab 
and taking off. Hester 
ensures the tarp and 
trailer, left, are secure. 
Above, when highways 
start looking the same, 
Hester drinks soda to 
keep alert. 


t is 6:30 a.m. and still dark in 
West Palm Beach, Fla. A gentle 
breeze rustles through the palm 
trees lining the street. 

After quietly closing the 
door of her motel room, SSgt. 
Valerie Sturdivant walks to a blue 
van in the parking lot. 

She joins her team chief, 
SFC Norman E. Smith Jr., who is 
already busy in a vehicle parked 
near the van. 

Smith has spent the last half 
hour in the cab of a $250,000 trac- 
tor-trailer rig. He has already 
checked the air hoses, battery, radi- 
ator and transmission. As he reads 
the gauges and dials on the cab’s in- 
strument panel, he makes notes in a 
log book. 

This vehicle isn’t like anything 
you’ll find in your motor pool . . . 
there are only eight truck rigs like 
this in the Army. From ceiling to 
seats, the cab’s interior is covered 
with soft, brown, leather-like mate- 

rial. The driver’s seat is specially 
made to soften the gut-wrenching 
jerks of long hours of driving. A 
sleeper is concealed behind the 
seats. The cab’s instrument panel, 
filled with dials, gauges and 
switches, looks like it belongs in a 
747 jumbo jet instead of in an Army 

The outside of the vehicle 
doesn’t look like something you’d 
find in a motor pool either. The all- 
white body is trimmed in red and 
blue. The cab door, sides and 
spoiler sport red, white and blue 
signs: “Army — Be .All You Can 
Be.’’ The shining chrome reHects 
the scenery it passes. 

Inside the trailer is a mini- 
ature theater with enough chairs to 
seat 30 people, dimming lights, 
heating and air conditioning. In the 
rear, si.x projectors — facing three 
screens at the front of the room — 
are used for the main attraction, a 
10 '/ 2 -minute slide show. The show 

presents a series of character sketches ^ 
of soldiers and what they base gained i ^ 
from the Army. The presentation 
also highlights what the Army has to 
offer high school graduates and col- 
lege students — educational bene- 
fits, skills, travel and exjv^rience. 

Smith and Sturdivant are ex- 
hibit specialists assigned to the 
-Army’s Recruiting Support Center, 
Cameron Station, .Alexandria, N'a. 

The two NCOS spend 1 1 
months each year taking their 
mobile theater to different parts of ' 

the United States. They cover about 
25,000 miles and 12 states during 
that time. They are part of a tour 
program made up of more than 40 
other specialists, 17 exhibits and 33 * 

vehicles. ^ 

Each day, they visit a differ- 
ent high school. Smith driving the 
rig, and Sturdivant following in the 
van. The van carries their luggage 
and equipment that won’t fit in the 
trailer. They also use the van for 


Story and Photos by SSgt. Terri Wiram 

Telling the Army’s story to the 
American public takes sharp troops, 
hefty equipment and a lot of time. 
Traveling exhibits are one way to get 
people’s attention. Road shows and 
their crews do just that across the 
country for 1 1 months each year. 

• 9 - 



transportation in and around the 
areas they put on shows. 

It takes about an hour to set 
up the theater once they’ve reached 
their destination. The majority of 
their audiences are high school stu- 
dents, Sturdivant commented. The 
team gives a brief introduction 
before the slide show, telling the 
students who they are, where they’re 
from and why they are visiting the 
school. After the presentation, the 
team passes out lead cards to those 
who are interested in knowing more 
about the Army. Then, a local Army 
recruiter answers any specific ques- 
tions that students may have. 

The touring program reaches 
about 4 million people and gener- 
ates more than 80,000 recruiting 
leads each year. That’s a lot of 
miles, towns and talking for the 
center’s exhibit specialists. 

“I like to travel,” Sturdivant 
said. ‘T like doing the job and talk- 
ing to people. They get to see that 

there are women in the Army and 
that they don’t look like the Hulk. I 
like that part of it. I feel like Tm 
doing something. 

“Nine out of 10 of the kids 
are interested,” she said. “The 
juniors don’t know what they want 
to do. Sometimes the seniors don’t 
know what they want to do either. 
When they get ready to graduate, 
they start asking themselves, ‘Hey 
what do I want to do? Do I want to 
go to college? I’ve been in school for 
the last 12 years, I need a break!’ ” 

Although the job takes the 
team to such places as West Palm 
Beach, it’s far from a vacation. 
When they aren’t setting up or 
presenting the show, or checking the 
vehicles and equipment, they’re 
behind the wheel, headed for a new 
location — often in a different state. 

“I get tired of living in motels 
and eating in restaurants,” Sturdi- 
vant said. “Right now, nothing 
would be better than to go to my 

home and have a home-cooked 
meal, but that’s part of the job.” 
“Since I’ve been with the 
center. I’ve been to California, Ore- 
gon, Utah, Wyoming and Georgia,” 
Smith said. “You get a little lonely 
sometimes. I do once in awhile. 
When you’re very busy, you don’t 
feel it. Sometimes I want to be 
home, where I can be in my own 
car, around my friends and family.” 
Part of the family he misses 
is his 9-year-old son, Norman E. 
Smith III. His dad calls him Scooter. 

“When he was small, I 
changed his diapers and all of that,” 
Smith said. “I flew all the way in 
from out here on the road for his 
birthday. He goes to karate and 
swim classes and takes violin 
lessons. I want him to be versatile. 

“He lived with me until I 
came on this job, now he’s with his 
mother. He’ll be back with me when 
I leave this job.” 

Before joining the center a 





year and a half ago, Smith worked 
as a recruiter in Silver Spring, Md. 

“After 1 leave here. I’d like 
to go back to recruiting,” he said. 
“1 like dealing with people.” 

Dealing with people is the 
most positive thing about the job 
for Sp4 Rick Nolff. He is assigned 
to the center’s only history exhibit, 
which was on display in Chicago 
while Smith and Sturdivant were 
touring Florida. The show, “In Step 
With America,” is set up in indoor 
areas like classrooms or gyms to tell 
the history and the contributions the 
Army has made to society. Nolff is 
half of the two-member team which 
uses a five-ton truck to take the ex- 
hibit to different parts of the United 

“The positive things are the 
people you meet out on the road,” 
Nolff said. “You get so many dif- 
ferent views about things like the 
economic crisis. You’re not hearing 
it from one spot in the United 

States. You’re hearing it from all 
over, from students and the adults. 
It sort of opens up your mind a lit- 
tle, and I like that. 

“I like talking with people 
about the service,” he continued, 
“because 1 think the service is great. 
Even if you only come in for two 
years, it’s a good experience for 
anyone, no matter what branch you 
go into.” 

Home-cooked meals are also 
something Nolff misses traveling 11 
months each year. “It sounds like a 
life of luxury when you’re living in 
hotels and eating in restaurants, but 
after awhile it gets to be an old 
thing,” he said. 

“A lot of your personal time 
that you had sort of taken for 
granted earlier, you don’t have any- 
more.” What free time there is on 
the road is usually spent catching up 
on laundry and letter writing, 
watching TV, going to the movies or 
doing a little sight-seeing. 

Nolff spends his free time ; 
running. He runs five times a week. :> 
four to seven miles a day. 

Before joining the center a 
year ago, he says he qualified for the 
Army .Marathon Team. 

“.At Fort Bragg, I would run i 
sometimes three times a day, about 
18 miles,” Nolff said. "1 probably 
only run half as much now.” k - 

Working on the history ex- : 
hibit has taught Nolff some things I ; 
he didn’t know about the .Army. 

“You’re learning something 
new every day. The different infor- 
mation on the history modules are ^ ! 
things that people never knew | . 
about. They never knew we were in- j 
solved in building the monuments in 
Washington, D.C., or the different : 
medical discoveries we’ve had, like j 
malaria vaccine. The parka came ' 
from the .Army, and instant coffee i 
and frozen foods came out of ideas ; 
from the military itself.” 

Working as an exhibit spe- t 

Above, SFC Norman 
Smith checks his paper- 
work before hitting the 
road. . Right, Sp4 Rick 
Nolff fields questions 
from curious high school 
students. . SSgt. Valerie 
Sturdivant, Smith’s 
teammate, gets ready for 
the day’s work. 




1 cialist is a special duty assignment. 
) Soldiers are hand-picked for the 
( two-year tour at the center. 

I In order to qualify, soldiers 

j must be high school graduate with a 
» GT score of 110. They must also be 
! able to get a driver’s license and pre- 
sent a neat personal appearance. 

Before going out as part of a 
permanent exhibit team, new spe- 
cialists spend two weeks on the job 
training with a team. There they 
learn about the equipment, mainte- 
nance and presenting the exhibits. 
They receive tips, for example, on 
how to survive on the civilian 
economy for months at a time. They 
I also learn procedures for getting 
their equipment and vehicles re- 
paired by commercial shops. 

Toward the end of the year 
the teams return to Cameron Sta- 
tion. There are new displays to in- 
stall, maintenance to pull on the 
vehicles and classes for the teams. 

“Usually we’re TOY from 

January 15 until December 15,’’ 
Nolff said. “When we go back to 
the unit, we take care of personal 
needs. We also have classes on 
things the center will bring out, and 
on new exhibits they want us to be 
acquainted with.” 

“You learn about uniform 
changes and any new paperwork,” 
Sturdivant said. “You also take the 
PT test and a defensive driving 

For SFC Joe Williams, his- 
tory exhibit team chief, the time 
back at the unit also means a rare 
visit with his wife. Williams 
volunteered for service on the road 
and says it’s not really rough being 
separated for so long from his wife 
— but it is expensive. 

“We’ve only been married a 
year,” he said. “We’re still newly- 
weds! I talk to her every night on the 
phone. It runs about $300 to $400 
per month, but we feel it’s worth it.” 

Being on the road gives him 

the chance to see parts of the coun- 
try he hadn’t seen before. “When a 
guy’s on a vacation, the vacation is 
so short he doesn’t have the chance 
to see as much as I do,” he said. 
“I’m looking all year.” 

Williams takes pictures every- 
where he goes and keeps them in a 

“When you reflect years 
from now, there will not be any 
doubt as you look through your 
book,” he said. “Mississippi, Ten- 
nessee, Iowa, Florida — there will 
not be any doubt as to where you’ve 

Hard work and a positive at- 
titude are the things that make this 
unusual duty-on-the-road work. 

“Being on the truck is a lot 
of work and effort,” Smith said. 
“It ain’t easy talkin’ every day to a 
bunch of students. But you try to be 
enthusiastic and graceful with them. 
When I find I’m not enthusiastic, 
it’s time for me to move on.” □ 

^ 1 

: J 

4 ^- 1 

^ ‘^ .^1 


? 1 

igh school students look over the Arnny’s traveling history exhibit. This indoor 
splay traces the Army’s contributions to American society. 

JUNE 1983 


G«f>« PtMtin 

Anderson (left) with actor 

Leon Isaac Kennedy 

Capt. John Ander- 
son, a missile systems 
maintenance officer at 
Fort Bliss, Texas, acts as 
a hobby. 

Anderson passed 
an audition for the largest 
local part in "Lone Wolf 
McQuade." a new Chuck 
Norris film made in Texas. 

"I firmly believe ev- 
ery soldier should have a 
hobby," he said. He’s a 
member of an El Paso rep- 
ertory theater group. 

Anderson plays the 
part of FBI agent Burnside 
in the movie. 

"Burnside is an of- 
fice supervisor," he said. 
"He Is up for a promotion 
and realizes he needs a 
successful mission to get 
It. There is this gun-run- 
ning problem In El Paso. 

and Burnside takes the 
case out of the hands of 
qualified agents. He is a 
lerk and before he finishes 
interfering, he alienates 
the Texas Rangers, seri- 
ously jeopardizes the mis- 
sion and gets himself and 
two agents killed." 

After final editing, 
Anderson’s part in the film 
may be 15 minutes long. 

"It took two weeks 
to film that 15 minutes." 
he said. — Chris Estes 

Army SSgt. Lee 
Mahlstede wanted to be 
all he could be — so he 
joined the Marines for a 

He is the first sol- 
dier to attend the Marine 
Security Guard School, 
Quantico, Va., since it be- 
gan in 1954. 

Mahlstede is the 
NCOIC, U.S. Mission Se- 
curity Detachment. Berlin. 
He is in charge of 12 mili- 
tary policemen and two 

"When I received 
the assignment, I knew I 
wanted our detachment to 
be as professional as the 
embassy’s Marine secur- 
ity guards. So I asked for 
any kind of school that 
would help me." Mahl- 
stede said. 

The father of seven 
completed the same six 
weeks of training as 
his Marine classmates. 
Classes included security 
inspections, emergency 
destruction, firefighting, 
terrorist activities, and for- 
eign methods of espio- 
nage. He also received 
weapons training and. of 
course, there was PT. “As 
a matter of fact. I lost 
nearly 20 pounds." he 

"Too bad he’s in 
the Army." a classmate 
said. "He’d make a good 
Marine.” —SSgt. Becki 
Wass. USMC. 

Elaine and Mary ) 
Bowles have a lot in com- i 
mon. They’re sisters, sol- M 
diers, co-workers, room- ! 
mates and best friends. ^ 
Elaine, 24, and ii 
Mary, 21, are assigned to j 
the 232nd Signal Com- 
pany, Worms, West Ger- i 
many, as data telecommu- i 
nications specialists. | 
They were promoted to pri- ^ 
vate first class — at the 
same time, of course. 

“We’ve always 
been close," Elaine said. 
"But being in the Army has 
amplified our closeness.” 

Being sisters in the < 
Army has helped, but it 
has also caused some 
problems. The two have 
encountered frequent mix- , 
ups at mail-call, or when a 
duty roster is posted with 
only "PFC Bowles" on it. 

Elaine and Mary 
live in the same barracks I 

Mahlstede: Army Marine 


Elaine and Mary Bowles: Sister Soldiers 

room and spend most of 
their free time together. 

“We’re best 
friends, but even best 
friends can get on each 
other’s nerves when they 
have to live in a small 
area,” Elaine said. “Occa- 
sionally, we get irritable, 
but that’s only normal.” — 
Rick Saunders 

Two military police- 
men have received the Sol- 
diers Medal, one of the 
highest non-combat hon- 
ors for bravery that a sol- 

Galuppo: Soldiers Medal 

dier can receive. 

While stationed at 
the 230th MP Company, 
Kaiserslautern, West Ger- 
many, Sp4s Peter Galuppo 
and Bruce A. Parks saved 
more than a dozen Ger- 
man citizens from a gas 

The two were on a 
routine patrol when they 
heard an explosion. 

“We saw glass 
blast out of windows of a 
building on our right,” Ga- 
luppo said. “Flames 
started coming out of the 
windows, so we pulled 
over, called the German 
police, an ambulance and 
the fire department.” 

The two then at- 
tempted to enter the 

“We knew there 
were people upstairs be- 
cause we could hear them 

Thompson: Falconer 

screaming,’’ Galuppo 

“We couldn’t get 
through the front door, so 
we went around back and 
went inside through an 
open door,” he noted. 

The building housed 
a bar and a guest house. 
Although the bar was 
closed, the upstairs was 
full of guests. 

“We went upstairs, 
kicked on doors and 
screamed for everyone to 
get out because of the 
fire,” Galuppo said. — Sp4 
Nick Suarez 

Sp5 Lee Thomp- 
son, avionics repairman, 
U.S. Army Communica- 
tions Command, Turkey, 
has been interested in the 
sport of falconry for more 
than 10 years. 

Thompson, who 
now owns a female, shark- 
shinned hawk, got into the 
sport by chance. While 
hunting in Ohio, he found 
an injured hawk, took the 
bird home and nursed it to 

The isolated, unac- 
companied tour in Turkey 
allows Thompson time to 
spend four or five hours a 
day keeping his hawk in 
top shape. 

“In training, you ac- 
custom the bird to depend 
on you for food. An over- 
weight bird will just perch 

on a tree and look at you,” 
he said. 

“When a quail is 
flushed from the bush, the 
hawk flies from the fist to 
kill the quail in mid-air. 
Then the hawk holds its 
prey to the ground. The 
bird allows you to ap- 
proach, jumps back on 
your glove and waits for a 

Buying and selling 
these birds in the United 
States is illegal. Many of 
them are on the en- 
dangered species list. 

When it is time for 
Thompson to return to the 
United States, he plans to 
allow the bird to continue 
its quest for prey. “I’ll 
either give her to one of 
the local Turks or turn her 
back into the wild,’’ 
Thompson said. 

— Thomas Laudino 




Thomas Laudino 


nicHTY no 

T he two companies stood on the 
riverbank and watched the Missouri 
current roil its water into brownish- 
green eddies. Three football fields 
distant on the opposite bank 
sprawled Nebraska. The two units 
were preparing to invade Nebraska. 
Luckily for Nebraskans, this was 
only a training exercise. Each unit 
wanted to span the river first, but 

SSgt. J. Aaron Cundall and Beth Howell Day 

neither could without the other’s 

The 200th Engineer Com- 
pany of the South Dakota Army 
National Guard had planned the 
invasion for more than a year. 
Spanning the Mighty Mo would be a 
strenuous test of the unit’s abilities. 

“One problem was the 200th 
didn’t have all the equipment it 

would need to go it alone. So it had 
to look for a unit that could — and 
would — help,’’ a Guard official 
said. The 200th asked the 509th 
Engineer Company, an Active 
Army unit based at Fort Riley, Kan. 

“1 hesitated at first about 
working with a National Guard out- 
fit,’’ said the 509th’s commander. 
Capt. Robert L. Johnson. “But it 
proved to be an excellent exp>erience 

to tlw Public Atliir* Olllc*. South Dakota Army Na 
tional Guard Haadquarlara. Rapid City. S.D. BETH 
HOWELL DAY, lormarly ol iha Fort RIlay (Kan.) Public 
Allaira Ollica, aaparatad from actlira duty and Ihroa tn 
Junction City, Kan., whara aha worka aa a polica da- 
partmanl diapalchar. 

ill J Aaron Cundall 


for all of us. These people 
know their stuff.” 

The bridgehead was to be 
built at Camp Rosenbaum in the 
southeastern corner of South Da- 
kota. The camp was named, appro- 
priately enough, after Ralph Rosen- 
baum, a farmer who still owns the 
land and lets the Guard use it. 

The Guard company’s main 
force rolled into camp on July 31 
and began preparing the bridge site. 
A day later, the 509th pulled out of 
Fort Riley on its 320-mile trek 
north. The two companies specialize 
in using the engineer assault floating 
bridge, or a “ribbon bridge.” The 
bridge comes in prefabricated sec- 
tions called “bays.” The bays are 
carried on trucks to the bridge site. 
They are then lowered into the 
water, popped open and towed into 
place with engineer boats. 

Both units are about the 
same size. Only by working together 
would there be enough soldiers and 
equipment to complete the mission. 
When the 509th arrived, both began 
to practice together. 

Teamwork would be essen- 
tial because of river currents run- 
ning at up to 6 feet a second. If the 
teamwork jelled, this would be the 
first time the Army ever spanned the 
Missouri with a ribbon bridge. It 
would also be the longest span ever 
built by either unit. 

On the morning of Aug. 11, 
the two companies began assem- 
bling the nearly 900 feet of bridge 
needed to cross one of North Amer- 
ica’s largest rivers. About 250 mil- 
itary and civilian spectators were on 
hand as the engineers put 136-foot 
sections of bridge together and 


A little more than an hour 
and a half later, both banks of the 
Mighty Mo were linked. The bridge 
was anchored on either side of the 
river by cables which were attached 
to poles planted in the banks. To 
keep the bays from drifting, each 
one was attached by bridle lines to a 
1 -inch-thick cable strung across the 

Looking like a long, green 
snake slithering through the water, 
the bridge was about to be tested. 
The test rumbled up in the form of 
three M-109 self-propelled how- 
itzers from the South Dakota 
Guard’s 147th Field Artillery Bri- 
gade. Little children were awe- 
struck as 65 tons worth of tracks 
clanked across the 22-foot-wide 
camouflaged bridge into Nebraska. 

“I thought it was fantastic,” 
said onlooker Marlene Clay. “1 
used to live here as a little girl and 
nothing like this has ever happened 
here before.” 

On their way home, the Fort 
Riley soldiers said they were im- 
pressed with the exercise and the 

“It worked out real fine,” 
said Sgt. Terry Stevens of the 
509th’s boat section. “It was a 
pretty good two weeks — good 
training, both day and night. The 
National Guardsmen are a good 
bunch of guys. They definitely 
know their jobs.” 

PFC Charles Snyder, a 509th 
truck driver said: “It was great. We 
really should train more with the 
National Guard and the Reserve, 
too. That way we know we can de- 
pend on each other in wartime. We 
know how they work and they know 
how we work.” 

South Dakota Guardsmen Sp4 Richard 
Coleman, front, and Sp4 Bill Knippling 
secure a bridle which keeps the ribbon 
bridge from drifting. 

SSgt. Duayne Leiferman of 
the 200th Engineer Company 
summed up the exercise: “We could 
never have done it without the 509th 
guys, but they couldn’t have done it 
without us either. We’re hoping we 
can do this again someday — maybe 
on a larger scale.” □ 


Beth Howell Day Beth Howell Day 




a ' 

Top-Flight Soccer Form 

Sp4 Claudel Robert shows the form that earned him a 
spot on last year's Army soccer team. Robert is assigned 
to the 5th Signal Command in West Germany. "Being in 
Europe is exciting, he said. "The soccer played here is 
faster and rougher." This year’s soccer tryouts are 
scheduled for Aug. 22 to Sept. 17 at Fort Bliss. Texas. — 
PFC Mark Dodd 

When Your Body Talks Back 

FORD ORD, Calif. — When pain stops being gain, it often 
turns into injury. Many injuries need treatment from a 
doctor skilled in sports medicine, such as an orthopedic 

However, you can treat some common sports in- 
juries yourself, writes Dr. D.J. Fletcher in the Fort Ord 
(Calif.) Panorama. The first step in self-treatment is to 
realize that pain is a signal from the body that something 
is wrong. The second step is to train in a way that pre- 
vents injuries. Fletcher recommends; 

— Start any fitness program slowly. Do stretching 
exercises before any aerobic workout. 

— Wear the proper equipment. For women that 
means a bra that provides firm support without abrasion 


and limits up-and-down and sideways motion. Handball, 
racquetball and squash players should wear eye protec- 
tion. Runners need a properly fitted running shoe. That 
shoe, notes Fletcher, should feel comfortable and have a 
high, rounded toe box; a studded sole for shock absorp- 
tion; a well-padded, molded Achilles pad to prevent irrita- 
tion of the Achilles tendon; a flexible midsole; and a soft, 
raised heel wedge to absorb impact. 

— Drink lots of fluids. Salt tablets aren’t needed. 

— Follow a sensible training schedule and in- 
crease the training load slowly. Most running injuries, for 
instance, happen with a sudden increase in mileage. 

— Stay alert for signs of heal and cold injuries. 

— Prevent a minor injury from becoming worse. 
Change your training schedule. Swim or bike if you have 
a running injury. Simply take a few days off. For minor 
running injuries, Fletcher says to apply ice to the affected 
part until the skin turns red and then do gentle stretching 
exercises. Later in the same day apply moist heat for 15 
minutes and follow with stretching exercises. If the 
symptoms don’t disappear in a few days, see a doctor. 

— See a doctor right away for any joint injuries or 
any loss of function in an arm or leg. 

— Pace yourself and avoid overexertion. Many in- 
juries happen late in the day when the person is tired. 
— Larry Bryant 

Mandatory Training on Tap 

WASHINGTON — In a marked break with past policies, 
the Army announced its first formal — and mandatory — 
training course for the soldiers who run its sports and 
recreational activities. Physical activities specialists 
(MOS 03C) are being cycled through the new seven-week 
training program at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. The pro- 
gram was described in the March issue of SOLDIERS. 

The course will give these soldiers the skills 
needed to improve the advice they give to soldiers and 
commanders. All soldiers who hold the MOS will take the 
training by October of next year. Officials plan to develop 
advanced individual training and schooling under the 
non-commissioned officer education system. The current 
program offers training in physical conditioning and test- 
ing, diet and nutrition, weight control, physiology, cardio- 
pulmonary resuscitation, weight training, injury preven- 
tion, exercise prescription and recreation management. 

K mental and physical requirements for 

holding the MOS include a minimum score of 105 on the 
Skills Technical Test and a physical profile of all Is ex- 
cept for vision, which may be a 2. Soldiers interested in 
Change 19 to Army Regulation 
611^201 or visit their local military personnel officers. 
— Carmen Fmsiad 


GET UP at 0-dark-thirty. 

Chow down at the mess hall. 

Attend classes — weapon fa- 
miliarizations, leadership, Geneva 

Spend time in the field. 

Daily life at the unit, right? 
Someone you know, or yourself, 

Wrong! These are soldiers in 
the army of the Federal Republic of 

Military life for a German 
begins a little differently from his 
American counterpart. When a 
young man turns 18, he either vol- 
unteers or is drafted. Immigrants 
can join if they’re German citizens. 
With the exception of about 60 doc- 

tors, women don’t serve. This could 
change in the future as the number 
of eligible men is declining. 

A private, or “gefreiter,” 
earns about $91 per month. A cor- 
poral, or “unteroffizier,” gets 
about $134 per month. Unless he 
volunteers for service beyond the re- 
quired 15 months, that is the most 
he’ll earn. If he remains, he gets the 
same pay as a civil servant holding 
the same pay grade, and also a spe- 
cial bonus after finishing his term of 
3, 4, 8, 12, or 15 years’ service. 
Retirement is based on age rather 
than years of service. Officers and 
NCOS who sign for “life terms’’ 
must remain until a certain age or 
they lose their pension. 

When a young man is 
drafted, he takes a physical exam 
which will determine his job. A con- 
script doesn’t get to choose his job; 
he goes wherever the army needs 
him. Volunteers, however, can 
choose their branch. Trainees attend 
a three-month combined basic and 
advanced individual training. 

The German Army has about 
340,000 men. Of that, 51 percent are 
draftees, 38 percent are volunteers 
and the rest are career regulars. 

“I believe the U.S. Army’s 
basic is more demanding physically 
than ours,’’ said Lt. Col. Rudolf 
Kueper, assistant military attache. 
Embassy of the FRG, Washington, 
D.C. “We stress technical education 

Story and Photos by SSgt. Victoria Mouze 

Most soldiers in das Deutsche Heer, or the German Army, are low-paid 
draftees serving 15 -month tours. They go to basic and AIT, and they 
train together a lot — teamwork is the key. 



more. We believe the army to be a 
sophisticated thing. But you must 
remember that the U.S. Army it an 
all-volunteer force. Our* is a con- 
script army. .More can be demanded 
physically from volunteert than 
from conscripts. 

"We try to do it on more of a 
voluntary basis. For example, the 
normal march is about nine miles. 
But if trainees volunteer to march 
twice that distance, they receive 
special badges. They also get badges 
for sports and marksmanship.” 

A soldier usually serves for 
the rest of his military career with 
the same battalion with which he 
took basic. If there isn’t a slot when 
he becomes a senior NCO, he might 
be transferred. Also, a soldier might 
request a transfer. 

“We try to assign our sol- 
diers as close to home as possible,” 
Kueper said. “That is their main 
concern. But that isn’t always pos- 
sible. I would say that about 30 per- 
cent of our soldiers serve in garri- 
sons away from home. Germany 
isn’t that big, though. ‘Not close to 
home’ means between 80 and 300 

Training doesn’t end after 
basic. Besides classroom sessions, 
there are outdoor classes such as 
weapons and field training. Every 
post normally has a small training 
area for platoons. Units are chosen 
each year to take part in live-fire 
e.xercises in Canada, Great Britain 
and Crete. 

Kueper, who commanded an 
armored reconnaissance battalion 
for four years, scheduled a bat- 
talion-level exercise at least once a 
year. “We were stationed in the 
l.ueneburg area close to the East 
German border. The responsibility 
of such a unit is to reconnoiter and 
defend along the border. So soldiers 
must be familiar with that area’s 

Kueper said that battalion 
exercises also include training at 
larger areas, such as Grafenwoehr. 
Every year one of the three German 
corps conducts a corps-level exercise 
in various parts of the country out- 
side regular training areas. 

“You can spot the good 
crews at the larger exercises,” he 

said. "N^c think very highly of 
teamwork Nkc’rc always talking 
about the small combat team, such 
as a tank crew . 

"The crew should click to- 
gether If the platoon leader, usually 
a master sergeant, realizes that the 
crew isn’t clicking together, the 
commander orders changes. Team 
spirit is important.” Kueper con- 

Soldiers also panicipate in 
N.ATO exercises, such as Carbine 
Fortress. During last September’s 
exercise, tanks draped with camou- 
flage netting lined the streets in the 
Bavarian town of Wiesentheid. 
Tank crews laughed and joked, 
breaking the town’s late morning 

Thomas Kamm makes about $91 a 

One group of tankers, parked 
near a group of trees, decided it was 
time for chow. .A lank commander 
reached into his hatch and pulled 
out plastic bags full of food. Fie 
handed out cheese, marmalade, 
sausages and dark bread. One crew 
member, Gefrciter Thomas Kamm. 
explained that the food was the Ger- 
man equivalent of C-rations. 

Kamm is assigned to the 2nd 
Battalion, 3.‘»lst Panzer, 1 2th Pan- 
zer Division, based at Uainberg 
Kaserne. The panzers had stopped 
in Wiesentheid after completing a 

"I enjoy the .Army when we 
get some action like this,” Kamm 
said. ”\V hen we go to the field, we 

don’t get much sleep, though. 
Sometimes we get orders from our 
commander to move out during the 
night. Fie gives us the coordinates, 
then we must look for the enemy.” 

Flis unit is part of the Field 
Army, or combat troops. The Field 
.Army consists of three corps with a 
total of 1 2 divisions. There are six 
armored divisions, four armored in- 
fantry divisions, one mountain divi- 
sion and one airborne division. 
Divisions are organized into bri- 
gades and have about 1 4.000 men 

Units use similar and. in 
some cases, the same equipment as 
the U.S. Army. That includes 
.M-I13 armored personnel carriers. 
Roland self-propielled anti-aircraft 
missile systems, anti-tank heli- 
copters, and Leopard main battle 
tanks. During lime of war. the Field 
.Army would fight along with .Amer- 
ican, Belgian, British, Canadian, 
Danish and Dutch forces under 
N.ATO operational command. 

Kamm said that w hen he and 
his buddies are back in garrison, 
they get up at 5:45 a.m. Breakfast 
starts at 6:30 and consists of coffee, 
milk or tea, broichen (rolls), marma- 
lade and sausages. Soup and sausage 
are served at lunch and dinner. “The 
food is very good,” Kamm said. 

Work starts at 7 and ends at 
5. Soldiers are free after duty hours 
unless they have extra duties, such 
as guard duty or NCO of the day. 
“.After work, we play cards or talk 
about things at the canteen. Some- 
times we go to the movies,” he said. 

Most German barracks are 
fairly modern. There are usually 
four to six soldiers to a room. Many 
bring their own TVs and stereos. 
“But sometimes barracks life gets 
boring.” Kamm said. “So many of 
us are far away from home. But the 
panzers’ friendship is very good.” 

Kamm and the other tankers 
finished lunch and continued laugh- 
ing and joking. Suddenly, a tank 
commander yelled to move out. 
Men rushed to their tanks and 
climbed on board. They knew there 
would be more days of getting up at 
0-dark-thirty. chowing down a 
quick lunch and training. They were 







story and Photos by Faith Faircloth 

The instructor leads her 
students through twists, 
stretches, turns and 
bends that would be 
unbearable except for 
the music. 

EAT your heart out, Arthur Murray. 
America has found a new way to dance. It’s 
called aerobic dancing and has the benefits 
of a running program without mud puddles 
and traffic. 

Aerobic dancing, like running or jog- 
ging, involves continuous, non-stop activity 
which strengthens the heart and lungs and 
aids in weight control. Aerobic dancing is 
done to upbeat music, with special dance 
routines that give the body a total workout. 

This form of exercise is based on Dr. 
Kenneth Cooper’s aerobics principles. 
Cooper, known as the man who started 
America running, probably never dreamed 
of people bumping and grinding their way to 
physical fitness when he wrote his first book, 
“Aerobics,” in 1968. Now, 15 years later. 
Cooper includes aerobic dancing along with 
running, cross-country skiing, jogging and 
swimming as a means of becoming aerobic- 
ally fit. 

Aerobic dancing is fast becoming one 
of America’s most popular forms of exer- 
cise. “A lot of people just don’t like to run 
or jog,” said Pat Skelding, an aerobic dance 
instructor at Fort Belvoir, Va. “Dancing 
doesn’t seem like nearly as much work as 
jogging for an hour. The music and the steps 
spread the work out and make it fun.” 

Skelding’s classes, sponsored by the 
Officer’s Wives Club, include enthusiastic 
groups of soldiers, retirees and family mem- 
bers. “I don’t think a lot of them realize 



Above, aerobic dance 
students at Fort 
Belvoir, Va., are eyes- 
front as they learn a 
new dance routine. • 
Preceding page, Pat 
Skelding gets totally 
involved with her 
aerobic dance class 
at Fort Belvoir. 

when they first come in that aerobic dancing 
is for the heart and lungs,” she said. “.Most 
of them sign up because it’s fun to do.” 

The goal in aerobic dancing is the 
same as in any other aerobic e.xercise, 
Skelding explained. You have to maintain 80 
percent of your maximum heart rate for at 
least 20 minutes, three times a week. “It’s 
during that period that the heart and lungs 
are forced to use large amounts of oxygen 
and grow stronger,” she said. 

Skelding’s one-hour sessions begin 
with 12 to 15 minutes of warm-up exercises 
such as stretching, waist bends and sit-ups to 
slow' music. Then, as the beat picks up, se- 
rious dancing gets under way. Grace is not 
required, but a good deodorant helps be- 
cause dancing continues non-stop for 30 to 
35 minutes. .After eight to 10 different dance 
routines, the pace slows for a cool-down 
period of 10 to 15 minutes. 

Her students check their pulses 
several times during the workout to make 
sure they’re maintaining their target heart 
rate. They count the beats of the pulse at 
their neck or wrist for six seconds and mul- 
tiply by ten to sec how fast their heart is 

Students calculate their target heart 
rate when they first enter the class. Men sub- 
tract onc-half their age from 205, and 

women subtract their full age from 220. This 
gives them their maximum heart rate. Their 
target heart rate is 80 percent of the max- 

For example, a 26-year-old man sub- 
tracts 13 from 205, which gives him a maxi- 
mum heart rate of 192. Eighty percent of 192 
gives him 154, which is his target hean rate. 
A 26-year-old woman subtracts 26 from 220 
for a maximum heart rate of 194. Her target 
heart rate is 80 percent of 194, or 155. 

Even though the students ail do the 
same routines, they dance at different levels. 
Some kick high and others barely get their 
feet off the floor. “.And that’s the way it 
should be.” Skelding said. “Their level 
depends on their age and physical condition. 
You can pick out the beginners on the floor: 
They’re the ones struggling to keep up.” 

.Aerobic means “with oxygen.” Skel- 
ding said. .Any activity which requires large 
amounts of o.xygen for prolonged periods 
forces the body to improve those systems 
that use oxygen — namely, the heart and 
lungs. To be aerobic, an activity has to be 
continuous at a certain pace for a certain 
period of time. “You can’t do something 
that stops and starts.” Skelding said. Sports 
like tennis and golf, and any kind of calis- 
thenics are not aerobic. 

“In an exercise class you’re straining 
and doing a lot of flexibility work to firm up 
different areas,” Skelding said. “But, 
you’re not doing anything for your heart and 
lungs. .Also, I think people in those pro- 
grams tend to get discouraged very quickly. 
They’re very sore when they get home, and 
they may not go back. 

“What’s really been neat here at 
Belvoir.” Skelding said, “is that a lot of my 
students start teaching aerobic dancing. 
They train in my class and when the .Army 
transfers them, they start classes at their new 
location. 1 have former students teaching in 
Germany. .Australia. Canada. Korea and 
Saudi .Arabia.” 

.Although this fun way of shaping up 
may never replace push-ups and the two-mile 
run. it’s getting a warm reception in .Army 
PT programs around the world. 

Capt. George Wells of the Soldier 
Physical Fitness Center at Fort Benjamin 
Harrison. Ind.. said he knows that posts are 
involved in aerobic dancing. 

”\Se tried it with one of the advanced 
individual training battalions here, and the 
troops loved it.” Wells said. “.Aerobic danc- 



ing is good for many reasons. It puts a little 
variety and spice in soldiers’ routines, and 
they can use it indoors in bad weather.” 

An aerobic dance program for over- 
weight soldiers at Camp Casey, South 
Korea, became so popular that it’s now open 
to everyone in the 2nd Infantry Division who 
can be excused from regular PT. SSgt. 
Stephenson Michael, who teaches the class, 
told the Indianhead, the command news- 
paper, that he has a good turnout five morn- 
ings a week. One of his pupils, Sgt. Marlyene 
Davis, 2nd Adjutant General Company, 
said, “There’s nothing as motivating as the 
music. It really gets you moving.” 

What began as a pilot program at 
Fort Gordon, Ga., for Company D, 6th Bat- 
talion, 1st Student Training Brigade, has ex- 
panded to include three companies. Carmen 
Thompson, director of Fort Gordon’s Com- 
munity Center, initiated the program and 
hopes to eventually include all the post’s 

Fun may be the reason aerobic danc- 
ing is becoming so popular, but the health 
benefits can’t be overlooked. According to 
J. Kurt Hertzberger, a physical therapist at 
Walter Reed Army Medical Center, aerobic 
exercise may be the ultimate cure for obesity. 

“Aerobic exercise is the only form of 
exercise which can result in the breakdown 
of fat so that it can be burned as fuel,” he 
wrote in a recent All Volunteer magazine ar- 
ticle. He explained that when we increase the 
size of the engine (the heart and lungs), the 
body burns calories at a faster rate through- 
out the day. 

According to Cooper, the aerobics 
guru, it takes oxygen to burn up the food we 
eat. And aerobic exercise is the best way to 
get oxygen to the different parts of the body 
where food is stored. In other words, food is 
the fuel, and oxygen is the match. 

Cooper compares someone not in 
aerobic condition to a full-size Cadillac with 
a four-cylinder engine. His heart is working 
almost twice as hard as the heart of someone 
in aerobic condition to supply the body with 
the same amount of blood. As your heart 
and lungs grow stronger, your body will dis- 
tribute oxygen more rapidly from your lungs 
to your heart and to all parts of your body. 
And because your heart is stronger, it will 
pump more blood wth fewer beats. 

Citing another benefit of aerobic ex- 
ercise, Dr. Gary Grant of the Health Services 
Command credits aerobic exercise with 

lowering cholesterol. According to Grant, 
the normal cholesterol level for a 40-year-old 
man in America is 310. The doctor said this 
level carries four times more risk of coronary 
heart disease than a cholesterol level of 185. 
He adds that this same 40-year-old man who 
exercises more than 20 minutes three times a 
week, eats wisely and doesn’t smoke can eas- 
ily lower his cholesterol level to at least 185. 

Other benefits include stronger 
bones, a more positive mental attitude, bet- 
ter circulation and greater protection against 
heart disease, according to Cooper. He 
describes aerobic exercise as the way to get 
the most benefits for the least effort. 

“What aerobic dancing does,” Skel- 
ding continued, “is make you very aware of 
your body and what good health is all about. 
You realize that your heart is getting 
stronger and your body is gaining strength. 
You start feeling good about yourself. You 
feel better physically and have more 

Skelding said aerobic dancing is also 
a good way to relieve stress. “It’s a morale 
booster and a real emotional release,” she 
said. “Students come in here with a lot of 
problems, and they really tend to forget 
everything while they’re here.” 

Aerobic dancing, as the new kid in 
the physical fitness arena, may be the exer- 
cise you’ve been waiting for. It could add 
years to your life and life to your years. And 
you could learn some new dance steps at the 
same time. □ 

Soldiers of Company 
A, 5th Battalion, 1st 
Student Training 
Brigade, at Fort Gor- 
don, Ga., try aerobic 
dancing for their PT 
instead of push-ups 
and two-mile runs. 



Sp5 David R. Matthews 




Story by Capl. Tom Williams 
Photos by Bill Walton 

As if the music weren’t enough 
to keep you going, there’s the 
teacher coaxing you to fitness. 

“You’re not just standing there doing leg 
raises,” she said. “You’re bouncing and 
constantly moving throughout the entire 
song. You move to the left, move to the 
right. Kick, bounce. Kick, bounce. It’s really 
quite active.” 

Debbie Brown, an aerobic dance in- 
structor at Fort Benning, Ga., has been mov- 
ing and kicking and bouncing for almost five 
years now. And according to her, “It’s the 
best way to exercise 1 have ever seen.” 

This best way to exercise is aerobic 
dancing. And like other aerobic exercises, 
the intent is to give the cardiovascular system 
a workout at least three times a week. For a 
good workout, a specific heart rate goal 
must be reached and sustained for a certain 
length of lime. 

This heart rate goal is determined at 
the beginning of the class. Each student cal- 
culates a personal goal based on age. sex and 
physical condition. Then, during the class, 
students measure their heart rate to deter- 
mine if they have reached it (see page 44). 

“We take the heart rate during the 
class,” Brown continued. “If you haven’t 
reached your target rate, you have to work 
harder. Likewise, if your rate is above, you 
have to slow down a bit.” 

What may seem like torture and pain 
for some is pure pleasure for Brown. “1 
started taking aerobic dancing mainly be- 
cause of my husband. Fie ran all the lime 
and was very active. It was hard to sit and 
watch the TV and eat candy bars while he 
was out exercising. Seeing what good condi- 
tion he was in made me want to get out and 

BILL C. WALTON wotkt In Ih* Public Allalti Olllcc, U 6 Arm, In 
lanlrY Canicr, Fori Banning. Qa 




III “The first time I took an aerobic 

H dance class, it was so much fun — I felt great 
U and looked better — that I wanted to keep at 

I it.” 

I With that class under her belt, she 

^ made the transition from student to instruc- 
h! tor with ease. 

U “My minor in college was physical 

W education, so I knew a little about the body 
jand how to exercise different muscles,” she 
I said. 

She started teaching aerobic dancing 
while her husband, Capt. Michael Brown, 
was stationed at Fort Campbell, Ky. After 
they were reassigned to Fort Benning, she 
was an instructor without a class. 

“I really like teaching and exercising, 
and wanted to get into aerobics again. I 
bugged everyone on post — the wives’ clubs, 
recreation services, gyms — looking for a 
class to teach. 

“And while bugging and waiting, 1 
taught a stretch and exercise class. Finally, 
the aerobic dance instructor left and 1 was 
offered that class,” she said. 

All aerobic dance classes vary in the 
number of times students attend, but they all 
have one common goal: non-stop movement. 

“In my classes,” Brown continued, 
“we do 15 minutes of stretching exercises to 
get the muscles warmed up. Then for the 
next 30 minutes, we do non-stop exercise 
routines to music. After that, we have about 
15 minutes of cool down exercises, where we 
work on isolated muscle groups like the sto- 
mach, hips and thighs. 

“I think it’s necessary with any aero- 
bics program to work on these isolated mus- 
cle groups. Some muscles don’t get exer- 
cised. That’s why I have my students work 
on these areas.” 

Being an instructor involves more 
than moving and bouncing, and teaching 
others to do the same. Because aerobic danc- 
ing is done to music, each song and dance 
routine must be choreographed. 

“I do a lot of it myself,” Brown said. 
“I work out some exercises with different 
steps and kicks or hops. I also use pieces that 
have already been choreographed, and visit 
classes to get ideas and see how their routines 
differ from mine. 

“But the important thing during my 
class is that I spend as little time as possible 
on the steps. It’s not a dance class, but an ex- 
ercise class. By changing the routines after a 
week, the students don’t become bored.” 

“I find that by changing often, my 
students are trying to think about the steps 
because the routine is new. When they real- 
ize that no one has the steps down perfectly, 
they concentrate on the exercises. They start 
to enjoy the program and the fun. 

“I see smiles on their faces during the 
class. They’re clapping their hands and hav- 
ing a good time.” 

Brown says she sees more wives get- 
ting out and joining various activities. 
“Their husbands are training and gone a lot 
of the time, so they look for things to join 
like aerobics, to have fun, do something dif- 
ferent and meet new people.” 

Once the women get involved in the 
class. Brown noted, they begin to see the im- 
portance of getting and staying in shape. 
“It’s almost like a lifestyle. The body is like 
an expensive car. You have to take care of it 
and keep it in shape so it will run and last. 

“Aerobics is just plain fun, and you 
don’t have to have any special training,” 
Brown concluded. “I hope some of my en- 
thusiasm will rub off on them.” □ 

From left, Debbie 
Brown leads her aero- 
bic dance class, 
• assists Anna Lowe 
with exercises for dif- 
ferent muscles • and 
develops new dance 


T hey call ii the caMle. Ii 
siis above the bluffs of 
the Missouri Riser at 
the northern end on 
Fort Leas envs orth, 
Kan. The resident-. 
1,500 men and vsomen, don’t ssant 
to be there. They have no choice — 
672 professional soldiers keep them 
there. The place is the U.S. Disci- 
plinary Barracks, the military ver- 
sion of the "big house.” 

“People tend to forget that 
it’s not only the prisoners who 
spend their time behind the walls." 
said SFC Ralph E. Thomas Jr., a 
guard shift NCO. “We do too — 
every day and every night." 

Thomas runs Three-Wing 
Cell Block. It is clean and orderly. 
The cells are stacked five floors high 
and "house” 230 prisoners. They 
are his responsibility. His office is a 
converted cell. Thomas takes his job 

“I know these prisoners have 
made mistakes, some of them have 
made big mistakes. But that doesn’t 

mean they are not human. I don’t 
baby them, but I guarantee that no 
one is abused either," he continued. 

His immediate subordinate. 
SSgt. Michael Rudnicki. echoed the 
comment: "We try to treat the 
prisoners right. 1 call it being 'on the 
square’ with them. If you do that 
and never lie to them, they’ll do just 
about anything you ask them to 
do." He likes his job and even re- 
enlisted to get it. "If you are a 95C 
(correctional specialist), working 
here is the top of the line. It’s like 
playing the Palace." 

The Palace, though, didn’t 
have an audience of inmates. These 
NCOS are responsible for enforcing 
law and order among some pretty 
tough folks. 

"Sure there is tension,” 
Thomas said. "There is a lot of 
‘macho’ around here. Some of these 
guys are into weights and stuff and 
can put a pretty mean glare on you. 

lof ol 1h« Lsmp. ih« Fort Ltavtnworlh. Kan., post 


"Most of us get ourselves 
'psyched up’ every day on the way i 
to work. 1 know that 1 do. We call it 
‘putting on the look.’ It is a mental 
set. We are not looking to be bad. 
just ready and in charge," he con- 

What they are in charge of is 
a huge brick and concrete prison es- j 
tablished by Congress in 1874. Dur- 
ing the past century-plus, responsi- | 
bility for the prison has rotated | 
between the Departments of Justice ' 
and Defense. . 

Since 1940 it has been the sole I 
responsibility of DOD. The USDB I 
is the main maximum confinement 
facility for military prisoners. 

The DB houses all Army, Air 
Force and .Marine enlisted pris- 
oners, and all officers and female 
prisoners regardless of service. Navy- 
enlisted male prisoners are confined 
at Norfolk Brig in Virginia. The 
Kansas prison can accommodate up 
to 1 ,777 inmates but currently is re- ^ 
stricted to 1,500. 

The cadre and guard force 

Story by Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr. 
Photos by SFC Michael A. Brown 

Looming massively behind 40-foot high walls, the USDB 
holds 1,500 military prisoners in tiers of lighted cells. 

represent all services except 
the Navy. The comman- 
dant, Army Col. Orson L. 
McCotter, wears the green 

“If you have to be in 
prison, this is the prison to 
be in,” McCotter stated. 

“I’m not kidding. This is a 
first-rate, professionally 
run institution. The guard 
force is made up of men 
and women who know their 
jobs and do them well. 

They have tough hours and 
tough working conditions, 
but they are motivated. I 
am constantly amazed at 
the maturity these sergeants 
and specialists exhibit. They face 
tough folks and tough situations 
every day. They get the job done.” 

Most of the cadre agrees that 
the toughest job in the prison is 
working the maximum confinement 
area. Discipline is absolute. SSgt. 
Daniel C. Flynn is operations 
NCOIC there. He is ramrod-straight 
and no-nonsense. 

“This is not a fun place. The 
inmates down here ‘earned’ their 
way . . . they are the hard cases 
among the prison population. They 
have demonstrated they are not will- 
ing to adjust to the rules of the DB. 
My guard force runs this area. 
These prisoners are denied most, if 
not all, privileges. Some of them are 
very hard-nosed. They figure they 
don’t have much more to lose,” 
Flynn said. 

“There is a lot of name call- 
ing,” he continued. “My parentage 
has been questioned many times. 
But you get used to it and always try 
to remember to be a professional. 
Sometimes that’s hard, especially 
for the young guards. I keep a close 
eye on them. If I think the stress is 
getting to them. I’ll talk to them or 
give them a day off. If they really 
can’t handle it, they’re transferred. 

“Most of us like it down 
here. We feel we are handling the 
toughest job in a tough place. That 
gives us a feeling of pride,” he con- 

Pride seems to be a way of 
life in the DB. You can see it in the 
military appearance of the guards. 

You sense and hear it from the civil- 
ian workforce. The place is neat and 
clean. The grounds are policed and 
a feeling of professional discipline 
prevails. The motto of the DB is 
“Our mission your future.” The 
prisoners know the guards mean it 
— from the minute they enter the 
huge limestone walls. 

“I run the reception wing of 
the DB,” SSgt. Bobby L. Moss said. 
“I am about the first person the 
prisoners meet. They’re scared when 
they arrive. Some of them try to 
hide it, but you know it’s an act. 

“This is a pretty heavy 
place,” he said. “It’s not like the 
local confinement facility they were 
held in before being sent here. 

“We keep them down here 
for the first two weeks. We tell them 
the rules and issue clothing and sun- 
dries. My staff really looks each 
prisoner over pretty carefully. 
We’ve gotten so we can spot the 
ones who will have trouble adjust- 
ing. 1 tell my guard force to be strict 
but fair — always fair. 1 think we 
really help shape attitudes during 
those first few days,” Moss con- 

His boss agrees. Lt. Col. 
Tom Tucker is the director of cus- 
tody. He’s the “Top Cop” and all 
the inmates are his direct responsi- 
bility. “There is no manual to train 
these guards to be perceptive. The 
guys in reception wing are amazing. 
They can smell trouble and they 
know how to handle it. Their assess- 
ments are accurate. They know how 

to read between the lines,” 
Tucker added. 

There are a lot of 
lines to read between. The 
prisoners are as diverse as 
the military itself. Their 
crimes are just as diverse 
too. Of the 1,400-plus cur- 
rently confined, 67 percent 
have committed crimes 
against other persons. An- 
other 14 percent have com- 
mitted crimes against prop- 
erty. Drug-related crimes 
account for 17 percent and 
other crimes contribute 1 
percent. Somewhat surpris- 
ing is the fact that military 
crimes account for only 1 
percent of the convictions. 

“What we have here is a rep- 
resentation of society,” McCotter 
stated. “These are the same crimes 
that are being committed in the ci- 
vilian community. These individuals 
happened to be in the military when 
the crime was committed but the 
military is not the reason the crime 
was committed. I think that is im- 
portant to point out. 

“Our population is younger 
— averaging 25 years old — than 
that of other major penitentiaries. 
Our racial breakout is about even. 
We have 52 percent Caucasian and 
48 percent black, 41 officers and 20 

“Our job is not just confine- 
ment. We are trying to rehabilitate 
as well. We offer educational op- 
portunities and vocational training. 
Every inmate has a job — and 1 
mean every inmate,” he said. 

Those jobs can mean work- 
ing in the prison mess hall, grounds- 
keeping on post, or bagging grocer- 
ies in the commissary. For some it 
means work in one of the DB’s 
highly successful vocational training 

Training is offered in shoe 
repair, silk screening, woodwork- 
ing, furniture repair, auto repair, 
auto body shop, engraving, green- 
house skills and barbering. Inmates 
seek the jobs because the skills are 
transferable when they return to the 
outside world. 

Two of the more unusual vo- 
cational training activities are the 



DB’s farm and greenhouse. Operat- 
ing one of the largest greenhouses in 
Kansas, selected inmates have a 
chance to learn horticulture and to 
study the workings of a large plant- 
production facility. 

The greenhouse operates 
year-round and grows everything 
from prize-winning roses to bedding 
plants for backyard gardeners. The 
plants are sold to Fort Leaven- 
worth’s military community 
through the greenhouse floral shop, 
where inmates also learn floral de- 
sign and flower arranging. 

The USDB farm produces 
vegetables and livestock, which are 
also sold to the post community. 
Minimum custody prisoners do all 
the farm chores. They live at the 
farm and learn quickly that long 
hours and an early start are part of 
every farmer’s life. 

The farm and greenhouse 
round out an aggressive, well- 
staffed work program. There are no 
idle prisoners in the USDB. As Mc- 
Cotter noted, “Inmates don’t have 
a lot of time to worry and complain. 
We keep them busy ail the time.” 


"My primary job is still the 
custody of the inmates.” said Sgi. 
Daniel Scott, an .^CO supervisor in 
the shoe repair shop, "but I get a lot 
of satisfaction out of the fact that I 
am doing something construaive 
for them as well. We never forget 
they are inmates, but at the same 
time wc see them in a different light 
than the cell block guards do. I 
don’t mean we get to be friendly 
with the inmates, but we spend a lot 
of time with them in a work envi- 
ronment. We talk about more 

"I think vocational training 
is good. We have civilians here who 
arc real experts in their fields, and 
they pass that knowledge on to the 
inmates. Shoe repair is a good ex- 
ample. Wc have lists of employers 
who want these guys when their sen- 
tences are finished. It’s a good-pay- 
ing job and that helps to motivate 
the prisoners,’’ he added. 

Scott has no soldiers working 
for him. But he doesn’t think he is 
hurting his professional develop- 
ment. “.^i first 1 was afraid 1 would 
lose my skills as an NCO. 1 was 
wrong. The vocational shops are 
run on a motivation basis. Each 
prisoner is evaluated on how much 
he wants to work. It is my job to 
help with that motivation. I find 
myself using all my leadership skills 
and even developing new ones. The 
prisoners are all former military. So 
in a way 1 have not lost ground with 
the type of people I supervise. They 
present new and different problems, 
and 1 think that I am becoming a 
better NCO as 1 progress in my 
job,” he concluded. 

Other NCOS in the voca- 
tional training division agree with 
Scott. “We offer these people a sec- 
ond chance. If they want to take it 
they can. If they don’t, well, no- 
body forces them,” said SSgt. Den- 
nis Boyd, NCOIC of the upholstery 
shop. “We’re proud of what we do. 
and 1 think we have interesting and 
useful jobs. 1 do want to add, how- 
ever, that promotion beyond E-6 in 
our field is tough. 1 don’t think it’s 
fair, but then, 1 know there are not 
that many military prisons around 
— certainly none as big as this 

.And big it is. The castle area 
encompasses 12 acres inside the 
walls and is added to by an adjoin- 
ing five-acre recreation area. The 
prison farm covers another 2,230 
acres. A local parolee unit covers 
another three-acre traa. The castle 
itself consists of eight wings pro- 
jecting from a central rotunda and is 
surrounded by massive limestone 
and brick w alls reaching 41 feet high 
in certain areas. 

The walls are studded with 
guard towers and ringed by barbed 
wire. Tower guard is the normal 
first assignment for a new junior 
member of the guard force. 

Sp4 Craig R. Salie is a recent 
arrival on the guard force. His pri- 
mary job is to pull an eight-hour 
shift on the east wall center tower. 
“I like my job. but to tell the truth 
it’s boring. I have an area I must 
watch. Believe me you can get sick 
of looking at the same area for eight 
hours. The other thing 1 don’t like is 
being alone. We can’t read or any- 
thing. I understand why not, but I’ll 
be glad when I’m finished with 

I" T~ 


111 ,)-- - 

»»•) — = 

— - 



II \ 

!•:: i 

tower duty,” Salie said. 

Tower duty doesn’t last for- 
ever, but it is an excellent way to get 
guard personnel used to being 
around prisoners. Tucker explained: 
“Every new guard we get has had 
training. But that’s not always 
enough to prepare them to get right 
in with the prison’s main popula- 
tion. We try to ease them in. Guard 
tower duty is important work but it 
doesn’t require the immediate, inti- 
mate contact that cell-block duty re- 
quires. I think it is a good way to 
start a new guard. After some tower 
time they understand how the prison 
works and they have been around 
inmates. This is just a way of getting 
their feet wet.” 

Sgt. Jacqueline Wiley re- 
members getting her feet wet about 
two years ago. “I arrived here right 
out of AIT. I was 18 years old, a pri- 
vate, and I was scared to death. 
When I arrived, they were having 
work call. There were more than a 
thousand inmates pouring out of the 
castle. I was terrified. 

“I got used to it. First, I was 

Far left, vocational train- 
ing opportunities are of- 
fered at the USDB. SFC 
Fred H. Wake III shows 
silkscreening tech- 
niques to an inmate. 

• Center, using a cell as 
his office, SFC Ralph E. 
Thomas Jr. counsels an 
inmate. • Above, mem- 
bers of the Special Oper- 
ations Response Team 
are trained in riot and 
demonstration proce- 
dures. Part of the train- 
ing includes rappelling 
from the prison’s walls. 

• Left, Sgt. Daniel Scott 
instructs an inmate in 
the proper method of 
shoe repair. Many in- 
mates trained in voca- 
tional activities are 
recruited by civilian in- 
dustry after they are re- 


assigned to the to^^er for the mid- 
night shift. 1 was bored out of my 
mind but I got over the fear of being 
around inmates. After a couple of 
months of that. I was ready to go to 
work in the women’s domicile.” she 
added. “Things came around pretty 
fast for me. I’m real proud of what I 
have accomplished, and I’m very 
proud that I am on the SORT 

The Special Operations Re- 
sponse Team is a highly trained, 
special-mission force made up of 
approximately 40 hand-picked 
members of the guard force. SORT 
members volunteer for the duty. 
They do a lot of extra training and 
are the prison’s troubleshooters. 

Trained in riot tactics, rap- 
pelling. and the use of gas and 
chemical suppressants, these sol- 
diers are ready to put dow n any kind 
of trouble that erupts. The team is 
used to assist the guard force in cell 
relocation missions if there is a pos- 
sibility of violence. 

They would be called on to 
disperse any riot or to handle pas- 
sive demonstrations such as sit- 
downs. So far they have only used 
their talents for cell relocations. 

“1 like the extra training 1 
get.” said SORT member Sp4 
Charles White. “We learn a lot of 
useful things, and I’m kind of 
pleased to be a member of w hat 1 see 
as an elite group.” 

Sp4 James Loy agrees: “We 
all have primary jobs and the SORT 
training takes some extra time, but 1 
think it is worthwhile. I’ve learned 
to rappel and we’ve received train- 
ing in the use of sniper and night- 
vision scopes. Our NCOs are top 
notch. If they ever need us to do a 
job. we’ll be ready.” 

SFC Charles Oxley. SORT 
NCOIC. summed it up: “We can 
handle anything that comes down 
around here. 1 know my team is 
physically fit. I know we have the 
right gear and I know we train hard. 
1 think the inmates know it too. We 
don’t practice in private. They see 
us and know what wc can do. I 
think that is a good preventive 

SORT members are experts 
with the three-foot riot baton. As 

they go into a riot formation, com- 
plete with plexiglass shields, hel- 
mets. gas masks and sidearms. it is 
easy to believe Oxley’s confident as- 

Though the SORT has not 
been used to quell any major dis- 
turbance at the DB. the soldiers con- 
tinue to train for any contingency. 
Their tactics and training arc widely 
respected and a special film showing 
their expertise was prepared for and 
presented to the .American Correc- 
tional Association Convention held 
recently in Toronto. 

Sgt. Mildred Irvin is .NCOIC 
of the women’s domicile. She’s re- 
sponsible for the 20 prisoners 
housed there. No fraternization is 

Tower guard is a lonely but vital job at 
the USDS. SP4 Craig R. Salie pulls the 
midday shift on the prison's east wall. 

“Basically we do the same 
job as the male guards.” Irvin said. 
“Our inmates are not kept in the 
same type of cell area and there are 
nowhere near as many of them, but 
the duties are about the same. .Ml 
the female inmates have jobs and all 
have duties in the cell area. We 
don’t get the same type of verbal 
abuse as the male guards, but there 
are other types of problems. 

“1 think the women pris- 
oners complain more. Maybe it’s 
harder for them to be here. 1 don’t 
know. This domicile is run by fe- 
male guards. We do it all. If there is 
a problem here, we handle it. I’m 
proud of that and I love corrections 

work. 1 get a feeling of accomplish- 
ment.’’ she said. 

Irvin added that she thought 
the training programs at the USDB 
were good. “I think that we are 
given the opportunity to learn on 
the job. 1 have never felt any lack of 
confidence about knowing what I 
am doing.” The female inmates Ir- 
vin supervises wear light blue prison 
uniforms, but their routine is ex- 
actly the same as male inmates. 
“W c keep things in order here.” she 

Everyihing is not perfect in 
the DB. “We have problems.” Mc- 
Cottcr said. “You can’t run a place 
like this without problems. The im- 
portant thing is that they are not big 
problems or problems without solu- 

Stress is one of the problems 
faced by the guard force. “It’s 
tough to come in here and listen to 
the prisoners badmouthing you all 
day long and then go home and face 
the same stuff from the wife.” said 
one young guard. 

Another said it a different 
way: “We are always around un- 
happy and sometimes downright 
hostile people. It wears on you. If 
you are not careful, you turn to 
booze or something else.” 

“There is no simple solution 
to stress,” Tucker said. “I know 
that all of us watch for it in each 
other. Our mental health people 
give lectures and explain how stress 
works. We know we will never get 
rid of stress, but I think we do a 
good job of facing up to it.” 

Facing up is ihe reality of 
duty in a big place with a big mis- 
sion. The guards admit to stress — 
to boredom — and to fear in an en- 
vironment in which six men sit on 
death row. Shifts work around the 
clock every day of the year. There 
are few thanks and little laughter. 

Guards speak the “hard as 
nails” jargon of the inmates, and 
they “put on the look” every time 
they enter the walls. Running the 
DB is their job, and they are proud 
of what they are accomplishing — 
their wartime mission every day of 
the year. For most of them, getting 
“sent to Leavenworth” has been a 
rewarding experience. □ 



Compiled by Steve Hara 

u nJii 


*1 1 'T' lll* 



“Nice hat, man! Wanna trade?” 

CAN vouusa 2 RULBP. STM/ 3 HT 
/DSAjr/CAL S/^A/=*£SS 

“I think I need a rest . . . Yesterday, 
I put my son on K.P. and made one 
of my recruits sit in the corner!” 

. . then I told him, to get any of my 
people, you’ll have to beg, borrow 
or steal ’em!” 




Mechanics’ Answer 

• Meet THE. It stands for the Transportable 
Helicopter Enclosure. The shelter is being tested 
and is large enough to service utility, attack and 
scout helicopters. THE can be equipped with 
climate controls, lights and electricity. It's also 
light-tight, meaning it can operate under black- 
out conditions. The enclosure's air-pressure 
modules make a structure which measures 84 
feet long, 26 feet wide and 20 feet high. Set-up 
with eight workers takes about two hours. 

• If you want to separate to attend college 
and then enroll in ROTC, you will not be able to 
use benefits from the Veterans' Educational 
Assistance Program unless you have served at 
least 24 months' active duty or have a special 
discharge. Call AUTOVON 221-9800 for details. 

• If you're assigned overseas, 
you can buy an American Rabbit — 
made by Volkswagen in the United 
States, that is. The Army and Air 
Force Exchange Service has a con- 
tract with Volkswagen of America 
to sell sedan and pickup truck 
Rabbits. AAFES customers can 
either take delivery overseas or 
upon return to the states. Pur- 
chases can be made with VW repre- 
sentatives, who are located with 
the reps of other auto companies at 
overseas AAFES locations. 

• Surcharge funds of more than 
$279 million will pay for new con- 
struction and renovation of 18 
commissaries— from Pusan, South 
Korea, to Fort Buchanan, Puerto 
Rico, from Vint Hill Farms, Va., to 
Fort Irwin, Calif. This announce- 
ment by the Troop Support Agency 
at Fort Lee, Va., comes on the 
heels of the recent surcharge in- 
crease to 5 percent. The projects 
are in the current commissary ma- 
jor construction program. 

About the Weight Control Program 

• —Soldiers who meet the new weight standards will not have a 
body fat measurement unless the unit commander requests one 
because they app>ear to have excess fat. Soldiers who have more 
body fat than the standards allow will be flagged and placed in a 
weight control progfram. 

—Under Army Regulation 600-9, units must weigh all new 
personnel during the PT test or at least every six months. Those 
who were weighed before the reg"s effective date of April 15 should 
be weighed again during the next PT test or after six months, 
whichever comes first. 

—Overweight soldiers who show no weight loss in any two 
consecutive months or have not made enough progress in six months 
toward their goal could face separation. This does not apply to 
soldiers at or below the screening table weight who have been 
identified by commanders to have a body fat exam based on 
appearance. These soldiers will continue in the weight control 
program until they meet body fat standards. 

— The new regulation states that soldiers who exceed the 
standards will not attend courses in the NCO Education S>’stem 
beyond initial entry training for enlisted soldiers and courses bevond 
basic branch course or equivalent for officers. This applies to both 
resident and non-resident courses. It also includes civilian schooling 
such as degree completion and graduate level programs. 

—A grandfather clause, in effect until mid-October, allows 
soldiers of all ages who meet any age group's weight table or body 
fat standards to re-enlist or extend if otherwise eligible. 



(More What’s New on Page 2) 


Army Seeks Airborne Volunteers 

• The Army is looking for soldiers in MOSs 13F, 16R and 16S, in 
grades E-1 through E-6, to volunteer for airborne training and 
assignments. After the training, soldiers will be assigned to airborne 
positions in units at Fort Bragg, N.C,, or in Alaska or Italy. 

Incentives for soldiers on jump status include $83 per month in 
jump pay and 100 added promotion points for E-5s or 50 for E-6s, if 
they are qualified and serving in an airborne duty position. 

For more information, contact MSgt. Wayland Farley at 
AUTOVON 221-8052. 

VA Cemetery Opens in Quantico 

• The Veterans Administration's newest national cemetery has 
just opened for burials. The 775-acre site, 25 miles south of 
Washington, belonged to Quantico Marine Base, Va., before the VA 
took possession in 1977. When fully developed, the cemetery will 
provide 200,000 grave spaces. 

Of the 108 cemeteries in the VA system, only 60 have grave 
space available and 48 have no remaining space for initial 
interments. Two more sites are under design. 

Burial in national cemeteries is available to veterans dis- 
charged under conditions other than dishonorable. Burial is also 
available to an eligible veteran's spouse and minor children, and 
sometimes to unmarried adult children. 

• The United States and 
West Germany have issued 
the design of the stamp which 
honors the 300th anniversary 
of the arrival of the first 
German immigrants to the 
United States. The stamps 
were issued about a week 
apart during April and May. 

• These four 40-cent in- 
ternational airmail stamps 
feature the Olympic sports of 
men's shot put, gymnastics 
and weightlifting, and wom- 
en's swimming. These are the 
first of several issues com- 
memorating the 1984 Olym- 
pic Games to be played in Los 
Angeles next summer. An- 
other block is being released 
this month. 

Power Plant Class 

• The Army is looking for sol- 
diers interested in operating, main- 
taining and rebuilding large 
electrical power plants. Qualified 
soldiers begin the Prime Power 
Production Course this month at 
Fort Belvoir, Va. 

Applications, however, are 
being accepted for the next class, 
which starts in January 1984. 
Graduates receive primary MOS 
52E with an additional skill 
identifier in mechanical, electrical 
or instrumentation areas. 

The American Council on 
Education has recommended that 
course graduates receive up to 59 
semester hours' college credit. 
Those who complete the course 
also can take the exam for the 
third-class license offered by the 
National Institute for the Uniform 
Licensing of Power Engineers. 

For more information on the 
course, call AUTOVON 354- 
5235/5241; toll-free (800) 336- 

3095, extension 5235 or 5241; or 
commercial (703) 664-5235/5241. 
The Army's Facilities Engineering 
Support Agency is proponent for 
the course. 





Comp«l«d by Sl*v* Hara 

Only the best ... 

Sp5 David Neal is Soldier of the Year of the U.S. Army Postal Group, Europe. A finance 
clerk with the 115th Postal Detachment in Kaiserslautern, West Germany, Neal is the third 
consecutive soldier from the unit to win command title.... Sgt. Patricia A. Greer is the 21st 
Support Command Soldier of the Year. She's a computer programmer with Combat Equipment 
Group, Europe.... Medical Department Activity Soldier of the Year at Fort Irwin, Calif., is Sp4 
Russell S. Parrish, an environmental health technician.... Sp4 Carol A. Seymour of the Army 
Garrison at Fort Drum, N.Y., was recently named a "Yellow Rose," by the Watertown (N.Y.) 
Professional Business Women.... Sp4 Roxanne Barron, a 699th Maintenance Company personnel 
clerk in Hanau, West Germany, is the 3rd Support Command's Soldier of the Year.... Sp5 Kerry 
Taylor is Soldier of the Year of the Army Garrison, Okinawa.... U.S. Army, Europe's Outstanding 
Aviator of the Year is CWO 3 Mark E. Metzger, a Cobra helicopter pilot assigned to HHC, 3rd 
Aviation Battalion (Combat), 3rd Infantry Division.... 

Gnrr-r-r-r-r! Freeze! You’re busted, dog breath! 

Capt. Arnaldo Claudio of the 66th MP Company in Karlsruhe, West Germany, is probably 
cut from the same cloth as "Hill Street Blues" Mick Belker. Claudio recently received the Army 
Achievement Medal for heroism last Dec. 4. Awakened by a neighbor's screams at 3:30 a.m., the ^ 

5-foot-8 Claudio dashed into the apartment house stairwell in time to confront a 6-foot-3 suspect ] 

intent on leaving. The two scuffled and the suspect broke free, but Claudio chased and nailed the 
bad guy— had him cuffed and waiting when an MP backup arrived. The suspect was charged with 
attempted rape.... 

PFC Dan Lane of the 110th Quartermaster Company at Fort Stewart, Ga., was having his 
car fixed at a nearby Savannah shopping center when he noticed two people chasing a kid. He 
joined in the chase and caught up with the youngster. 

"He started telling me he didn't take any wallets before I'd even said anything," Lane said. 
"Then he realized he had one in his hand, and he threw it on the ground. I didn't think about it at 
the time, but 1 didn't even know if he was armed. Afterward, 1 remembered him reaching into his 
back pocket for something— it could have been a gun." Fortunately, it wasn't. 

The company that was robbed sent Lane a letter of thanks. 

Only the best, part II . . . 

Winners of this year's James A. Carroll Jr. awards for Army club management excellence 
are MSgt. Frank C. Grosspietsch, Fort Myer, Va.; Sgt. Maj. Clearottis Birge, Hanau, West 
Germany; CWO Gary Ankenbauer, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah; CWO Herbert Peterson, Fulda, 

West Germany; Maj. Thomas Lee, Fort Polk, La.; and Benny Talton, Bremerhaven, West 

SFC George W. Shell of the 512th MP Company at Fort Huachuca, Ariz., was honored as a 
Law Enforcement Officer of the Year by the Sierra Vista (Ariz.) Exchange Club. The Army 
credits Shell with effectively leading a physical security program that has resulted in major 
reductions in losses and thefts on the post.... 

The 84th Artillery Detachment, 512th Artillery Group, received the 2nd German Korps 
Medal in ceremonies in Ulm, West Germany, for outstanding performance and cooperation with 
civil authorities in two 1982 projects.... 

The Army Salutes Maintenance Excellence 

Top winners in the Army's first Chief of Staff Awards for Maintenance Excellence 
competition are the 96th Transportation Company (Heavy Truck), 180th Transportation Battalion 
at Fort Hood, Texas, light category; B Company, 54th Engineers, 130th Engineer Brigade, V 
Corps in Europe, intermediate category; and 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry in West Berlin, heavy 
category. Awards were presented in mid-April in Washington, D.C. 

«U8 OOVERNMeHT PRMTMO OFFCe 1983 361 -«74/307 



U.S. DEPOS. copy 

John O. Marsh Jr. Gen. John A. Wickham Jr. 

Secretary of the Army Chief of StaH 

Ma]. Gen. LIyle J. Barker Jr. 

Chief of Public Affairs 

Col. John E. Taylor 

Chief, Command Information 





AirLand Battle 

This big picture depends on individual soldiers 

Taking a Bite Out of Crime 

Fort Polk chomps the bad guys 

3rd Armored Division 

The Spearhead leads the way 

Lowry: Fort and University 

Greening the Colorado Air Force base 

Historic Savannah 

A city as relaxed as a Southern drawl 

Specialists from Mouth to Mouth 

Dental techs and assistants speak up 

Taming the Beast 

Mad as hell at drunk drivers; won’t take it any more 

Mass Casualty 

Fort McClellan medics practice quick reaction 

Infantry OSUT: Follow Me 

It’s the only real Army, these guys say 

Uniforms While-U-Wait 

Sewing up a storm behind this Fort Benning scene 

The Aloha Spirit 

Friendship and respect replace hate and fear 

German-American Football 

A sport that’s a touch of home away from home 

What Am I Qualified For? 

You need skills, but also education 


2, 54 

What’s New 






Sports Stop 




Lighter Side 




Dateline: Excellence 

PAGE 22 

PAGE 32 

PAGE 43 

Credits: Front cover photo by SSgt. Victoria Mouze; inside front cover courtesy of the Philadelphia Visitor and Con- 
vention Bureau; inside back cover by SSgt. Gary Winkler; and back cover by Gary L. Kieffer. 

Editor in Chief, Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr.; Executive Editor, Capt. Thomas A. Williams; Managing Editor, Eugene Harper Jr.; Art Director, Tony Zidek; Associate Editor. Maj. Keith 
P. Schneider; Assistant Managing Editor, Steve Hara; Associate Art Director, Anne Genders; Photojournalists, Sgt. Maj. Mike Mason, SFC Norman Oliver, SSgt. Victoria Mouze, SSgt. Terri 
Wiram, and Faith Faircloth; Photo Supervisor, Sp5 Cecil M. Stack Jr.; Executive Secretary, Sharon Stewart; and Secretary, Dolores King. 

SOLDIERS (ISSN 9903-8440) is published monthly under supervision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide timely, factual information on policies, plans, operations and technical 
developments of the Department of the Army and other information on topics of interest to the Active Army. Army National Guard, Army Reserve and Army civilian employees It also conveys 
views of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on topics of professional interest to Army members and assists in achieving information objectives of the Army ■ Manuscripts of 
interest to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication Is authorized to: Editor, SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314 ■ Phone: AUTOVON 284-6671 or commercial 
(202) 274-6671 ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for cartoons, “by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted provided credit is given to SOLDIERS and the author. 
■ All photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. ■ Military distribution; From the Army Adjutant General Publications Center, 2800 Eastern Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21220, in 
accordance with DA Form 12-5 requirements submitted by commanders. ■ Individual paid subscriptions ($31 annually to stateside and APO addresses and $38.75 to foreign addresses) 
are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. ■ Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Department 
of the Army, Dec. 23, 1975. Library of Congress call number: UA 23.A1S6. ■ Second class postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and at additional mailing offices ■ POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to SOLDIERS, Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314. 

Morrell Is New SMA 

• The new sergeant major of the Army, Glen E. Morrell, became 
the Army's top enlisted man July 1. He replaced SMA William A. 
Connelly, who retired June 30. 

Morrell will serve with the Army chief of staff in Washington, 
D.C., and will be his senior advisor on matters pertaining to enlisted 

Tm just happy to have been selected as sergeant major of the 
Army -- to represent the soldiers," Morrell said. "It's a good feeling 
to know that the work I've done culminates at that position. 1 
attribute my success to the people and soldiers who have worked for 

"Sergeant Major of the Army Connelly has done a great job," 
Morrell continued. "He has put the Army in the proper direction 
concerning the soldiers. I intend to keep focused in that direction." 

Morrell, 47, has 28 years' active service. His most recent 
assignment was as command sergeant major of Forces Command. 
He has also served as command sergeant major of a ranger battalion, 
a Special Forces battalion and the Army Recruiting Command. His 
awards include the Bronze Star and the Meritorious Service Medal 
with Oak Leaf Cluster. 

Morrell is a native of Wick Tyler, W. Va. He and his wife, 
Karen, have three children. 

Retirement and Promotion 

• MILPERCEN recently spelled out the Army's policy concerning 
soldiers who are selected for promotion after their requests for 
retirement are approved. 

A soldier whose retirement is approved before the convening 
date of a promotion board is not eligible for promotion considera- 
tion. If a soldier is erroneously selected, the servicing military 
personnel office should notify MILPERCEN of the error so the 
soldier's name can be withdrawn from the recommended promotion 

Additionally, MILPERCEN will not withdraw an approved 
retirement to permit a soldier to accept an erroneously awarded 
promotion. Withdrawal may be authorized based on the needs of the 
service and extreme hardship. Should MILPERCEN withdraw the 
approved retirement, however, the soldier is not reinstated on the 
promotion list. 

The rules are different for a soldier whose retirement is 
approved on or after the convening date of a promotion board. If 
selected, the soldier remains on the list in a non-promotable status. 
If MILPERCEN approves the retirement withdrawal, the soldier will 
become promotable. 

Affected soldiers and those seeking more details on these 
policies should visit their local personnel office. 


• The U.S. Army Parachute 
Team, the Golden Knights, has ten- 
tatively set its annual tryouts for 
Sept. 25 through Nov. 4. Applica- 
tions must be in by Sept. 1. Active 
duty E-ls through E-6s who have at 
least 150 free fall jumps and are 
actively using a ram-air canopy 
may apply. Applicants should have 
at least two years remaining on 
their current enlistments or be 
willing to extend or re-enlist if 
accepted. They must have clean 
records and not be on orders or 
alerted for overseas service. Those 
now overseas must complete five- 
sixths of their tour by Dec. 31. 

Soldiers wishing an applica- 
tion, should write to the U.S. Army 
Parachute Team, ATTN: 1st Sgt. 

Paul Reynolds, P.O. Box 126, Fort 
Bragg, N.C. 28307. 



(More What's New on Page 54) 

• Congress has markedly low- 
ered the ceiling on U.S. military 
strength authorizations in Europe, 
effective Sept. 30. To ensure that 
the strength does not exceed the 
ceiling, soldiers on orders to Eu- 
rope with an availability month of 
October 1983 or later will not be 
granted any assignment adjust- 
ments that would cause them to 
arrive before Oct. 1. 

• The new address for officers 
who wish to review their official 
DAPC-MSR-S, 200 Stovall St., 
Alexandria, Va. 22332. 

• The establishment of a sepa- 
rate Army aviation branch has been 
approved by the Secretary of the 
Army. The decision to create a 
special branch stemmed from Army 
aviation's broadened role as a com- 
bat maneuver element and person- 
nel management considerations. 
The new branch headquarters will 
be located at Fort Rucker, Ala. 

New Promotion Point Worksheet 

• Look for a new promotion point worksheet for E-5 and E-6 
promotion boards to hit the field in September. The new worksheet 
is scheduled to be used in November for E-5 promotions and in 
February for E-6 promotions. 

The 1,000 possible promotion points will be distributed as 
follows: active federal service, up to 50 points; time in grade, up to 
50 points; duty performance, up to 250 points; SQT, up to 200 points; 
awards and decorations, up to 50 points; military education, up to 
100 points; civilian education, up to 50 points; marksmanship, up to 
25 points; physical readiness test, up to 25 points; promotion board, 
up to 200 points. 

The new worksheet increases the company commander's input, 
adds PT and marksmanship as scoring factors, and assigns new point 
values to scoring factors with a new emphasis on self-improvement 
efforts and unit-training activities. Other specific changes, and 
instructions for use of the form, will be issued with the form. 

Respiratory Specialists Needed 

• MILPERCEN is looking for Career Management Field 91 
soldiers interested in applying for the Respiratory Specialist Course. 
The next available class starts Sept. 1 at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 
Applicants must be E-4s or below, have served at least one year in a 
CMF 91 MOS and have a GT or ST score of at least 100. They must 
also have at least one year of high school or college algebra and 
achieve a 10th grade comprehension level in math on the Adult Basic 
Education test. The test is available at education centers. 

Small Unit Support Vehicle 

• Soldiers at the U.S. Army Cold Regions 
Test Center, Fort Greely, Alaska, conducted 
feasibility tests this spring on the Small Unit 
Support Vehicle (left) in temperatures down to 50 
degrees below zero. 

The SUSV is a lightweight tracked vehicle 
expected to improve the Army's ability to move 
troops and supplies across country, especially in 
snow. Army units now use skis, snowshoes and 
sleds to move across snow. 

The vehicle was designed by the Swedes as 
a troop mover, but the U.S. version is designed 
to carry equipment because there is no armor 
protection. Soldiers will ski or be pulled on skis 
behind the vehicle. Carrying a 2,500-pound 
payload, the SUSV has reached speeds of up to 60 
kilometers per hour in testing. 

JULY 1983 



I was impressed with the inside 
front cover photogroph by SSgt . Cory 
L. Kieffer in the May issue of 

In reading the mogozine, I was 
unable to locate ony information 
regarding the photo. I just assumed it 
was from the Notional Cemetery in 
Washington, D.C. 

I would like to know if the some 
wording is used today on the markers 
for the unknown soldiers. 

Mory Badge tt 
Oollas, Texas 

SSgt. Kieffer took the photo at 
the U.S. Military Cemetery in 
Florence, Italy. The inscription on the 
tomb of the Unknown Soldier in 
Arlington Cemetery reads: 



In regard to the recent article in 
the April 1983 issue of SOLDIERS in 
the What's New department, "To Your 
Heolth," obout Emergency Medical 
Technician Training the article was 
most interesting and such training is, I 
ogree, in great need, not only in the 
civilian circle, but also here in the 
military. For those combat medical 
MOSs and units such training ond skills 
would be good as a rabbit's foot. 

I am a bosic military medical 
specialist (Army) who desires further 
emergency medical training and skills. 
I've heard plenty of rumors concerning 
EMTT of Walter Reed Army Medical 
Center. And now your article 
somewhof confirms this truth. Not 
having such suitable ond available 
troining here, and no address ot which 

to contact the center at Walter Reed, 
your mogozine is one avenue open to 
nr>e. Con you fill rne in? Does the 
Army orronge for medical persons to 
receive this training? 

Sp5 Roger Osborne 

Fort Ord, Calif. 

The Office of the Surgeon 
General stated that you should contact 
your local MEDD.AC Plans, Operations 
and Training Officer, or the installa- 
tion education center. Both should be 
able to help yvu. 

The February 1983 issue of 
SOLDIERS carried on article that 
deserves comment. The story 
"Combat Medics" mode mention of a 
unit called 2nd Bn., 123rd Armored 

Division, Kentucky Army NatiorK]| 
Guard. To the best of my krsowledge, 
there ore only two Notionol Guord 
armored divisions - the ^»9th in Texas 
and the SOth in hiew Jersey. I hove 
never heard of o 123rd, and I suspect 
thot the true designation is something 
like 2nd Bn., 123rd Armor. 

2d Lf. Timothy O. Moriarity 

'Willioms Air Force Base, Ariz. ^ 

You are correct. 


If ever a letter published in Feed- 
bock required editorial comment, it is 
the letter in the May 1983 SOLDIERS 
from the soldier who related his exper- 
ience of rolling a von four times offer 
losing control of his vehicle ot 80 
miles per hour. He did walk owoy <k#e 
to use of his seat belt. It is amozing 
how prudent one con be on one hand 
and so stupid on the other. Eighty 
miles per hour in a van - not very 
smart. Fortunotely, his Occident 
wasn't o multiple vehicle Occident. He 
could hove walked away after killirtg ■ 
someone else. SLOW DOWN AND |l] 

LIVE. r 

MSgt. Robert A. Willioms j, 

Woodbridge, Va. 


This letter is in reference to the y 
article "Together Again: Vietnam 51 

Vets," in March 1983 SOLDIERS. j 

I was unpleasantly surprised to find I 

such 0 short article dealing with o very J 

important day ond very important • 

people. I 

The men and women who served Jj 
and died in Vietnom deserve more R 

resfject, understanding ond attention | 

than they hove received in the (xist. I 

I folly expect such a small orticle || 
in a civilian mogozine or newspoper. II 
But in a mogozine for ond about ]l 



soldiers, I really expected something 

Please try a little harder next 
time. I have enjoyed your magazine in 
the past, and I hope to do so in the 

Mary Ann Coneau 

APO New York 

SOLDIERS feels that the article 
and color cover paid deserved tribute 
to the Vietnam veterans. Quantity is 
not always the full measure of quality. 
Vie appreciate your sincere interest in 
this matter. SOLDIERS will continue 
to highlight Vietnam veterans in 
upcoming issues. 


Don't you people think enough is 
enough? People in the Army know 
what's involved. When the time comes 
everybody knows what they have to do. 
The females that used to be shown on 
the back cover were very, very nice. 
As a male counterpart, seeing males 
on the back was even understandable 
for the females in the Army, but now - 
the bayonet! You have to be kidding - 
I guess next will be an enlargement of 
an M-16 type bullet with a phrase "To 
shatter the enemies' skulls! The flight 
of the bullet!" ENOUGH is ENOUGH!! 

SSgt. Pedro R. Aguilar 

Houston, Texas 


Reference your story "Spirit of the 
Bayonet" in May 1983 SOLDIERS. 


Someone sees the need to use those 
things that open cans, clean finger- 
nails, whittle wood, etc. Someone 
knows the primary purpose, and some 
of the Army can use that weapon. 

Now the people in that unit have 
another method of helping the other 
guy, the enemy, die for his country. 

And they can live for their own. The 
boyonet is not the weapon to use 
"when they run out of bullets." It is 
the weapon to use instead of bullets 
when you are close enough to use it. 
All units, all troops should be able to 
use every method of self protection 

Again I say - GOOD - I hope the 
Army will reinstate bayonet training 
and that all combat arms take it as 
another means to accomplish' their 

George E. Bolin 
Sierra Vista, Ariz. 


While I was reading the story 
"Deadline At le Shima" (April), I 
happened to notice one minor flaw. 
On page 18, the story on how Ernie 
Pyle met his death by Japanese 
machine gun fire was partially correct. 

During World War II, the Japanese 
Army did in fact have a weapon by the 
name of Nambu, but it was a 8mm 
pistol issued to both senior enlisted 
personnel and officers. The Nambu 
was the standard Japanese Army 
sidearm until the end of World War II. 
Gary W. Burroughs 
Fort Riley, Kan. 

The name "Nambu" was indeed 
applied to a Japanese service pistol, 
from its designer, Col. Kijiro Nambu. 
The name, however, was also widely 
applied to the Japanese 6.5mm Model 
11 light machine gun. The Japanese 
commonly called the weapon "Nambu 
Keiki," which when translated is short 
for "Nambu machine gun." 


Department of the Army currently 
is promoting heavily a non-abuse pro- 
gram aimed at prevention of alcohol- 
drug abuse. 

The May 1983 issue of SOLDIERS 
shows a picture with o caption that 
tends to promote drug abuse (see page 
31, "Spirit of the Bayonet"). The 
picture is of a sergeant taking "a 
smoke break" and with a cigarette 
dangling from his mouth. 

Cigarette smoking has been scien- 
tifically designated to be the gateway 
drug abuse activity. Ninety percent of 
cigarette smokers are abusers — that 
is, are addicted — and most have tried 
to stop or wanted to stop at some 

Your featuring a smoke-break in- 
stead of a V-8 juice cocktail break or a 
read-a-history-book break shows an 
unwitting contribution of SOLDIERS to 
the problem rather than the solution. 

I would like to fantasize that some- 
day Department of the Army will 
acquire enough guts to criticize nico- 
tine addicted officers and NCOs in 
OERs and EERs. When that happens, 
we may begin to accrue credibility for 
an effective alcohol-drug abuse 

Chaplain (Capt.) Robert Countess 

Huntsville, Ala. 

SOLDIERS is not promoting the 
cigarette habit. The fact that the 
soldier was taking a smoke break is 
just that ... a fact. No one was 
observed drinking vegetable juice or 
reading a history book. If such had 
occurred, we would have run the 

SOLDIERS is lor soldiers and DA civilians. We invite 
readers' views. Stay under 150 words — a postcard 
will do — and include your name, rank and address. 
We'll withhold your name if you desire and may con- 
dense views because of space. We can't publish or 
answer every one but we'll use representative views. 
Send your letter to: Feedback, SOLDIERS, Cameron 
Station, Alexandria, VA 22314. 

JULY 1983 


Lt. Col. Charles G. Cavanaugh Jr. 

CENTURIES of conllict from the time 
of Sun Tzu to the battlefields of Europe 
and the Middle East have seulpted prin- 
ciples of war which will never change. 
But the nature of waging war has 
changed and the tools of w ar are chang- 
ing by the minute. Eighting forces in 
the modem arena may have greatly re- 
duced reaetion times. 

Modern wartare is dynamic. Its 
basic requirement is active preparation 
and instant resj^ One diK'lrine em- 
braces this requiremeni and offers a 
sensible. Ilcxible and aggressive plan 
to win on the battlefield: I he Airl.and 

AirLand Battle is the tactical 
doctrine of the U.S. Amiy. It is not a 
concept but an aggressive, people-based 
method of engaging in modem war- 
fare It is not something the .Amiy is 
waiting for. It’s reality and we’re using 
it today. 

AirLand Bat'le diKtrine is not 
based on all new concepts. Its lineage 
returns to ancient times and has been 
followed by battle captains throughout 
the ages who have seen the advantages 
of seizing the initiative and waging w;ir. 

The doctrine evolved to em- 
brace modem techniques and technol- 
ogy. Its basis remains in the cold logic 

of hurting the enemy faster, more often 
and with less attrition. The essence of 
AirLand Battle is dynamics. Its shape 
is defined by aggressiveness, adapta- 
bility. and reliance on and confidence 
in the soldiers who wage it, 

’’The whole .AirLand dwtrine 
relies on the individual soldier.” said 
Lt. Gen. Jack N. Merritt, commander 
of the Combined .Amis Center and Fort 
Leavenworth. Kan. ”Our agility in 
combat is limily based on the peviple 
dimension. We know our soldiers |xis- 
sess the ability and desire to take the 
initiative and exploit the situation. We 
have to capitalize on that ability. 






“When we fight, we want our 
soldiers to react instinctively. That 
means tough, meaningful training,” he 
said. “But we have to teach them to 
think for themselves. I hope that every 
soldier is aware of just how important 
his role is in fighting AirLand doctrine. 

“This is critically important for 
the junior officer and the NCO. We must 
make commanders understand that the 
mission order must be translated down 
to the NCO. That will give us the flex- 
ibility we need and will enhance the 
agility we’ll require on the battlefield,” 
Merritt said. 

Perhaps the greatest strength of 
' the doctrine is that it focuses on the 
individual soldier. Soldiers, in the end, 
win battles and wars. But they do not 
I win them without plans, preparation and 

The AirLand doctrine builds 
from these foundations while carefully 
crafting the realities of the modem, ad- 
vanced battlefield into the blueprint. 
The doctrine has discarded nothing of 
value from the past lessons learned. 
There is no mandate to get “out with 
the old — in with the new.” The doc- 
trine is evolutionary, not revolutionary. 

The doctrine was not imposed 
on the Army, rather it came from 
within. Following Vietnam, the Army 
focused on Europe. Immediately ap- 
parent were the size and equipment level 
of Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces. The 
U.S. Army forces were unquestionably 
outnumbered and in some respects un- 
derequipped. They were fighting with 
a doctrine which essentially had not 
changed since World War II. In Viet- 
nam the doctrine was modified to fight 
a guerrilla war in which we had com- 
plete air supremacy. But the Vietnam 
model did not fit the European or Mid- 
dle East scenario, and the Sinai War of 
1973 pointed clearly to the need for a 
modem doctrine. 

In 1976 the Active Defense 
doctrine was published in Field Manual 
100-5, “Operations.” Reliance was on 
firepower, success in the first battle and 
the advantages of defense and the use 
of fortifications. The doctrine briefly 
treated the offensive operation and im- 
mediately created controversy. Field 

JULY 1983 

commanders felt that even though they 
might win against the leading echelons 
of enemy forces, they would be unable 
to withstand the follow-on forces. 
Changes were made to the doctrine. 

The next step was the Central 
Battle concept, which concentrated on 
operations at the FLOT (Forward Line 
of Own Troops) and the extensive use 
of covering forces and firepower. The 
concept of Force Generation was closely 
allied with this doctrine. Commanders, 
however, continued to question the va- 
lidity of the doctrine, and a series of 
studies such as Division ’86 and Army 
’86 stimulated active debate. 

The resulting concepts of the 
Integrated Battlefield and the Extended 
Battlefield continued the evolution of 
what was to become the AirLand Battle 
doctrine. Many ideas were to remain 
unchanged. But central to the evolving 
doctrine were the concepts that it must 
be win-oriented, and that it must focus 
on soldiers and not just the systems 
they use. 

Also critical to the evolving 
doctrine was the need to incorporate the 
Air Force into the execution of battle- 
field tactics. The AirLand Battle is a 
total force environment. The elements 
of air power and over-the-sea resupply 
are essential. The one-team tactic of 
using all available military power is the 
basis of AirLand success. 

FM 100-5 explains the new 
doctrine. It is written in simple terms 
and with quickly recognizable focus on 
the human element — the training, 
courage and leadership of the individ- 
ual soldier. The manual details changes 
in the thought process the Army felt 
were essential. 

Maj. Gen. Crosbie E. Saint is 
the deputy commandant of the U.S. 
Army Command and General Staff 
College at Fort Leavenworth. Members 
of his staff and faculty were central to 
writing the AirLand doctrine. He com- 
mented on the need to change doctrine: 
“There is a maxim in the Army that if 
something isn’t broken . . . don’t try 
to fix it. So why did we create a new 
doctrine? Here’s why. Our enemy fights 
in echelons. He’s got a lot of systems 
and a lot of folks. He’s not beyond 

using chemical or nuclear weapons to 
achieve his goals. We simply don’t have 
enough soldiers or systems to kill 
everything on the battlefield. 

“That made us focus our com- 
bat power. There is real depth to the 
modem battlefield. We had to find a 
way to use it successfully. And lastly 
we wanted a doctrine which gave us 
the initiative and instilled a spirit of the 
offense. We might have to start from a 
defensive posture, but we don’t think 
we can win if we stay in it. We want 
the offensive. We want to control the 

The heart of the doctrine is ag- 
gressive dynamics. The AirLand fighter 
shapes the situation and makes the en- 
emy react. The AirLand fighter doesn’t 
rely on body punching. He seeks to 
strike quickly, using whatever is nec- 
essary at the moment to inflict damage 
or to gain control of the battle. 

The conduct of the AirLand 
Battle is based on securing the initiative 
quickly and using that advantage to dis- 
rupt and eventually defeat the enemy. 
It is a total force doctrine. Combat 
power is focused to provide force where 
it will affect the battle significantly. It 
is a doctrine which encourages initia- 
tive and places great reliance on soldier 

According to FM 100-5, there 
are four requisites for success on the 
AirLand Battlefield: initiative, syn- 
chronization, agility and depth. None 
is paramount. Each is directly depend- 
ent on the human element for proper 

A look at each of these ele- 
ments is a help in understanding the 


underlying thread of the AirLand doc- 
trine. As Saint stated. “This whole 
doctrine is founded on a mindset A 
realization at every level that aggres- 
sive. well-reasoned and planned action 
will result in success. And I mean at 
every level . . . from the generals to 
the privates.” 

INITIATIVE — Iniliative implies an of- 
fensive spirit in the conduct of all op- 
erations. The underlying purpose of 
every encounter with the enemy is to 
seize or retain independence of action. 
To do this we must make decisions and 
act more quickly than the enemy to dis- 
organize his forces and to keep him off 

“We are trying to get the enemy 
enmeshed in a spider’s web.” said Col. 
Hube Wass de Czege. who helped write 
the doctrine. He is a fellow of the Army 
War College in the Advanced Opera- 
tional Studies Program and is assigned 
to Fort Leavenworth. 

“We must always be on the in- 
itiative,” he said. “Once the enemy 
has decided on a course of action, we 
must take the initiative away from him. 
We must deny him that course of action 
or make him reschedule his plans. If 
he has to change, we have to think ahead 
of him and deny him the new plan. In 
the end the basis for accomplishing this 
will be soldier skills. Everyone must 
do his part. 

The minefield, the ambush, 
of camouflage — these are not new 
things but we must use them aggres- 
sively. We are not waiting for the en- 
emy to come to us. We arc setting the 
stage. We are controlling the action.” 

AirLand Battle planners firmly 
believe that the soldier is the combat 
multiplier in the arena of initiative. We 
believe that our soldier is going to do 
better than the enemy soldier." said Col. 
Joseph H. Fciter, chief of staff at the 
Combined Arms Center and l*ort 

“In fact the whole dwtrinc is 
based on that idea — that confidence 
in our soldiers, “ he said. “We know 
that our soldiers will want to use the 
latitude that is built into the diK'trine. 


Wc know that they can be trained to 
take the initiative and control the sit- 
uation There will be a lot nvorc em- 
phasis on the individual and the small 
unit leader.” 

Col. Richard Bcltson, director 
of the .Materiel Integration Directorate. 
Combined Arms Center at Fort Leav- 
enworth. agreed: “Wc are tailoring the 
force so that it can operate in a more 
autonomous role. We have increased 
leadership at lower levels so each leader 
is doing his real job rather than wor- 
rying about peripheral things. What we 
are after is not more command and con- 
trol but better command and control.” 

AirLand Battle planners under- 
stand that command and control is an 
important aspect of initiative. Com- 
manders will be required to make their 
mission orders clearer and more com- 
plete. Wass de Czege continued. “In 
the we’ve said, ’Here are your or- 
ders. Here’s what I want done, but I 
am not going to tell you how to do it.’ 
We also didn’t necessarily say why we 
wanted it done. 

“With the AirLand doctrine, 
that has changed. Now commanders 
must not only tell what they want done 
but why they want it done and how it 
fits into the larger plan. They must also 
communicate to their subordinates that 
if what they have directed no longer 
seems to make sense to the grand 
scheme at the time it ix'curs on the 
battlefield, then the subordinate must 

exercise latitude keeping in mind the 
overall mission.” 

Another form of initiative oc- 
curs away from the battlefield. It in- 
volves the dynamics of staying abreast 
of technology and the requirenKnt to 
purchase systems and hardware for the 
future. It is called the Concept Based 
Requirements System. This process has 
stopped the “tail wagging the dog.” 
Often in the technology drove tac- 
tics. Planners waited for new equip- 
ment to appear and then accommodated 
tactics to the gear. 

Now the Army’s leadership 
looks out to future battlefields and very 
carefully plans for the needed equip- 
ment, knowing the dollar constraints 1 
and working with advancements in 
technology. This allows planners to use 
off-the-shelf equipment today while or- 
dering their needs for tomorrow . This ^ 
planning does not mean AirLand Battle i 
doctrine is not operational today. It ^ 
simply means that the future is being . 
planned — not gambled on, j 

“There is a misconception that I 
the whole of the AirLand doctrine is ij 
tied to technology. ’’ Saint added. | 
“Well, it isn’t. J 

“Technology is a tremendously I 
important part of our doctrine. It would a 
be foolish to say it wasn’t. We need a 11 
great number of things, and we need I 
to plan the right way to get and use I 
them. That is our responsibility to the I 
American people. But that doesn’t mean I 

AirLand Battle Doctrine: Myths and Realities 

Lt. Col. Richard H. Sinnreich 

MYTH AirLand Battle doctrine states that the deep battle will be the 

decisive battle. 

REALITY The doctrine clearly recognizes that battles are decided in 
close combat. The function of deep attack is to ensure that 
the decisive battle takes place on terms that are favorable to 
the friendly force. The deep battle is designed to disrupt or 
delay the enemy. Deep attack, close combat and the rear 
battle must therefore be mutually supporting. 

MYTH AirLand Battle doctrine relies on deep attack even though 

deep target acquisition and strike assets are scarce. 

REALITY AirLand Battle doctrine does not depend on any particular 
level of deep strike resources. It does state, however, that 
whatever deep attack resources are available should be used 
aggressively to create room for maneuver, not applied in- 
dependently against random targets. 

MYTH AirLand Battle doctrine is based on combat with a rigidly 

echeloned opposing force. 

REALITY The doctrine makes no presumptions about how enemy fol- 
low-on forces are deployed. It does state that a battle at the 
PLOT against a numerically superior enemy can be won only 
if uncommitted enemy forces are deprived of the freedom to 
enter the battle when and where they choose. 

MYTH AirLand Battle doctrine runs contrary to NATO’s limited con- 

ventional defense objectives. 

REALITY AirLand Battle doctrine is not strategic doctrine. It is con- 
cerned only with the conduct of tactical operations at what- 
ever level is prescribed. AirLand Battle doctrine is concerned 
with method, not purpose. It is concerned with how a battle 
is fought, not which battle or why the battle is being fought. 

MYTH AirLand Battle doctrine calls for the early employment of nu- 

clear weapons. 

REALITY The doctrine does not call for early employment. It does assert 
that all planning must be sensitive to nuclear risks. The doc- 
trine acknowledges that there will be delay in getting nuclear 
release authority and therefore calls for early planning of 
potential nuclear requirements. But AirLand Battle doctrine 
also realizes that nuclear authority may be withheld. Because 
of that, planners must have an alternate means of attacking 
the threat. AirLand Battle doctrine thus requires early and 
continuous nuclear fire planning — not early nuclear 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL RICHARD H. SINNREICH is a research fellow on a senior fellowship at the Center 
for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 





i that we can’t fight the AirLand doctrine 
right now, because we can. 

1 “We are using off-the-shelf 

j equipment and brand new develop- 
I ments side-by-side. We’re not going to 
I sit and wring our hands waiting for 
something to be developed that we can 
use and then form a doctrine around it. 
' No way! 

“We are planning for the future 
and we are going about it the right way 
' with the Concept Based Requirement 
plan. But at the same time we are train- 
<\ ing and thinking and getting tougher 
every day. We can fight the AirLand 
Battle right now. Technology will help 
us fight it better.’’ 

Felter added, “Technology is 
evolving with tremendous speed. Its 
ability to enhance the fighter’s capa- 
bilities is obvious to us and to the en- 
t emy. We are making sure that what we 
get is what we need for the future. That 
involves planning, planning, and even 
more planning. 

“The Army can’t be pushed by 
technology. We have to help lead the 
' development. We have to look very 
’’ realistically at tomorrow, to the year 
, 2000 and beyond and tell industry what 

we need. We have to be exact; there is 
no room to be uncertain, with the high 
dollar costs of today. There is no more 
‘nice to have’ equipment.’’ 

Wass de Czege continued, “We 
have to make sure the technology we 
seek is people-based. By that I mean 
we have to get things we can use with- 
out enormous technical training, and 
things that will stand up to battlefield 
use. Our soldiers are bright and willing 
to learn. We have to continue to give 
them usable, state-of-the-art equip- 
ment while at the same time being able 
to train them quickly and efficiently in 
the use of the gear.’’ 

tion means more than coordinated ac- 
tion. It results from an all-pervading 
unity of effort throughout the force. 
There can be no waste. Every action 
of every element must flow from un- 
derstanding the higher commander’ s 

To AirLand Battle planners this 
means teamwork in every sense of the 
word. Felter stated, “It is essential that 
we understand ‘pulsing.’ By this we 
mean the ability to act swiftly with 
whatever is necessary at the moment it 
is necessary. This takes teamwork. It 
may mean the artillery, it may mean 

the Air Force. It may mean two divi- 
sions or two squads or two soldiers 
working together. Knowing the mis- 
sion and how each plays a part is es- 
sential to the principle of 

Seven imperatives direct the 
principle of synchronization: 

JULY 1983 


• Unity of effort — use of every 
available combat force to achieve the 
mission. Implied is an understanding 
of the mission and the issuance of mis- 
sion orders. 

• Direct friendly strength 
against enemy weakness — attack and 
exploit vulnerabilities. 

• Designate and sustain the 
main effort — one element of the light- 
ing force becomes the main effort of 
the battle and power is pulsed to that 
element. AirLand Battle doctrine 
stresses that this fix:al point may change 
rapidly and that engagements of deep 
targets will occur simultaneously. 

• Sustain the light — mainte- 
nance of sufficient combat power 
throughout the duration of the battle. 

• Move fast, strike hard and 
finish rapidly — quick decisions and 
violent execution. 

• Kffective use of terrain and 
weather — natural elements which en- 
hance friendly combat power and limit 
enemy combat. 

• Protect the force — necessary 
actions (morale, medical, logistical, 
etc.) which preserve the force and al- 
low its maximum effectiveness when 

Synchronization is ba.sed on all 
of these, but it is ba.sed on the human 
factor as well. 

Wass de Czege continued, 
“Teamwork isn’t bom on the battle- 
lield. It is something that is developed 
by common training, reliance on lead- 
ers and reliance on fellow soldiers. The 
ideas of COHORT training and the reg- 
imental system are integral to this 
teamwork. That is where the real syn- 
chronization is being fomied. The pri- 
mary director of the AirLand Battle will 
be the corps commander, but the tight 
will be won on the ground and in the 
air by the fighters who are confident in 
themselves, their peers and superiors.” 

Saint added, “Synchronization 
is using everything you must at the right 
time to put yourself in an advantageous 
position in relation to the enemy. You 
want to destroy his command and con- 
trol just as you attack. You want to 
pulse your combat piwer to where it is 
needed. You want to understand the 
battle in a way that allows you to dis- 
orient the enemy — to delay or confuse 
him — to allow you the opportunity to 
stop him in many ways. That’s what 
synchronization is all about. It’s 

AGIUTY — Agility requires flexible or- 
gamzattons and quick-minded, flexible 
leaders who can act faster than the 

“Agility is the fighting of the 
battle." Felter said. “It is the rapid use 
of MfcTT (mission, enemy, troops, ter- 
rain) with the added and critical di- 
mension of time.” 

Felter continued. “The key is 
rapid decision making and action. We 
are not looking to react — we must 
control the action. We must be ready 
to make the choices quickly aiKl put 
them into effect. 

“Agility means maneuver but 
it means a lot more than that. We must 
have good, accurate intelligence and a 
lot of it. We must interpret it properly 
and quickly. We must prepare and 
transmit usable, understandable mis- 
sion orders to each level of command. 
Agility means getting the job done — 
ahead of the enemy and with great vio- 
lence.” Felter said. 

Wass de Czege added. “Agility 
will be gained by the professional use 
of soldier skills. I spt^ke earlier about 
things like camouflage, patrolling ar>d 
the like. Well, that is where it will 

“Remember, this is not going 
to be a daylight war. There will be 
rxrund-the-clock operations, fatigue and 
supply problems. Reliance is on the 
soldier. Commanders are going to ask 
more and expect more. There is going 
to be more movement on the battle- 
field. Maintenance of vehicles and iMher 
equipment is going to be critical. 

“There w ill be more decentral- 
ized action. It will be governed by a 
plan, but independent fighting is the 
key to this diK'trine. That means sol- 
diers who can be counted on for any 
contingency.” he said. 

DEPTH — Depth refers to time, dis- 
tance and resources. .Momentum in the 
attack and ela.uicity in the defense de- 
rive from depth. Knowing the time re- 
quired to move forces — enemy and 
friendly — is e.t.sential to knowing how 
to employ fire and movement to de- 
stroy, disrupt or delay the enemy. 



“I want soldiers to get away 
from the idea that the AirLand doctrine 
concentrates on the deep battle,” Saint 
said, ‘‘that somehow the fight will be 
won deep behind enemy lines. That is 
not the case. 

‘‘Essentially we are talking 
about hitting forces the enemy holds 
out of battle — his follow-on forces,” 
he remarked. ‘‘Those follow-on forces 
are relative to your particular position 
on the battlefield. 

‘‘Follow-on forces for the en- 
gaged company commander are most 
likely going to be far different from 
those of the corps commander who is 
directing the overall tactical plan,” 
Saint added. ‘‘The idea of depth is to 
delay, disrupt or stop the enemy at every 
level before he can join the battle and 
overwhelm or bypass with superior 

‘‘Another area which is focal to 
depth is the use of nuclear weapons,” 
Saint commented. ‘‘There has been 
some misunderstanding about this. The 
focus is in planning. Release of nuclear 
weapons is retained by the national 
leadership. There is no change to that. 

‘‘What we are doing now is 
planning the employment further in ad- 
vance,” he continued. ‘‘We have to see 
the deep targets, estimate how the bat- 
tle will flow and then plan the most